A liquid mixture containing 40.0 mole% methanol and 60.0 mole% I-propanol is placed in an open vessel and heated slowly. Estimate the temperature at which the mixture begins to boil. List assumptions made in your calculations. If heat is supplied continuously, how will the liquid temperature and composition change with time?
I-O Psych Notes Week 15 4/20/16 5:37 PM Teams in Organizations Increase in Need for Teams Reasons for increased use of teams: • Work can be performed concurrently rather than sequentially • Innovation and creativity promoted • Enable quick, effective development/delivery of products and services • Organizations learn and retain learning more effectively • More complex work Groups and Teams: Definitions • Groups include members who may work together or may just share some resources • Teams include members whose tasks are interdependent; work towards a common goal and share responsibility for outcomes • Group and team – essentially interchangeable 5 Stages of Group Development 1) Orientation (forming) – members becoming familiar with one another and the group, dependency and inclusion issues 2) Conflict (storming) – disagreement over procedures; expression of dissatisfaction; tension among members; antagonism toward leader • Conflict can be a good thing if it’s task-based 3) Structure (norming) – growth of cohesiveness and unity; establishment of roles, standards, and relationships; increased trust, communication 4) Work (performing) – goal achievement; high task orientation; emphasis on performance and production 5) Dissolution (adjourning) – termination of roles; completion of tasks; reduction of dependency A Model of Team Effectiveness Input-Process-Output Model • Enables understanding of how teams perform and how to maximize performance • Input variables: organization context, task characteristics, team completion • Process variables: norms, decision making, communication, coordination, cohesion • Output variables: productivity/performance, member satisfaction, innovation Team Inputs Organizational context • Provide necessary resources Team task • Task to be performed Team composition • Attributes of team members • Shared mental models (being on the same page) Team diversity • Demographic and psychological diversity Team Processes Norms • Informal rules of a team Communication and coordination • Social loafing Cohesion • Degree of desire to remain in team Decision making • Groupthink Team Outputs • Team performance o Often reflected in objective measures o Team innovation o Team member well-being Special Issues in Teams Team appraisal and feedback • Should provide team with information needed to identify team problems and further develop team capabilities • Extent to which team behaviors and outputs can be measured must be considered Virtual Teams • Composed of widely dispersed members working together toward a common goal; linked through technology • Pose several advantages to organizations • Trust is a critical concern; increase via: o Virtual-collaboration, virtual-socialization, and virtual- communication behaviors Team Training • Involves coordinating performance of individuals who work together to achieve a common goal • 4 Strategies o Cross-training o Team coordination training o Team leader training o Guided Team Self-Correction Training Team Diversity Demographic diversity • Differences in observable attributes or demographic characteristics such as age, gender, and ethnicity Psychological diversity • Differences in underlying attributes such as skills, abilities, personality characteristics, attitudes, beliefs, and values; may also include function, occupational, and educational backgrounds Cultural Issues in Teams Applying Hofstede’s cultural dimensions • Implications for teams o Individualism vs. collectivism o Long-term vs. short-term orientation • Effect of cultural and national backgrounds of team members Training & Development Training • Systematic acquisition of skills, concepts, or attitudes resulting in improved performance in another environment • Basic foundation for training programs is learning Learning • Relatively permanent change in behavior and human capabilities produced by experience and practice Training, Learning, & Performance Training increases probability of learning and learning increases probability of better job performance Learning & Motivational Theories Applied to Training • Reinforcement theory • Social learning theory o Watching other people behave, learning from others. Can apply to on the job training – you’re watching other people while you’re on the job • Goal-setting theory • Apply these theories to training Developing Training Programs Goldstein & Ford’s Training Model Training Needs Analysis 3 step process • Organizational analysis • Task analysis • Person analysis Required to develop systematic understanding of where training is needed (organizational), what needs to be trained (task), and who will be trained (person • Basically the same as job analysis Organizational Analysis Examines: • Organization’s goals and values • Available resources • Environment • Culture/climate of organization Task Analysis • Examines what employees must do to perform job properly • Can consist of o Developing task statements o Determining homogeneous task clusters o Determining KSAOs Person Analysis • Identifies which indiviuslas within organization should receive training and what kid of instruction they need • Assessments of trainee personality, etc. Trainee Characteristics Goal-orientation • Performance orientation o Concerned with doing well • Mastery orientation o Concerned with increasing competence • Experience level • Trainee motivation • Trainee readiness Learning Processes in Training Principles of Learning Active practice • Actively participating in training/work tasks Automaticity • Occurs when tasks can be performed with limited attention • Likely to develop when learners are given extra learning opportunities (overlearning) Whole learning • When entire task is practiced at once Part learning • When subtasks are practiced separately and later combined Massed practice • Individuals practice task continuously and without rest Distributed practice • Rest intervals between practice sessions • Generally results in more efficient learning and retention than massed practice Methods of Training Content and Methods of Training Training methods • 4 basic principles o 1) present relevant information and content to be learned o 2) demonstrate KSAOs to be learned o create opportunities for trainees to practice skills o provide feedback On-Site Training Methods On the job training • Trainees observe and learn from more experienced employees Job rotation • Employees move to various jobs, departments, or areas of company Off-Site Training Methods Classroom lectures Simulators • Controlled reproducibility • Safety considerations • Learning considerations E-learning (online training, webinar) Newer Methods of Training • Adaptive/computer-based training • Tailored/personalized learning o Allow trainees to individualize their learning experience o Trainees have more control over instruction Fidelity Extent to which task trained is similar to task required by job • Physical fidelity o Extent to which training task mirrors physical features of task performed on job • Psychological fidelity o Extent to which training task helps trainees develop KSAOs necessary to perform job 4/20/16 5:37 PM 4/20/16 5:37 PM