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Acetaldehyde is synthesized by the catalytic

Elementary Principles of Chemical Processes | 3rd Edition | ISBN: 9780471687573 | Authors: Richard M Felder ISBN: 9780471687573 143

Solution for problem 6.71 Chapter 6

Elementary Principles of Chemical Processes | 3rd Edition

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Elementary Principles of Chemical Processes | 3rd Edition | ISBN: 9780471687573 | Authors: Richard M Felder

Elementary Principles of Chemical Processes | 3rd Edition

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Problem 6.71

Acetaldehyde is synthesized by the catalytic dehydrogenation of ethanol: C2HsOH CH3CHO + Hz Fresh feed (pure ethanol) is blended with a recycle stream (95 mole% ethanol and 5% acetaldehyde), and the combined stream is heated and vaporized, entering the reactor at 280C. Gases leaving the reactor are cooled to -40C to condense the acetaldehyde and unreacted ethanol. Off-gas from the condenser is sent to a scrubber, where the uncondensed organic compounds are removed and hydrogen is recovered as a by-product. The condensate from the condenser, which is 45 mole% ethanol, is sent to a distillation column that produces a distillate containing 97 mole% acetaldehyde and a bottoms product that constitutes the recycle blended with fresh feed to the process. The production rate of the distillate is 1000 kg/h. The pressure throughout the process may be taken as 1 atm absolute. CONDENSER Distillate 97 mole% CH3CHO(l) DISTILLATION 55 mole% CH COLUMN 3CHO(I) Condensate 45 mole% CZH50H(I) Off-gas to scrubber CONDENSER 95 mole% CzH50H(I) 5 mole% CH 3CHO(I) ,-__-, Reactor output: Hz, CZH50H(v), CH3CHO(v) Recycle (a) Calculate the molar flow rates (kmol/h) of the fresh feed, the recycle stream, and the hydrogen in the off-gas. Also determine the volumetric flow rate (m3/h) of the feed to the reactor. (Suggestion: Use Raoult's law in the analysis of the condenser.) (b) Estimate (i) the overall and single-pass conversions of ethanol and (ii) the rates (kmoi/h) at which ethanol and acetaldehyde are sent to the scrubber

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Comparative Politics Federalism and Decentralization I. Federalism A. Federal vs. Unitary 1. Federal state – constitution gives two or more governments overlapping political authority over same group of people and territory  Ex: Brazil, Canada, India, Mexico, Russia, U.S (among largest countries)  U.S. most decentralized federal country in world - Strong federation - States have considerable policymaking power (ex. Same-sex marriage) - India = weaker federation, PM can takeover state rule 2. Unitary state – constitution gives central government final and exclusive control over policymaking across entire national territory  Devolution – can give subnational units power but can take back that power whenever they want B. Where do Federal Systems come from 1. “coming together” federalism - countries combine and form an alliance to benefit from stronger security and a stronger economy  ex. Australia, Switzerland, U.S. 2. “holding together” federalism - a solution to preserve a diverse country by giving some power to subnational units  ex. Belgium, India, Spain 3. “putting together” federalism – coercive effort to put together a multinational state  ex. Soviet Union C. Types of federal states 1. Population  Congruent – demographic makeup of subnational units is similar - Ex. U.S.  Incongruent – demographic makeup of subnational units differs - Ex. Canada 2. Power  Symmetric – subnational units have equal powers relative to central government - Ex. U.S., Brazil, Argentina, Australia  Asymmetric – some subnational units have more power than others - Ex. Belgium, Canada 3. Demos-constraining – institutions that limit power of people - Usually federal - Strong supreme court, senate 4. Demos-enabling – institutions enable power of people - Generally more centralized, unitary D. Case for federalism 1. Better match between policy and citizen preferences  Residential sorting – over time people tend to live in states where they agree with the policies 2. Brings government “closer to the people”  more accountable to citizens in subnational elections 3. competition among states for citizens and investment creates incentive for good policy/government 4. protection against tyrant through increased checks and balances 5. can promote stability in a country with multiple ethnic, religious, political identities E. Case against federalism 1. Unnecessary duplication and contradictory policies  Resources being wasted  States have different policies – ex. Same-sex marriage, abortion, marijuana 2. Additional layers of government make it difficult for voters to know who to hold accountable 3. May put minorities at disadvantage in some states 4. Competition between states may lead to “race to the bottom”  Kansas City border war II. Decentralization 1. Refers to extent to which actual policymaking power lies with central or regional governments A. Case for decentralization 1. Helps to deepen and consolidate democracy by devolving power to local governments 2. Disperses political power 3. Improves resource allocation because local governments have better knowledge of local preferences  improves efficiency B. Case against decentralization 1. Might increase inequalities 2. Increases size of government 3. Impedes fiscal restraint 4. Could increase corruption because there are more transfers of money

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Chapter 6, Problem 6.71 is Solved
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Textbook: Elementary Principles of Chemical Processes
Edition: 3
Author: Richard M Felder
ISBN: 9780471687573

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Acetaldehyde is synthesized by the catalytic