The heat capacity at constant volume of hydrogen sulfide at low pressures is Cv[kJ/(mol'C)] = 0.0252 + 1.547 X 1O- 5 T - 3.012 X 1O-9 Tz where T is in 0C. A quantity of HzS is kept in a piston-fitted cylinder with initial temperature, pressure, and volume equal to 25C, 2.00 atm, and 3.00 liters, respectively. I Initially at 25C, 2.00 atm, 3.00 liters (a) Calculate the heat (kJ) required to raise the gas temperature from 25C to 1000C if the heating takes place at constant volume (i.e., if the piston does not move), retaining successively one term, two terms, and all three terms of the heat capacity formula. (See Example 8.3-1.) Determine the percentage errors in Q that result from retaining only one and two terms of the heat capacity formula, assuming that the full expression yields the correct result. (b) For a closed system at constant pressure with negligible kinetic and potential energy changes, the energy balance equation is Q = LiH. Use Equation 8.3-12 to determine an expression for the heat capacity at constant pressure (Cp ) for HzS, assuming ideal gas behavior. Then use it to calculate the heat (J) required to raise the gas from 25C to 1000C at constant pressure. What would the piston do during this process? (c) What is the physical significance of the difference between the values of Q calculated in parts (a) and (b)?
March 2 nd2016 Intro to Ethics What counts as a virtue changes between cultures o 50 years ago- what is virtue for a man was different than women Pre-conventional stage: moral values occur by rewards and punishments will act the right way if there is a reward or punishment telling us if we are right or wrong Conventional: General conception of what is expected of them and why but only do these things due to social approval Act the right way for approval and good society standing/social norms Post-Conventional or self-accepted The child accepts the morals as their own and their actions happen because they believe they are right or wrong Boys develop faster than girls Boys are superior due to this lol Does gender influence how people make moral choices Gilligan’s theory: Men are more inclined to preform morally than women Female moral prospective was partial and was about relations between people; highly personable; depending on who was involved and their relations with them. Avoided harm at all costs Gender differences in morals: 1. Moral perception: a. Women and men see situations differently 2. Moral reasoning: a. Predisposed b. Men=fairness c. Women=relations and avoiding harm (greater value and exception to rules to keep relationships) 3. Moral aptitude a. Men= reasoning b. Women follow recommendation of emotion 4. Moral values (opposed moral values) a. Men= autonomy b. Women= community and independence 5. Moral character a. Men= self-reliance and determination b. Women= self-sacrifice, compassion, and cooperation Self in relation Social level: Our daily activities all deal with other people. We are dependent upon others Ontologically: the people in our lives affect how we see and think of ourselves Issue of context and particularity Circumstances of the situation; what you need in moral reasoning is an analysis of each situation to arrive at a moral judgment Who are the various people involved in a moral situation o Any identities need to be determined (sexuality, race, ect) in order to react morally Importance of Personal relationships Close personal relationships serve as the model of care ethics o Care ethics= how important it is to have personal relationships Keeping these relationships is very important and the goal is to strengthen them if possible Vulnerability independency Idealization to human agents o Don’t state that the human beings are independent at the beginning o We are needy and vulnerable o We need other people to live Review: Positive or negative responses to what we desire When is it appropriate to search out pleasure and pain Context dependency per situation there are appropriate times for every emotion it just depends on the situation The person who is in the right state of character when performing a just act can be considered a virtuous person Act in which we engage makes us who we are You aren’t ever a virtuous person you have to work to it Needs 2 things to be a virtuous person: Must develop a proper habits- right family, right society, right up bringing No idea what the second one is Desire: Those who suffer from knowing what the right thing to do is but don’t due to desire (Rational but not virtuous) Internal conflict Disorders: o Continents Typically better to resist the desire but aren’t virtuous because you still have these desires o Incontinent: Less successful in resisting even though they know what it is o Evil: Some of us just don’t do what the virtuous person would do and they do not do the virtuous thing and will not have a good life Happiness isn’t completely subjective according to Aristotle; there are objective ways to be happy