The vapor leaving the top of a distillation column goes to a condenser in which either total or partial condensation takes place. If a total condenser is used, a portion of the condensate is returned to the top of the column as reflux and the remaining liquid is taken off as the overhead product (or distillate). (See 6.60.) If a partial condenser is used, the liquid condensate is returned as reflux and the uncondensed vapor is taken off as the overhead product. Vapor from top of column Reflux (liqUid) PARTIAL CONDENSER Cooling fluid Overhead product (vapor) The overhead product from an n-butane-n-pentane distillation column is 96 mole% butane. The temperature of the cooling fluid limits the condenser temperature to 40C or higher. 295 (a) Using Raoult's law, estimate the minimum pressure at which the condenser can operate as a partial condenser (i.e., at which it can produce liquid for reflux) and the minimum pressure at which it can operate as a total condenser. In terms of dew point and bubble point, what do each of these pressures represent for the given temperature? (b) Suppose the condenser operates as a total condenser at 40C, the production rate of overhead product is 75 kmollh, and the mole ratio of reflux to overhead product is 1.5: 1. Calculate the molar flow rates and compositions of the reflux stream and the vapor feed to the condenser. (c) Suppose now that a partial condenser is used, with the reflux and overhead product in equilibrium at 40C and the overhead product flow rate and reflux-to-overhead product ratio having the values given in part (b). Calculate the operating pressure of the condenser and the compositions of the reflux and vapor feed to the condenser.
Isabel Perry Mr. Butterworth Economics 3rd 13April 2017 Is the Minimum Wage Livable After reading Barbra Ehrenreich’s Nickel and Dimed, and after I attempted to live off $8.50 an hour working forty hours a week for one month, I believe that the minimum wage is not a livable amount and it should be raised. In Ehrenreich’s book she writes about her experiences as she tries to survive one month on the minimum wage. She discusses the troubles she faced getting a job, and how much of her time she spent working. Her life for that month was spent working endlessly just to have enough money for a place to sleep at night. In the book she talks about how she has to wake up at nine and does not get off work till ten (Ehrenreich 21). That is n