A gas that contains COz is contacted with liquid water in an agitated batch absorber. The equilibrium solubility of COz in water is given by Henry's law (Section 6.4b) CA = PA/HA where c",(mol/cmJ ) = concentration of CO2 in solution PA(atm) = partial pressure of CO2 in the gas phase HA[atm/(mol/cmJ )] = Henry's law constant The rate of absorption of CO2 (i.e., the rate of transfer of COz from the gas to the liquid per unit area of gas-liquid interface) is given by the expression rA[mol/(cmzs)] = k(C~ - CA) where CA = actual concentration of CO2 in the liquid C~ = concentration of CO2 that would be in equilibrium with the COz in the gas phase (C~ = pAlHA ) k(cm/s) = a mass transfer coefficient The gas phase is at a total pressure P(atm) and contains YA(mol COzlmol gas), and the liquid phase initially consists of V (cm3) of pure water. The agitation of the liquid phase is sufficient for its composition to be considered spatially uniform, and the amount of COz absorbed is low enough for P, V, and YA to be considered constant throughout the process. (a) Write a differential balance on COz in the liquid phase and integrate it to derive the relation CA(t) = C~[1 - exp(-kSt/V)] where S(cm2 ) is the effective contact area between the gas and liquid phases. (b) Suppose the system pressure is 20.0 atm, the liquid volume is 5.00 liters, the tank diameter is 10.0 em, the gas contains 30.0 mole% CO2, the Henry's law constant is 9230 atm/(mole/cm3 ), and the mass transfer coefficient is 0.020 cm/s. Calculate the time required for CA to reach 0.620 moUL if the gas-phase properties remain essentially constant.
Psychology 220- Developmental Psychology Tues/Thurs 9:30-10:45am Week #14 NOTE: there were no notes last week due to exam 3 on Tuesday and a video on Thursday entitled Among Equals NOTE: I realize my notes skip from week 11 to week 14. I am not missing any notes, I simply miscounted based on Spring Break and other weeks of no notes. My apologies. Chapter 13: Middle Childhood: Psychosocial Development Overview The nature of a child Families and children The peer group Children’s moral values Resilience and Stress Resilience: the capacity to adapt well to significant adversity and to overcome serious stress Dynamic not a stable trait; a person may be resilient at some periods but not at others Positive adaption to stress o Example: if a parent rejects a child and it leads to the child being closer with another adult, that is a positive adaptation and the child is resilient Adversity must be significant o A threat to the processes of development or even life itself *Stress is accumulative and can be amplified when parents blame their children/are not supportive. *How the child interprets stress is crucial Parentification: when children feel responsible for the entire family, acting as parents who take care of everyone, including the actual parents *Daily routines are important when coping with stress Individual factors influencing resilience: Age Intellectual functioning Personality Self-efficacy, self-confidence, self-esteem Talents Religion Other factors: Relationship to parental figure Authoritative parenting SES Social support Family Structure and Function Structure: how it’s set up (who you’re living with) The legal and genetic relationships among relatives -Includes nuclear family, extended family, stepfamily, etc. Function: the way a family works to meet the needs of its members. -Providing, encouraging, developing, nurturing, etc. The Needs of Middle Childhood: Material necessities Encouraged learning Development of self-respect Nurture friendships Foster harmony and stability Shared environments: influences that arise from being in the same environment, such as two siblings living in the same home raised by the same parents. Nonshared environments: the experiences in the school or neighborhood that differ between one child and another *Studies have found that genes and Nonshared environments have the most affect on children Two-parent families (69%) *Percentages based on U.S. 6-11 year olds in each type Nuclear Family (46%)- you are the biological child of both your mother and father all living in the same house SIDE NOTE: Today in the US only 37% of children will live with both biological parents from birth to age 18 Extended Family (10%)- both biological parents are present as well as other members of the family; grandparent, aunt, uncle, etc. Stepparent Family (9%)- mother OR father living in the house, remarried someone who does not have children Blended Family- mother OR father living in the house, remarried someone who does have children Adoptive Family (2%)- not biologically related to your guardians Grandparents (1%)- when neither biological parent is present and the role of guardian is on the grandparents Same-sex Family (1%)- two mothers, or two fathers raise a child that is biological to one of them Polygamous Family (>1%)- one father married to more than one wife and having children with multiples of the wives One-parent families (31%) Single-Parent Family- having only your mother or father present in the house, other parent does not live with you Either never married Divorced Single mother—never married: 14% Single mother—divorced/separated/widowed: 12% Single father: 4% Grandparent alone: 1% Nuclear family advantages: Higher family income Parents tend to be psychologically healthy Biological parents have a genetic impulse to protect children Parental “alliance” to raise children ______________________________________________ 55% from 6-11 37% from birth to age 18 Early Childhood Play Review In early childhood, children prefer to play with kids like them: Same sex, same age, same activities Friendship grounded in the concrete operation Pretend play Middle Childhood Erikson: Stage of industry versus inferiority -The fourth stage during which children attempt to master many skills, developing a sense of themselves as either industrious or inferior, competent or incompetent Freud: Stage of latency -Term for middle childhood during which children’s emotional drives and psychosexual needs are quiet (latent). Sexual conflicts from earlier stages are only temporarily submerged, bursting forth later in puberty Friendship in Middle Childhood Kids learn to negotiate, share, and compromise with peers. There is an increase in rule-based play Decrease in pretend play More separation from adults peers becoming more important The culture of children refers to the habits, styles, values, and rules that set children apart from the adult society Ages 7-8 Rewards and costs Ages 10-11 Shared values and loyalty Ages 11-13 Empathetic friendships True-shared interests “Know” your friends –intimacy 30% of time is spent with peers 95% of that time is spent with same-sex peers Boys prefer larger groups o Competitive 50% of the time Girls prefer smaller groups o Competitive >1% of the time o More about cooperation Less likely to be supervised Contexts are more widespread Concerns about acceptance emerge o Social comparison Social comparison: the tendency to assess one’s abilities, achievements, social status, and other attributes by measuring them against those of other people, especially one’s peers ________________________________________________________________________ _________________ Peers send strong messages (positive and negative) regarding morals within the context of the friendship Working things out amongst themselves without involving adults is emphasized --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Peers can have both a positive and negative influence on one another Encouraging each other to study more, or goofing off more in class Immigrant children may rely heavily on peers in the dominant culture to teach them language and social customs This may or may not please the parents! Popularity in Middle Childhood Popular kids: Consistently well-liked o Kind, trustworthy, and cooperative Feared and respected o Athletic, cool, dominant, arrogant, and aggressive Unpopular kids: Neglected (not rejected) o No friends / no enemies o May or may not notice based on home/family life Aggressive—rejected o Antagonistic / confrontational o Rejected by peers because of this behavior Withdrawn—rejected o Timid, withdrawn, and anxious o Rejected by peers because of this behavior Bullying -Repeated and systematic attempts to inflict harm on another child through physical, verbal, or social attacks **Most bullies are not socially rejected Bully-victim: a bully who is, or has been, a victim >Also called provocative victims because they do things that elicit bullying **These are the aggressive-rejected kids *They do not have friends, and they do not have anyone who is sympathetic to their situation Four types: 1. Physical 2. Verbal 3. Relational 4. Cyber Examples of bullying: (First half more common in males, second half more common in females) Calling names Making things up to get someone else in trouble Hitting, pinching, biting, pushing, shoving, etc. Taking things away or damaging belongings Stealing money Taking friends away Rumors / threats Abusive phone calls Offensive text messages Posting insulting messaging on the Internet Gender differences in bullying Boys -Above average in size -Force or threats of force Girls -Above average in verbal assertiveness -Mocking or ridicule Consequences of bullying Bullies are more likely to be Hostile Get in trouble with parents and teachers To be convicted of felonies in the future Repeatedly bullied: o More anxious, depressed, sensitive, passive and underachieving As adults, more susceptible to depression and low self esteem What are some signs a child is being bullied They don’t want to go to school o Suddenly get bad grades They are more withdrawn Depression, defensiveness, moodiness o Sudden displays of temper They come home with cuts, bruises, or torn clothes Don’t invite friends over to the house Ask for extra money/supplies because they “lose it” Avoiding leaving the house -As kids got older, they were less likely to report bullying -More embarrassment/fear of reporting -More boys report than girls because it tends to be more noticeable/physical A review of ways to stop bullying (Berger, 2007): Everyone in the school must change, not just the identified bully Intervention is more effective in the earlier grades Evaluation is critical: programs that seem good might be harmful 4/21 Moral Development NOTE: this is the last section to Chapter 13 however our professor dedicated an entire class to this; most of the information below is based off of her slideshow presentation. Moral Development Morality: a set of principles or ideals that help an individual to distinguish right from wrong and act on those distinguishing factors. Two Aspects: 1. Moral Affect –feelings associated with morality 2. Moral Reasoning –thought associated with morality *Both components are necessary Moral Affect Guilt: feeling responsible for a wrongdoing AND wanting to make amends Shame: feeling like you have not lived up to the standards placed on you by other individuals or social groups First emerges over infancy: 15-18 months Moral Reasoning In general: -Higher levels are positively related to higher levels of prosocial behavior -It is important, but not sufficient, for early/middle childhood kids to account for production of moral action Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Development Preconventional (2 Stages) -Similar to preoperational thought: egocentric and aimed at avoiding personal pain and attaining personal pleasure Early, middle childhood Rewards and punishment NOT based on social conventions or laws Based on consequences Stage 1 -Heteronymous morality -Rightness/wrongness of action is determined by the outcome it will provide -Defer to authority figures to avoid punishment -Little conception of rules Stage 2 -Instrumental morality -Rightness/wrongness determined by what it gains for you -Conforms to rules to gain rewards and satisfy personal needs Conventional (2 Stages) -Parallels concrete operational thought in that it relates to current, observable practices -Children watch what their parents, teachers, and friends do and try to follow suit Late middle childhood/ early adolescence Understand shared standards of right and wrong Social rules Stage 3 -“Good child” morality -Rightness or wrongness of action is determined by whether the action pleases, helps, or is approved of by others -Social approval is important -Living up to expectations Stage 4 -“Law and Order” morality -Rightness/wrongness of action is determined by whether it conforms to rules and laws Postconventional (2 Stages) -Similar to formal operation thought by use of abstractions, going beyond what is concretely observed. -Willing to question, “what is” in order to decide, “what should be” Late adolescence / adulthood Moral principles “beyond” societal standards Goes beyond social convention to more abstract, universal, moral principles of right and wrong Stage 5 -“Social contract” morality -Rightness/wrongness of action is determined by the social contract Social contract: acts for welfare of the group; maximizing social welfare -Laws established by mutual agreement -Flexibility in moral judgments -Laws must be arrived at by democratic means Stage 6 -Universal ethical principles morality -Rightness/wrongness of action is determined by the general ethical principles that transcend the law -General principles not individual situations or community practices Kohlberg’s moral dilemmas -Each dilemma involves a choice between obeying a rule/law/authority figure or taking some action that conflicts with rules human needs Asked to solve a dilemma: Heinz Dilemma Heinz Dilemma In Europe, a woman was near death from cancer. One drug might save her, a form of radium that a druggist in the same town had recently discovered. The druggist was charging $2,000 (ten times what the drug cost him to make). The sick woman’s husband, Heinz, went to everyone he knew to borrow the money, but he could only get half of what it cost together. He told the druggist that his wife was dying and asked him to sell it cheaper or let him pay the rest later, but the druggist said no. The husband got desperate and broke into the man’s store to steal the drug for his wife. QUESTION: should the husband have done that Why Why not Responses based on stages: Stage 1: Heinz must not steal because he will be put in jai Stage 2: Heinz should steal the drug because someday he might have cancer and would want someone to steal it for him Stage 3: Heinz is only doing something that is natural for a good husband to do. He should do it out of love for his wife. Stage 4: It’s natural for Heinz to want to save his wife, but it’s still always wrong to steal. You have to follow the rules. Stage 5: Before you say stealing is wrong, you have to consider the whole situation. Laws are clear about breaking into a store. But it would be reasonable for anyone in that situation to steal the drug. Stage 6: When we must choose between disobeying a law and saving a human life, the higher principle of preserving life makes it morally right to steal the drug Evaluation of Kohlberg’s Theory Moral reasoning does seem to advance with advances in cognitive development Most children are Preconventional before age 8, and conventional by age 9 Critiques He may have underestimated the potential of school-age children His research was done on western males It may be better to address practical issues such as feeding the poor (versus hypothetical dilemmas) Morality and Gender Carol Gilligan believed that for females: Morality of Care- nurturance and compassion Is more important than Morality of Justice- absolute judgments of right and wrong -Which are thought to be more male characteristics BUT: research has found that there is no clear distinction regarding morality of care and justice and that boys and girls are equally likely to use both Development of Self Concept Categorical Identification (4 to 7 years) Physical characteristics Possessions Actions can perform A “physicalistic” conception of self based mainly on ability to perform various actions Comparative Assessments (8 to 11 years) Use more psychological descriptions More general, stable traits BUT still concrete Start to make comparative judgments Abstract, Integrated Self (12 to 15 years) Talk about broad personality traits Focus on values, ideologies, and beliefs Recognize split-self Understand that any number of extenuating circumstances can cause one to act in ways inconsistent with self-descriptions