A quantity of liquid chloroform is placed in an open, transparent, three-liter flask and boiled long enough to purge all air from the vapor space. The flask is then sealed and allowed to equilibrate at 30C, at which temperature chloroform has a vapor pressure of 243 mm Hg. Visual inspection shows 10 mL of liquid chloroform present. (a) What is the pressure in the flask at equilibrium? Explain your reasoning. (b) What is the total mass (grams) of chloroform in the flask? What fraction is in the vapor phase at equilibrium?
Chapter 10 Notes Main things that affect temperature on planets: sunlight, reflection (albedo), rotation, and absorption of infrared light. Majority of gas in the atmosphere is nitrogen. Greenhouse effect has to do with the atmospheric absorption of infrared radiation. A greenhouse gas is one that effectively bounces around molecules coming from the Earth and keeping the heat from escaping the surface. Greenhouse gases include: Water (H20) and Carbon dioxide (CO2) Nitrogen is transparent to infrared making it not a greenhouse gas. Oxygen falls under this category as well. Our atmosphere is transparent to visible light. Without the greenhouse effect, the surface temperature on Earth would be below the freezing temperature of water. Methane (CH4) is another greenhouse gas; much more effective than the others Global winds blow in distinctive patters: Equatorial East to West, Midlatitudes West to East, The Coriolis Effect when you are rotating, from your point of view, things will not appear to be moving in a straight line. Coriolis Effect deflects northsouth winds into eastwest winds. Deflection breaks each of the two large “no rotation” cells into three smaller cells. Sources of gas: outgassing from volcanoes, evaporation of surface liquid; sublimation of surface ice, and impacts of particles and photons. Escape velocity from Earth is 11.3 km/s In a hotter atmosphere there will be a better chance for molecules to break free and escape the atmosphere of the planet, meaning that planet will loose much more of its atmosphere. The Earth’s escape velocity is lower than the speed of hydrogen gas. Earth’s atmosphere isn’t mostly hydrogen because hydrogen is a light gas and moves faster than heavier gasses allowing it to escape the Earth’s atmosphere Characteristics of Venus runaway greenhouse effect, sulfuric acid clouds, and almost no surface winds. Characteristics of Earth atmosphere composed of mostly nitrogen and has an ultraviolet absorbing atmosphere. Characteristics of Mars extremely low density atmosphere and global dust storms. • Effects of atmospheres They create pressure that determines whether liquid water can exist on surface. They absorb and scatter light. They create wind, weather, and climate. They interact with the solar wind to create a magnetosphere. They can make planetary surfaces warmer through the greenhouse effect.