A nitrogen rotameter is calibrated by feeding N2 from a compressor through a pressure regulator, a needle valve, the rotameter, and a dry test meter, a device that measures the total volume of gas that passes through it. A water manometer is used to measure the gas pressure at the rotameter outlet. A flow rate is set using the needle valve, the rotameter reading, 4J, is noted, and the change in the *OJrnputer problem. 216 Chapter 5 Single-Phase Systems dry gas meter reading (6.V) for a measured running time (6.t) is recorded. Not to scale () TEST METER - ROTAMETER The following calibration data are taken on a day when the temperature is 23C and barometric pressure is 763 mm Hg. 4> 6.[(min) 6.V(Iiters) 5.0 9.0 12.0 10.0 10.0 5.0 1.50 2.90 2.00 Encyclopedia Equipment spray dryer (a) Prepare a calibration chart of 4> versus Vstd , the flow rate in standard cm3/min equivalent to the actual flow rate at the measurement conditions. (b) Suppose the rotameter-valve combination is to be used to set the flow rate to 0.010 mol Nz/min. What rotameter reading must be maintained by adjusting the valve?
Social Psychology 1/9 – 1/13 Social psychology – study of the psyche (human mind) modified by social o Psychology that focuses on interpersonal relationships, including your relationship with yourself o Study of thoughts, feelings, and actions of individuals as affected by the actual, imagined or implied presence of other persons o Emotions = causes of behavior o Loss of emotional feeling = loss of all actions o Implied presence, like God Science x => y o Scientific philosophy o X – variable o Y – variable o => arrow of causation o Tradition in science, we assume causality (events have causes) o Determinism – absolute causation and lawful patterns (theories) o Theories that are true based on evidence o Theories are judged on the basis of evidence o Evidence, data, etc. can explain everything and predict everything o Goal of science is to describe in order to explain in order to predict in order to control o We want to be able to control our world Chaos theory – no predictability possible o No certainty in particular events o Allows us to attain some notion of free will o Patterns mostly stable o Minor evens lead to and cause (=>) major effects Personality vs. situation o Causality – controlled by the individual, focus on the person, their attitudes, genetics, instinctive tendencies o Causality – controlled by situations, factors in the situation are more important, like the difference between the environment in a small or a large class size o We are biased in trying to find simple situations Cognitive bias – nature vs. nurture; emotion vs. logic (are we controlled by emotion or logic) o We act because of emotion and act to that in a logical way, but that logic can be distorted due to emotion o There are almost no absolutes, everything is complicated o Different people in the same situation will behave differently o There has to be an interaction between nature and nurture, emotion and logic, and personality and situation o False absolute – dynamic interaction between the two things, it changes over time o What we believe to be true changes overtime o Emotion is the enemy of logic Locus of control – your belief that you control your own outcomes o Internal – you control it, in your mind, you believe that o External – your outcomes are controlled by external “forces” you do not control what happens to you o Dynamic interaction example – college students today feel their control is more external, however it was not that way in the past, the changing of things overtime Social psychology history o First social psychology experiment by Triplett called social facilitation, the presence of other people changes how we act, example: people work more efficiently when surrounded by others, working in groups, BUT it can also be distractive 2 The presence of other people does change our behavior, sometime it’s good, sometimes it’s bad o McDougall explained behavior in terms of instincts, biological response tied to natural selection, reflexes are hardwired, measure of arousal (later rejected) Curiosity, those who are more curious are more likely to survive, but we do have instincts and genetic programs, it is outside of our awareness why we do some things, and we justify it afterwards because we want to be in control and we believe we are in control o Sherif talked about norms and social influence, how you can convince a person of one thing or another o Kurt Lewin believed in a virtually created field, was a Jew during the rise of Hitler, prosecution of Jews got his attention, did applied psychology to get people to eat certain foods in abundance, focused on perception (the meaning people attach) and goals, example: it’s good to eat carrots, there is a lot of them, they are good for you, it is patriotic to eat carrots Cognitive theorist Gestalt theorist, psychological intentional actions Field theory – psychological reality-life space [B = f (p, e0] choices are based on perceptions action research as method Two types of research: basic and applied “Nothing is as practical as a good theory!” Behavior is a function of the interaction between our perceived factors in ourselves and the environment, always biased by our past experiences What’s in our mind right now = life space 3 Change of intention based on change of logic, psychological, logic based upon physiological needs, whole model comes back to field theory, what you are perceiving in the moment QUIZ # 1 Social Psychology 1/15 – 1/20 Expansion of research but limited by sample bias, descriptive nature, ethical problems (deception studies), micro-focus Sample bias – categories like age, gender, education, any difference in the group Now there is a strong gender shift but limited ethnic diversity with a cognitive, biological, and evolutionary emphasis Research methods, all equally scientific, no best method, serve different purposes Research Method – Focus – Question Answered o Observational – description – what is the nature of the phenomenon o Correlational – prediction – from knowing X, can we predict Y o Experimental – causality – is variable X a cause of variable Y Showing association NOT causality Archival data supports correlational research Aggression – the intent to cause injury Negative correlation, as one variable goes down, the other goes up Positive correlation, as one variable goes up, the other goes up The number for the correlation, shows how strong the relationship is, closer to one, is a strong relationship The sign for the correlation shows the direction for the correlation o Example: -.5 = stronger relationship than +.3 4 Operational definition – definition of the operations you use to convert a theoretical variable to one that is concrete Variable is theoretical or abstract QUIZ #2 Social Psychology 1/22 – 1/27 Anatomy of an experiment: o Subjects – Who are we going to study What are we trying to understand What group Will help shape the experiment o If you want to survey a population, say the students of LU, you take a sample, that sample will hopefully represent your population well o Two types of samples: Stratified sample – names put in alphabetical th order, pick every 10 name Randomly assigned – lottery style, everyone’s name is put in a hat and you pick o Need to assign each subject to a group o Two groups: experimental and control group o Independent variable – what are you testing for The causal variable, the one you are manipulating. What you are hypothesizing for, is caused by this variable. Prediction based on your theory Example: experimental group: children are shown violent TV programs, control group: children are shown nonviolent TV programs o Also need to define what you are considering violence in TV o Dependent variable – the response from the independent variable, effects are measured here Example: levels of aggression in the children playing a video game, then you need to measure how aggressive they were o Also need to once again define what you consider as aggressive 5 o Look at the data, is there a correlation What is the difference between the experimental and control group’s results o Is there a statistically significant result Correlational methods – only associations among variables, not causality o Naturalistic/participant observation, surveys/archival research/ simulations Experiments – allow causal inferences, due to higher control o Random assignments to control confounding variables, experiment and control groups Independent, and dependent variables Statistical significance, generalizability, replication, experimental/mundane realism, laboratory/field/quasi experiments Field – high levels of mundane Lab – high levels of experimental realism because they can be controlled Quasi – is not a real experiment like comparing men to women Factors damaging research validity: o Sample bias, order effects, weak variables, social desirability/norm-based self presentation o Unintended demand characteristics o Experimenter bias/participant observer bias – manipulating the situation to get the result they want o Response sets – you are set (preprogramed – either by genetics or experience) to respond in a particular way o Acquiescence or “screw-you effect” – make you respond in a particular way, like in cases of child abuse, the children want to be good and go along with the abuse, do what the researchers want you to do 6 o Availability bias – you don’t have the behavior (experience) o Central tendency bias – people respond neutrally, in the middle, because people do not want to support their answers, most people are comfortable when they are in the average, the belly of the bell curve o Confirmation bias – as a researcher you’re looking for what you want to see, say 9/10 experiments failed, but you look at that one good outcome as what you wanted so you see the study as successful o Mood effects – SAD, the mood you are in affects your behavior, example of an unintended demand characteristic Corrective measures o Double-blind studies – an attempt to avoid any biases, like experimenter bias who may shape participant’s behavior to get their desired outcome (one that matches up to their hypothesis), also helps to not sway participants to not do what they think they are supposed to do o Counterbalancing of variables o Unobtrusive measures – paths that are naturally chosen by participants, no distortion in behavior o Deception – active lying/deception to manipulate participants, can be a very powerful manipulation, strong test of hypothesis, leave negative effects, causes people to perceive researches as being liars o Simulation – an effort to deal ethically and practically with potent variables o Replication – repetition of a study to test the quality of the results QUIZ #3 Social Psychology 1/27 – 2/5 Ethics in research Power use 7 Cost (personal cost) vs. benefit issue o Example testing people’s willingness to cause harm to someone else just because they were told to, effected the people emotionally (not in a good way) o Participant benefits – could be knowledge, money (weak benefit), researcher’s job to present this benefit, not always done o Use of deception/cultural shift in acceptability o Possible psychological risks Invasion of privacy Triggering of powerful emotions Informed consent procedure o Freedom to choose to participate – freedom to leave the study at any time o Understanding of risks – full disclosure, may affect their willingness to participate Ability to withdraw at any time Debriefing Anonymity vs. confidentiality Ethical review procedure QUIZ # 3 Self-concept – Who am I We have built in tendencies that effect how we act without us even being aware of what they are Self-esteem – the value we put on ourselves, how good we think we are, systematic demand characteristics may sway a negative value of self, the things you answer when people ask: “Who are you”, based on emotions, how you feel about yourself, how valuable you think you are Self-concept – the individual’s belief about him or her self including the person’s attributes and who and what the self is Perception – attaching meaning to experience based on prior experience, the meanings we attach depends on our past experiences, different people view the world differently due to their different experiences Egocentrism – centered on yourself, ego-centered, you think you’re the center of everything, anything that effects you becomes the center of what you look at Culture – an important environmental shaper, your culture affects how you behave, two major variables in terms of culture: individualism and collectivism Individualism – rights and focus on the individual, Darwinism – focus on survival of the individual, the struggle to dominate and be the best, think about team sports, we focus often on the individuals 8 Collectivism – focus on the group, what is the best for the group, not the individual, choices are often made for the individuals (like by their parents) Multiple selves – how you see yourself, who are you Who do you want to be What is your ideal self What do you see when you look in the mirror Literally and figuratively, our self esteem is always vulnerable, perceived self, reality of what we are, what we want to be, past experience comes in, available role models come in, comparison of us to others, the ideal self and the perceived self are constructed by us o Central traits – the traits that define us, like gender, o Peripheral traits – things we like, shallow more easily changed, not important in shaping our behavior o Situationally-specific responses – some people are more sensitive or focused or concerned and think about different things more than others, how you judge or view different things Normative behavior – behavior according to a norm, what different groups value like conformity or individuality or competitiveness o High/low impact o Responses: escape vs. conformity o Private/public self-consciousness – persuasion – public self- consciousness when you behave in a way that other people can see you, pride is when you live up to your standards, it only matters what you think, persuasion requires pressure put on people to change their behavior or change their mind, public pressure may increase results but only temporarily o Conscience – half of our ideal self, comes into play when you violate the rules, the part that tells you don’t do that, you’re a bad person because you did that, and punishes you with guilt and shame, associated with monitoring yourself, some people are more self aware o Self-monitoring (social sensitively and self-regulation) – self- regulation, regulating your self, behaving in a way that is consistent in what you want to be, feeling guilty Extremes ineffective over long term Self-fulfilling prophecy – prediction of the future, when we have a prophecy about how we feel about our self it changes our behavior, our view of the world affects how we act o Positive or negative cycles, success breeds success, we attach meaning to an experience based on a past experience o Self-efficacy (feedback from actions) – the extent or strength of one’s own ability to complete tasks and reach goals QUIZ 4 9 Learned helplessness – a condition in which a person suffers from a sense of powerlessness, arising from a traumatic event or persistent failure to succeed, giving up trying to escape a painful situation after repeatedly failing to escape, self perception Social Psychology 2/8 – 2/12 Social comparison – people have an innate drive to evaluate themselves, often in comparison to others, people make all kinds of judgements about themselves, and one of the key ways that we do this is through social comparison or analyzing the self in relation to others o Family style – role models, you want to be like your parents, gender roles are learned, think about the picture with the family (mother, father two girls, and a boy going to church – except the father, on Easter) o Sibling rivalry/PK’s o Comparing upwards, and downwards, people with a weak self esteem and weak confidence compare themselves to people who are worse than them in a specific trait, it makes you feel good about yourself to compare downwards, we are programmed to find patterns, and to think logically, the frontal lobe is designed to make sense of the world, but our emotions and feelings of insecurity, weakness, and fear hold us back from being able to think logically o Relevance – comparison trait to self image – too much emotion, if the amount of emotional response exceeds what it normally should be, something else is going on, relationships are set off by minor things because of other problems that may be bothering you, and this obviously causes tension within the relationship because of the sudden outburst that is unrelated to the real problem Looking glass self – the eyes of other people, we evaluate ourselves by looking at how other people look at us, when other people see us in a favorable light that is a mirror that we use to draw conclusions about our self, we are not looking at our own behavior, we are looking at how others see us, powerful and legitimate when taken in balance, we do not see our self accurately, Social comparison both downward and upward is a key way that we see ourselves and how we respond We can aspire to be and imagine our self to be better than we are on traits that are important to us Social comparison 10 o Downward vs. upward o Heroes – functions/limitations – we need heroes, we’re born cowards, we can overcome it only if we can imagine ourselves to be successful, heroes are an example and aspiration to what we can be capable of, heroes give us the strength and confidence we need to overcome difficult experiences, we look at them to see what they do, how they act, and that it is possible, careful not to loose ourselves in the “dream” or “fantasy” they are not our identities, just a point of comparison o Negative models – what is negative depends on who you are, you select heroes depending on your interests, don’t want to loose hope in being who you want to be, negative in context, we can’t automatically assume what kind of models are positive or negative, show us what not to do, works best if you have a clear identity of yourself, you and find role models on what not to do We are constantly comparing ourselves to other people to get clarity on who we are and who we want to be Biases in self-perception – a bias is anything that distorts in thinking or behavior, attaching meaning to experience based on prior experience, tied in together with self-perception in this case, we use a point of comparison to judge our self and compare ourselves to other people Actor-observer bias in attribution/counter-factual thinking – attribution is the bottom line for human behavior, it is assigning a cause or causes to behavior, why do people do that, why do they do what they do – because it tells something about their personality, can be powerful to shaping the idea of what a person is all about o Counter – factual thinking – a distortion in thinking that makes us feel better, it is against the facts, we often think “well if I had only done this, then everything would have been different” we spend time looking at our behavior as if it could have gone a different way, we do it mostly with ourselves, “what if thinking”, we can avoid responsibility by thinking of alternate occurrences to think that it is not our fault Self-consistency bias – when you fail, who is responsible for that What does that say about you Not changing the views, you have of yourself, once you form an idea of yourself, you actively defend that image, it’s easier to live in the delusions and the false ideas because once you accept the truth you have to take actions to turn that around (think of people addicted to drugs, they think they are too weak to quit, but once they realize they can, they have to take some hard steps to change that and face their truths) o Bias – distortion in thinking, consistency – we force a bias even when it is wrong, when the facts contradict it, a bias in not 11 recognizing complexity or change in not seeing ourselves in some way Biases are emotionally based and they are designed to make us feel good Dispositional Situational *Fundamental attribution error – an error in attribution (assign causes for the behavior) an error in assigning causes that is fundamental (basic), humans tend to assign causes to a person, anytime something happens we want to know who to blame – assigning personal responsibility, we make a lot of mistakes and we blame a lot of people without understanding how complex the situation really is, we tend to blame other people, but when it refers to ourselves it is a little bit more sensitive, you do not want to blame your self, people usually want to avoid responsibility and avoid painful attributions to ourselves Emotion is the enemy of logic, emotion is the want to see ourselves in a positive light, if something good happens we take credit, if something bad happens we blame the situation Stereotype – attitudes about a group, a concept is formed by examining information and forming an idea, a stereotype is just a concept about a group, we do not have a lot of information, we assign all members of the group into the same category and the same characteristics o Attribution bias based on a stereotype – we assign cause based on the stereotype, short term thinking QUIZ 5 Temporal comparison – we don’t change our self image over time, we compare ourselves to when we were a child, we imagine our future, social comparison can be in real time or across time zones Self-enhancement bias o False-uniqueness – (false consensus effect) we see ourselves as more unique, or mores special, egocentrism, everybody thinks they are special and different, our thinking is centered on our self, we think we are above the rules, if you believe something, you assume every body else believes it (false consensus), o Intuition – the thinking process, when you are consciously thinking of something, it is in the center of your attention, intuition is just as logical but it is at a lower level of thinking/awareness, o Self-handicapping – when you purposely butting barriers in your way so that you are unable to achieve a good result, like not 12 doing extra credit, you do not want to try, it is easier to operate at a low level, “that’s just the way I am” (situational attribution error) o Stereotype threat – when you activate the stereotype in the mind of those people who are targeted, it affects their behavior to act in accordance to the stereotype, targets of stereotype Positive illusion – curvilinear effect w/r benefit of excuses, tendency to overcome our fear of failure, a moderate amount of optimism gives you the strength to move forward o Optimism vs. pessimism – pessimism inhibits your willingness to act or try to do well o Fear is a good thing when rationally handled o Locus of control (internal vs. external) – internal, we believe that what happens to us is our doing, external, we believe that what happens to us is due to outside forces, luck, God, etc. if you believe that everything is external, then potentially you will not act, you think that you do not have control, if you believe it is internal, you are more likely to act to create/change your own destiny or outcomes o These qualities are perceptions, conditions, we attach meaning to experience based on prior experience o Planning fallacy – a fallacy is a false perception, a false statement, always almost underestimate the difficulty, planners are optimistic, they are way off, example: building plans cost more than originally planned and take more time than originally planned o Defensive pessimism – “it will never work” “my vote won’t count” being pessimistic is a systematic system of not doing things, you have predictions for the future that are negative, defensive pessimism is when you do it to protect your own feelings and escape responsibility QUIZ 6 Social Psychology 2/17 – 2/26 Evolution and Culture process of change – towards more complexity (not simplicity, evolution means change Evolution – natural selection – genetic diversity genetic tendencies, genetic programs for structure and behavior, 13 it’s important to recognize that our actions have a genetic component, evolution takes place due to the variety of genes in a specific species, every one varies in their genetic makeup, all humans have very similar genes that make us human, natural selection is the match between the genetic patterns of the individuals in a particular environment, there is diversity, natural selection is based on a variety of genetic variations being available and the fitness to a particular environment, natural selection leads to an increasing match in that environment as long as it doesn’t change o Environmental fitness – impact of environmental change through natural selection taste buds (chemical sensors) take information to the pleasure sensors in the brain and make us think that we like things, species have evolved for feast or famine, but now we are killing ourselves due to the abundance of food we have access to, we don’t evolve from bad to good, from weak to strong, we evolve to fit the environment (we’re supposed to), but now we change the environment to fit us – not good, the long term is not part of the normal way we think, we want the immediate gratification of today, the brain and the way we analyze things is naturally selective, we are programed to respond in a particular way – based on living in “the jungle” o Instincts natural programs to respond, curiosity is a natural tendency for us, and instinctive response to new and different things, they automatically make us aware and we try to understand them, an example of a fixed action pattern or releaser stimuli, programs waiting to be activated o Fixed action patterns – releaser stimuli a pattern of action or behavior that is fixed genetically as a result of natural selection, patterns that are ready to be released, if you are in a familiar environment your curiosity dies, your environment is boring, nothing is new or different, if you are not stimulated 14 there is a certain balance that becomes unpleasant, behavior patterns are activated when we are not in homeostasis o Homeostasis balance, we need balance, o Hindsight theory building – McDougal attack on his model that explains behavior after the fact, but his theory is supported by evidence, there are biological tendencies that define what a species is, having sharp teeth to eat meat and having molars to eat plants Cultural evolution – group choices X instincts culture is what humans create, like written language – we made that, it does not have a genetic program, we change the environment for our selves, example: fire became part of the culture because it changed the survival rate – warmth and cooking, cultural evolution is change to become more fit to the environment but it is due to choices that the groups make to aid in their survival, they are not transmitted genetically like plain old evolution, but instincts and the desire to survive do help to play a role in this, cultural patterns are not transmitted genetically, trying to make a more suitable response to our environment, does not lead to “better” just “different” o Greeting behavior – personal space greeting behavior – what you do when someone approaches you – can have similarities over different cultures, smiling and saying hello is a signal of peace, in most species there is conflict and combat, but in most species there are built in submission signals, “tapping out” behavior patterns, it is destructive to kill members of your own species, it is important when you meet people to size them up, interpret their body language, and understand if they are or are not a threat, presenting an open right hand (that is the hand that you carry your weapon, no weapon = not a threat), shyness is an instinct – stranger anxiety, you see a person as a threat and 15 go to safety (a parent), personal space is usually cultural based QUIZ 6 o Division of labor fight or flight instinct (genetic instinct shaped by culture) when confronted by a predator or emergency we freeze, then we decide to fight or flight – run away, division of labor happened because not everyone could do everything needed in order to survive, think hunter gather, men hunted while women stayed home and cooked and cared for the children, division of labor is also genetic, women carry children, men cannot, men are more naturally polygamous – they want to spread their genes as much as possible, marriage was created to prevent sleeping around, division of labor is partly based in genetics but mostly in cultural tendencies, growth in environmental change providing work for specialists Gender patterns (interaction of culture and genetics) roles are defined by culture and availability o Overlapping distributions by gender patterns, Hormonal effects – oxytocin, testosterone a lot of differences in gender patterns are because of hormones, oxytocin, the love drug, testosterone mostly in men o Relationships – empathy – social perception all based on the above interactions, empathy is an instinct, we will kill but we will also care, forming a relationship and care for others, also an instinct, empathy is biologically based, we are designed to be sensitive to the signals others are giving off, there are survival qualities in that, it is a built in tendency that has to be released, empathy is feeling for another person, caring about them, recognizing what they are feeling, feeling for them o Aggression (physical, social, psychological) is a clear attempt to injure, we are built to do it, no 16 matter what the group is, the conflict that is brought up can lead to aggression o Sexuality physiological releaser stimuli, sexual attraction is biologically based, we can measure them in terms of the change in the amount of hormones, and different stimulation in parts of the brain Breasts, muscles, fertility, resources why are we attracted to them Triggers response, shows they are capable of bearing children o Marriage across cultures Selection (romance vs. group choice) romance is a recent reason why people chose each other, it is a major factor in collective systems like Catholicism, romance is when you decide who you want to marry, it is a consequence of individualism and the breakdown of norms, think of the old model where the bride’s father gives the bride away and the groom asks the father for his daughter’s hand in marriage, shift toward romance is a shift towards individualistic choice, romance is a fantasy based on emotion, breakdown in the structure of the culture so that there are fewer expectations, people want to do things based on their own personal needs, age and likely hood of marriage is rising – people are less likely to get married Social Power and Influence norms for behavior, used to be socially unacceptable for unmarried men and women to live together, how do we respond to how people deal with this norm Compliance vs. conformity vs. internalization compliance is when you comply, you let people tell you what to do, compliance is power based, that doesn’t mean you accept the norm but you go along with it because of force, you’re compelled to do it, implied 17 corrosion, when you stop at a stop sign because there’s a police man watching you, conformity is based on social pressure to be a good member of the community, you don’t believe in the thing you are doing but you do it because you don’t want to get thrown out, you do something by the implied knowledge of the norm, internalization – you do it because you accept the norm as right, you have internalized it, you do the thing no matter what, not because of social pressure but because it is what you believe is the right thing to do, it is the most voluntary of the three Information social influence – War of the Worlds people believed the war of the worlds story was real, they were not set up with the idea that the media is something fictional, people were scared, the point is that information can have power, especially if it is from a credible source, think what channel you watch for the news, people are influenced from the information they consider to be a credible source and you only believe that source, credible sources become important when you are confused about what is going on, you turn to who/what you trust and that may not be true, not based on logic, also depends on how vulnerable people are to not trust their own judgment but to trust other people instead Sherif (auto kinetic effect study) perceptual illusion, auto kinetic = self moving, Sherif studied weather you can affect how much something moves and what way, think of a laser pointer pointing at a screen in a dark room, you will think that the laser is moving on it’s own, if you are told ahead of time that the laser will be moving in a certain direction, you will most likely think that you see that happening, people believe it, it shows the impact of social influence on how you literally see the world at the physical level Normative behavior with or without acceptance (peer pressure/cohesiveness) it doesn’t have to be friends, it 18 just has to be someone telling you what’s going to happen, we are far more influenced when a group we believe in and we’re tight with (cohesiveness) the group, we are willing to give up our freedom and see things the way they do, remember it is about normative behavior* o Influence from direct command vs. influence from group norm direct command is forced, immediate, compliance, influence from group you are reflecting on what the group wants because you want to be part of the group, internalization, the more you want to be like the group the more you will try to change yourself to be a part of the group, we do not want to be lonely we want to be part of the group, you do not want to be alone and defenseless, we are not born to be alone, we are naturally adaptive to be a part of a group for our own survival, also think of people with a low self esteem, they are willing to change themselves in order to not be alone Descriptive vs. injunctive (prescriptive/proscriptive) norms descriptive – describes what you do and injunctive – says how to, two kinds of norms (a description of proper and improper behavior, what you should and should not do) prescription, what you need to take, a description of what you should do (take these pills on a daily basis), these norms say what we should do, they prescribe the behavior, proscriptive is things you should not do Social Psychology 3/7 - 3/14 o Normative focus theory (salience) vs. indoctrination 19 (conversion) salience – importance, pointing outward, saying that people who are not concerned with the norm, you make the norm good (salient) and apply it personally to the person who is not being concerned with the norm or following the norm, putting it in the center of their mind so they are more likely to act on what you are trying to make them do, conversion – “converting” to blend in, changing people to be the way you want them to be or what you want them to believe in, example – converting young Indian children to be the way white children are, using English, having hair cuts, going to English/white schools, converts are often more active zealots than people who are just joining because they have to prove themselves Private conformity vs. public conformity private – acting entirely on your own choice because you want to, public – people do something because other people are watching o Anti-conformity vs. true independence (reactance vs. individuation) non-conformists (true independence) - a person who does not conform, make people nervous because they are not part of the group, they do not accept the group’s will, they are not doing what everyone else is doing, true non- conformists are independent, they are following their own path, they do what they choose to do, something they follow the group, sometimes they don’t, depending on how they feel, they have a set of internalized values by which they act upon, anti- conformity – act completely against the norm, their behavior is controlled just as much as it is by the norms, but in the opposite way, by rejection of the norms, they are not independent Asch “line length studies” of conformity how do people respond when they see normal people respond to something differently than how you would, well you 20 change your mind and go with the “norm” what seems to be the consensus, conformity increases, people go against what they know is right o Impact of objective reality with social pressure – group think group think – one strong person says something, what they want to do or what they think, everyone goes along since no one says anything to counter the strong person, they think everyone agrees, impact of objective reality with social pressure – if someone disagrees, others will follow, and it will grow o Example of fundamental attribution error underestimating how powerful the situation is going to be, what we think we would do in a given situation, but we underestimate how strong the power of social forces can be o Informational vs. normative influence (objective vs. social reality) normative – a social reality, if 10 people say something, it must be true, people begin to believe that they are wrong because of the power of social reality to define what is and isn’t, things that are considered people’s opinions, informational – objective reality is based on facts that you gather, things that are objectively true, things you can measure, using information from things that you personally gather, can be information from experts as well, think of scientific facts o Ambiguity of situation and level of self confidence how vulnerable we are, you have to depend on other pieces of information, the less clear is is, the more ambiguous it is, and the more vulnerable you are to social influences, your own self-confidence is also a factor in this, the lower your self-confidence, the more you accept the will of others and accept the reality that conflicts with what you believe or the informational influences o Past experience/relevance of situation if you don’t have any past-experiences, you’re more open to 21 ideas, if you have had past-experiences it can help you, relevance of the situation – maybe you just don’t care, the more relevant it is to your identity and your values, the more you resist social influences o Expectations of success/risks if you don’t think there is a risk and you expect to succeed by going against the group you are more likely to do it, if you know that the risks may be high than you might be more likely to conform o Status differential/social control the closer you are to the leaders, the less willing you are to accept them, (unless you have an ulterior motive), the lower you are in the hierarchy, the more likely you are to go along, the less social control you have, the more vulnerable you are to social pressure, you gain strength from the sense that there is solidarity in the group Impact of dissenter – role model/social learning people start to hand in their tests after the first person (the dissenter) hands in theirs, without the dissenter you get the conformity effect, you learn how to do something by observation (learn what does and doesn’t work) due to the success of the dissenter, the dissenter gets them to do what they want to do, you need to have a norm encouraging disagreement, is an essential part of any group or community, the dissenters by definition disagree, if you are in a group you want people to act together and if dissenters cannot be heard and voice their opinions, they won’t “buy in” or participate, people need to feel that they have been heard o Implied freedom without danger (if similar other) it opens up the freedom of other people to speak, one role model gives the freedom to others to speak without feeling/fearing the danger, the more similar they are to you, the more likely you are to speak out, “if they can do it, so can I” 22 o Social norms (agreeability norm/gender roles) there are inhibiting forces, in our culture being agreeable it what is normally accepted, this inhibits dissenters – it is tough to be the only one willing and motivated to speak out and go against the entire group, but once you do it, it’s easier, gender roles inhibit dissenters (women) o Need for “freedom of speech” hallmark for our society, very vulnerable and fragile, is fine as long as people say what you want them to say, hard to defend, controversial, the encouragement of dissent leads to better decisions/outcomes o Socially recognized dissenters – newspapers/comedians (jester/Koshari) newspapers serve an active role of brining out information, comedians use humor to make powerful points, jesters had an assigned role to say things to the king that they needed to hear in order to hopefully correct his mistakes and go back to the norms, Koshari – people designated to poke fun of the administrators of the society, dressed in costumes, were protected, in Native American communities, same idea as jesters, these roles show that we recognize the need for dissent to counter the direction of leadership o Minority influence effect (disproportionate impact) o Requires perceived qualities: investment, autonomy, consistency, fairness – depends on initial position (polarity/strength) of targets need to be willing to act, if they are there should be big impact, if they have a history of being a dissenter, they are viewed more seriously, whether their dissent seems unselfish, if they have personal interest in the outcome, they are basically trying to help themselves, there will be little impact, if they are acting on something for “the better good” not for themselves, their impact will be larger, there is a 23 complex mixture for dissenters, polarity is your willingness to do something, o Creates contrast effects (figure-ground) o Stimulates reconsideration (desire for conflict reduction) you want conflict to go away o Significant costs for dissenter death, unfavorable reputation Impact of “winning” – conversion effect once you win, you change, you become a zealot because people don’t trust you Milgram – “obedience/compliance study” was appalled by the Holocaust, one effect on him was to stereotype German people as more compliant, more willing to go along, to prove it, he had to show that Americans were not compliant, got volunteers to deliver electric shocks to people who made mistakes, found out that people were willing to deliver intense shocks – lethal doses, 65% of people, showed that we were just as willing to engage in this behavior, but the people were told they had to do it, so they did, even though in reality they didn’t really have to, they could have walked away, then he introduced a dissenter, the minute people saw someone else refuse, others followed, a lot of others followed, Nuremberg defense – UN and crimes against humanity, defense for people brought on trial for war crimes: they were just obeying orders o Willingness to cause pain to others – destructive obedience factors that matter: how close the person is to the subject, similarity to the victim, the less similar a person is to the victim, the more willing we are to injure them, they are not us, they are not our group, remember that “thou shall not kill” did not apply to our enemies, in-group members only had the rules, one way to show people were not in our group was to dehumanize the enemy, those people are rats, wild animals, etc. we visualize and portray them as nonhuman so we 24 can do whatever we want to them, we do this naturally, stereotype the out-group, define them in negative terms, and assume that they are all like that, based on the innate anxiety that we have of strangers, were naturally suspicious of people that we don’t know, second point: the level of interaction also depends on how literally close you are to the person, it is harder to dehumanize or avoid thinking that it is a real person when they are close, it is harder to view them as not real people, and that they are you o Similarity with victim – stigmatizing/dehumanizing – stranger anxiety o Contact with victim (distance/visibility) – social isolation (autistic hostility) autistic people do not like to be near others, there is not interaction when you don’t mix with other people which means no hostility, we avoid contact and think we are all right, until we are put in a situation where we are with different people than ourselves QUIZ 8 o Normative ambiguity – unconscious preferences vague norms, the more ambiguous the norm, the less clear and the less likely people will act, and the greater the impact of a powerful leader, when you have strong norms, it’s harder for someone to tell you to go against those norms, when it’s unclear you can be influenced easier o Diffusion of responsibility (Nuremberg Defense) “I was just following orders” o Status/power of influence agent the higher the status, the more power they seem to have, the more willing you are to accept their influence, o Bystander effect vs. dissenter effect dissenter – the presence of some body who goes against the influence “frees” people bystander – when people need help, someone is getting attacked or 25 harassed, people just stand by and watch, diffusion of responsibility allows them to distort their thinking by telling themselves that they don’t have to do anything, if you stand around and watch someone get harassed, you carry a message saying that you are okay with that behavior My-Lai & Abu Graib My-Lai – village in Vietnam where a bunch of innocent people just got annihilated, people came in and intervened to save the villagers, the intervention caused the re-activation of the norms, they realized what they were doing was wrong and they stopped Abu Graib – a prison where they were interrogating prisoners to get information about terrorist activities, Alternative styles of social influence (low-status agents) o Violence – coercive and unstable, causes escalation bad consequences for people doing the attack o Ingratiation (diminishes power of moral arguments) o Coalition formation – temporary and unstable (unbalanced) o Non-violent, passive resistance (fasts, self- immolation) MLK, Gandhi, only powerful when there is a powerful norm to appeal to, to cause shame or guilt towards the people you are trying to change o Blame the victim QUIZ 9 Social Psychology 3/16 – 3/21 Persuasion getting people to do what you want them to do, a method of social influence, to get them to feel and do what you want, but mostly in terms of acting, a form 26 of manipulation, convincing people to do, think, or feel in a way different than how they currently are, it is a process *Attitudes are how we feel about things Central vs. peripheral route (explicit-implicit) central attitudes are the ones that are most important to us, that are most associated with ourselves, they are not universal, they are learned, they define culture, peripheral attitudes are the same only they are about things that are much less important and they are more easily changed, what is central for one person is not necessarily central to another, attitudes can be central or peripheral and can be changed (via persuasion) in a central or peripheral route, peripheral routes of persuasion are devious, you expose people to things that contradict what they believe, you attack their feelings, o Rule of thumb heuristics heuristics are rules, working models, an example is appealing to people’s emotions, there is not a rule, there are sets of them, general principles to make them feel good Yale model of persuasion four elements of persuasion, must be considered any time you are trying to persuade anyone of anything o Audience, message, source, channel most important element, you must know who your target audience is, who are you trying to persuade In order to reach them you have to get on their wavelength, analyze the nature and attitudes and behavior patterns of the people, then try to identify the kind of message you want to send them, and how to send it, something they can understand, source – who do you want/need to do the persuading They need to have credibility, very important to getting the outcome you desire, the channel is how you deliver your message, like your voice, the way that has the most impact 27 o Audience traits shape other elements everything is based on the audience, you tailor it to the way they can take in information, when designing an effort to persuade people, it is the quality of the audience that shapes it, you must recognize the audience’s unique qualities Values-life cycle/generational focus values – most conflicts revolve around differences in the values of groups, overcoming behavior by appealing to values, changing people’s perception, appealing to values that are important to people i.e. being patriotic during war time, faith based systems don’t worry about facts, using vales to change specific behaviors by appealing to values, life cycle – generations look at things differently because they grew up in a different world, experiences have shaped what we expect to happen, we do share some values, when looking at persuasion you must look at where in the life-cycle the people (your targeted audience) are, when trying to persuade singles, you must use different values to appeal to, i.e. families are concerned about their children o Credibility – (sleeper effect) how much you trust the source, i.e. the pope has high credibility and what he says carries weight, the message and the credibility changes based on the source – think of religion poster example in class, who presents the message is an essential key design element, source determines credibility, the core message and also determine credibility, sleeper effect – the effect of repeated messages, you lose track of who the source is, you have a sensory image like a slogan, and you remember the message, no matter who the source is Similarity, attractiveness, expertise the more similar the source is to you, the more 28 attractive, the more level of expertise, the more credibility o Message content (reason/emotion) emotional content is different from reason content, words may be reason, symbols may be emotion, emotion is the enemy of logic o Mood-happy/fearful mood matters, the mood you are in shapes how you respond to messages, when evaluating and judging people the mood you are in shapes the quality and the content of how you evaluate them, when you’re optimistic, your perception of the world is more positive, when you’re fearful, you see the world through different eyes and your willingness to act is inhibited, it helps to give a path to reduce the fear by giving a sense of community and a specific set of actions that are able to be followed, fear can help invoke a willingness to change, *When trying to persuade someone of something you have to show confidence o Attention/thought/repeat/responsibility grab their attention, make them think about what you want them to think about, repeat the message over and over again, you can make an effect, make people personally responsible, i.e. telling us to vote – it is our responsibility Cult indoctrination-Jones/Moon/Koresh cults are tribes with intense belief in their value systems and willing to do anything for their value system, they are a closed tribe with a very strong emotional investment, with a charismatic member that controls their members, indoctrination – taking away resistance, taking away identity, individuality, basically everything that makes you you QUIZ 9 29