A gas turbine power plant receives a shipment of hydrocarbon fuel whose composition is uncertain but may be represented by the expression CxHy . The fuel is burned with excess air. An analysis of the product gas gives the following results on a moisture-free basis: 10.5 %(v/v) CO2 , 5.3% Oz, and 84.2% Nz. (a) Determine the molar ratio of hydrogen to carbon in the fuel (r), where r = y/ x, and the percentage excess air used in the combustion. '5Based on a problem in H. S. Fogler. Elements of Chemical ReactIOn Engineering, 2nd Edition, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1992, p. 323. 223 (b) What is the air-to-fuel ratio (m3 air/kg of fuel) if the air is fed to the power plant at 30C and 98 kPa?
Exam 4 Study Guide: Theory Overviews Chapter 22: The Rhetoric Theory Overview: Rhetoric is the art of discovering all available means of persuasion. A speaker supports the probability of a message by logical, ethical, and emotional proofs. Accurate audience analysis results in effective invention, arrangement, style, delivery, and, presumably, memory. 1. Aristotle’s “golden mean” ethical approach prizes: a. Justice. b. Courage. c. Friendship. d. Moderation. 2. Yvette is trying to persuade her sister Dakota. Yvette wants Dakota to let her borrow her favorite dress. Yvette tells a heartrending tale about how she doesn’t have a suitable dress, and she’ll feel so lonely if she has to miss the school dance. Yvette’s argument primarily uses which mode of persuasion a. Logos. b. Ethos. c. Pathos. d. Mythos. 3. When Aristotle referred to perceived intelligence, he was referring most clearly to: a. How smart the speaker is. b. Overlap between the audience’s beliefs and the speaker’s ideas. c. Whether the speaker has the audience’s best interests at heart. d. The quality of the logos in the speech. Chapter 23: Dramatism Theory Overview: Life is drama. The dramatistic pentad of act, scene, agent, agency, and purpose is the critic’s tool for discovering a speaker’s motives. The ultimate motive of rhetoric is the purging of guilt. Without audience identification with the speaker, there is no persuasion. 1. For Burke, the basic plot of the human drama is: a. The pursuit of perfection. b. The pursuit of life, liberty, and happiness. c. The pursuit of truth. d. The pursuit of redemption. 2. Burke believed that language was the downfall of humanity because language introduced: a. Victimage. b. The negative. c. Hate speech. d. Guilt. 3. Which of the following is a criticism of dramatism a. The theory’s writings are unclear. b. The theory hasn’t achieved a community of agreement among communication scholars. c. The theory does not provide much clarification of values. d. Burke’s analysis of motives ultimately failed to provide new understanding of people. Chapter 24: Narrative Paradigm Theory Overview: People are storytelling animals; almost all forms of human communication are fundamentally narrative. Listeners judge a story by whether it hangs together and rings true with the values of an ideal audience; thus, narrative rationality is a matter of coherence and fidelity. 1. The narrative paradigm holds that good reasons emerge from: a. A person’s history. b. A person’s biography. c. A person’s culture. d. All of the above. 2. The purpose of phatic communication is to: a. Persuade voters. b. Inform readers. c. Maintain relationships. d. Coordinate action. 3. According to the narrative paradigm, the world is: a. A set of stories from which we choose our lives. b. A set of logical puzzles waiting to be solved. c. A random place with no ultimate meaning. d. A machine that obeys a set of mathematical laws. Chapter 25: Media Ecology Theory Overview: The media must be understood ecologically. Changes in communication technology alter the symbolic environment—the socially constructed, sensory world of meanings. We shaped our tools—the phonetic alphabet, printing press, and telegraph—and they in turn have shaped our perceptions, experiences, attitudes, and behavior; therefore, the medium is the message. 1. The first question that Postman encouraged people to ask about a new technology was: a. Who does and does not have access to this technology b. What problem is this technology trying to solve c. Who created this technology d. How many other people are currently using this technology 2. Which invention moved the world into the electronic age a. The telephone. b. The telegraph. c. The Internet. d. The cellular phone. 3. Along with hearing, the electronic age emphasizes which human sense a. Taste. b. Sight. c. Smell. d. Touch. Chapter 27: Cultural Studies Theory Overview: The mass media function to maintain the ideology of those who already have power. Corporately controlled media provide the dominant discourse of the day that frames interpretation of events. Critics should seek not only to interpret culture but also to change it. Media audiences do have the capacity to resist hegemony. 1. The most common criticism of Hall’s theory is: a. Empirical data have not supported the theory. b. The theory does not provide new understanding of people. c. It does not offer specific remedies for the problems it identifies. d. Hall’s writing lacks aesthetic appeal. 2. Hall thought it was a mistake to treat communication as a separate academic discipline because: a. Communication is too similar to sociology. b. Objective and interpretive scholars need to work together more closely. c. Messages should not be separated from the cultures they inhabit. d. Communication needs the ethical compass provided by philosophical and religious studies. 3. Hall was concerned about corporate control of media because: a. The stories of the wealthy are emphasized over those of the poor. b. There are too many factual errors in mainstream journalism. c. Such media distract people from relationships with family and friends. d. Corporations are too slow to embrace new forms of media.