Ethyl alcohol can be bacterially oxidized to acetic acid in the following two-step fermentation sequence: 2 C2HsOH + O2 2 CH3CHO + 2 H20 2 CH3CHO + O2 - 2 CH3COOH If the alcohol-containing feedstock is wine, cider, or a malt solution, the resulting solution is vinegar. An aqueous solution containing ethyl alcohol in water is fermented to produce dilute acetic acid. The feed mixture (the ethanol solution and the bacteria that make the fermentation occur) and air are fed at a temperature To. The product solution contains ethanoL acetaldehyde (CH3CHO), acetic acid, and water. All liquid and gaseous effluents are at temperature T. The variables involved in the process are nf (mol feed solution), .lef (mol ethanol/mol feed solution), nair (mol air fed). ?xs (percent excess air), ne , nah, naa , nw (gram-moles of ethanol, acetaldehyde. acetic acid, and water. respectively, in the product mixture), n ox , nn (gram-moles of oxygen and nitrogen, respectively, emerging from the reactor), To, T, and Q(kJ heat transferred). (a) Calculate the number of degrees of freedom of the process. How would the answer differ if the reactor were adiabatic? (b) Outline the solution procedure to determine all unknown variables from given values of nf. Xef, ?xs, ne , nah, To, and T. (c) Specify a set of design variables that would require an iterative solution for the remaining state variables. (d) Specify an infeasible set of design variables.
Midterm 1 Study Guide for International Relations Professor Tir Summary: I. International Relations Definition and Concepts II. Realism and NeoRealism Definitions III. Liberalism Definitions IV. Marxism Definitions I. Introduction to International Relations A. International Relations: A game of politics on the national level B. Politics: A game of resource allocation (who gets what, when, and how) C. Types of Knowledge: a. Descriptive- the facts b. Explanatory- the why and how c. Predictive- if certain conditions are met, what will be the consequences d. Prescriptive- figuring out how to change politics D. Levels of Analysis a. Individual- look at key people who influence international events b. State- focus on attributes dealing with the state c. Dyadic- focus on interactions between states d. Systemic- politics as a whole E. The State- the dominant way of political organizations; a country F. The Nation- A group of people that identify as a nation based on shared culture, beliefs, language, and history. G. Nationalism: Birth of Nationalism in France. It is what a member of a nation uses to identify themselves as well as what unifies a group of people to identify with one another (self-determination). H. Globalization: Interaction and integration between groups of people, political entities, or organizations I. Key Properties of a State: Territory, Population, Sovereignty, Diplomatic Recognition J. Treaty of Westphalia: Helped to end the 30 Years War. Marked the end of rule by religious authority in Europe and the emergence of secular authority. K. 3 Objectives of The State: Gains (power/territory), safety, and reputation. L. Key Changes that Lead to the Modern State: The Renaissance and gunpowder. M. Zero-Sum Theory: Both parties can’t win at the same time. N. Cuius Regio, Eius Religiio: Whose realm, his religion. O. Anarchy: Relative power variations shape preferences and determine outcomes since there is no international government presiding over the states. P. Causes of WWII: Poor economic and overall national well-being of Germany due to sanctions that asked for hefty reparations following WWI- lead to an opportunity for the insertion of a radical leader (Hitler). II. Realism and NeoRealism: A. Classical Realism: States are rational unitary actors, pursuing power, and have a lack of trust in other states. B. Neorealism: Hobbes, Thucydides, Machiavelli, Morganthau are focused on this theory. Suggest that the world is innately bad an in a state of anarchy. The state of nature is the state of war. Concerned with obtaining power through security and defense spending. C. Dahl’s Definition of Power: the ability to get someone to do something they would otherwise not do D. Key Goal of Realism: acquisition + preservation of relative power E. Neorealism (per Waltz): The role of human nature is deemphasized in favor of the system structure. Given anarchy, the main goal of states is survival (security) and power F. Neorealism Logic: In a state of anarchy (no world government), states fear their neighbors, they get power (military defense) to protect themselves, the neighbors get power to protect themselves, repeat. This creates an arms race, potentially war. (Security Dilemma) G. Bipolar: Distribution of power in which two states have the majority of economic, military, and cultural influence internationally or regionally. H. Multipolar: Distribution of power in which more than two nation-states have nearly equal amounts of military, cultural, and economic influence. III. (Neo)Liberalism A. Liberalist View of Human Nature: Humans engage in self-interested behavior by maximizing their own welfare. Humans know when they’re well of by comparing themselves to others. Pursuits of preferences help people make decisions and people’s preferences can be harmonious or conflicting with each other. B. Main Strands of Liberalism: Commercial, Republican, and Ideational. C. Liberalist View of Anarchy: Presents problems but is not insurmountable. The solution to anarchy is repeated interactions between states, institutionalized rules, and enforcement mechanisms. IV. Marxism th A. Intellectual Origins of Marxism: Developed as a critique of 19 century capitalism B. Marxism’s Problems with Capitalism: It creates monopolies that drive up prices of goods and promotes mistreatment of workers. C. An Economic Theory: Economics is a relationship between to social classes where the exploiters are the owners of the means of production and the exploited are the producers who work for the owners. D. Marxism’s Main Goal: End the economic exploitation of workers in order to create a classless society E. How Does Marxism Accomplish This Goal: Educate the exploited about their position, get rid of the false consciousness of particular identities, and engage in a violent revolution. F. What Is The Role of the State Post-Revolution: The state dissolves, does not own any resources because the people own all of the resources and distributes them fairly. V. Readings: a. “The Nation State Fallacy” by Ra’anan: Assumes the national falls within the boundaries of the state, which is usually not the case. States do not represent nations. b. “Jihad Vs. McWorld” by Barber: Jihad is how the state is falling apart due to internal conflict between differing nations, and McWorld is how the state is falling apart and being replaced with International Government Organizations through the process of globalization. c. “The State of Nature” by Hobbes: Life is solitary, selfish, brutish, and short. Leviathan= central power; Struggles: war, fear aligns with power, men are relatively equal; fear= preemptive actions. d. “The Melian Dialogue” by Thucydides: States are much like humans- greedy for power, rational, prefer more power to less, unlimited struggle for power, no difference between right and wrong, the strong will conquer the weak. e. “The Orignis of the Neorealism Theory” by Waltz: Power is ultimately the catalyst for conflict. Excessive or Insufficient power leads to destruction, competition for limited resources. The main goal of states is gaining security, survival, and power. f. “Taking Preferences Seriously” Moravcsik: This article addresses Liberalism. State-society relations have a fundamental impact on state behaviors; the primacy of societal actors, representation and state preferences, and interdependence of the international system.