Furan and maleimide undergo a Diels–Alder reaction at 25 °C to give the endo isomer of the product. When the reaction takes place at 90 °C, however, the major product is the exo isomer. Further study shows that the endo isomer of the product isomerizes to the exo isomer at 90 °C.
(a) Draw and label the endo and exo isomers of the Diels–Alder adduct of furan and maleimide.
(b) Which isomer of the product would you usually expect from this reaction? Explain why this isomer is usually favored.
(c) Examine your answer to (b) and determine whether this answer applies to a reaction that is kinetically controlled or one that is thermodynamically controlled, or both.
(d) Explain why the endo isomer predominates when the reaction takes place at 25 °C and why the exo isomer predominates at 90 °C.
World, Food, Population, and Sustainable Development Week 7 (Post Spring Break) Colonialism and Plantation Agriculture (Continued) Colonialism’s Lasting Impacts on Indigenous Peoples - Colonialism: the policy and practice of a power extending control over weaker peoples or areas - EXAMPLE: Industrial Revolution o 1900s, developed spheres of domination, was fueled by: nationalism, racism…economic competition was turned into a political and military conflict o Everyone who was colonizing wanted Africa for its natural resources Known as “Footprint of the Imperial Boot”, caused… Cultural alienation Cultural imperialism o Reference groups (“at least we’re not them…”) Destruction of indigenous food systems Destruction of indigenous industries o British prohibiting Indian textile industry Institutionalization of racism o Selection of favored groups o Impact on Native Americans Doctrine of Discovery a.k.a. General Allotment Act Whoever discovered land unknown to other European countries first gained the rights and claimed title to those lands, despite Native Americans living on it Trail of Tears 1838/1839, part of Andrew Jackson’s Indian Removal Policy, the Cherokee nation was forced to give up its lands east of the Mississippi River and migrate to an area in Oklahoma o HORRIBLE soil Ration Ticket Europeans took away all the buffalo, so they gave the Indians ration tickets, which would be for 9ish people forcing them to ration out horrible food (coffee, sugar, beef, bacon, lard…) Self-Determination Era 1965-Present 1968 Indian Civil Rights Act Passed 1975 Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act Nation State A form of political organization in which a group of people who share the same history, traditions, or language live in a particular area under one government - Constructing the Nation State o Creating the Other A group used to distinguish yourselves by Native Americans, Indigenous peoples (explained above) o Language, Bureaucracy, & Education Language of our ancestors Ex) When France was emerging, if you didn’t speak it, you were beaten up Ex) New Orleans losing Creole Education Instrument to achieve order, social stability, national identity, defense, economic expansion Industrial societies require: o Division of labor o Ability to shift from task to task and area to area o Precise communication o Universal literacy Bureaucracy A system of government in which most of the important decisions are made by state officials rather than by elected representatives Transportation systems linking isolation groups Military service required o Violence and Genocide Cambodia: 1975-1979 1.7 million died under Khmer Rouge (gorilla army led by Pol Pot) o Starvation, medical neglect, overwork, execution Goals o Unify the nation o Elevate the status of peasants Tools used o Purification of city people By hard labor and shock o Torture Physical and psychological o Fear The Shock Doctrine – Naomi Klein Explains how America’s free market policies have come to dominate the world through the exploitation of disaster-shocked people and countries “Disaster Capitalism” o Large scale shocks are used to put forward large changes in policy