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Unlike most other electrophilic aromatic substitutions,

Organic Chemistry | 8th Edition | ISBN: 9780321768414 | Authors: L.G. Wade Jr ISBN: 9780321768414 33

Solution for problem 60SP Chapter 17

Organic Chemistry | 8th Edition

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Organic Chemistry | 8th Edition | ISBN: 9780321768414 | Authors: L.G. Wade Jr

Organic Chemistry | 8th Edition

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Problem 60SP

Problem 60SP

Unlike most other electrophilic aromatic substitutions, sulfonation is often reversible (see Section 17-4). When one sample of toluene is sulfonated at 0 °C and another sample is sulfonated at 100 °C, the following ratios of substitution products result:

Reaction Temperature

Isomer of the Product 0 °C 100 °C

o-toluenesulfonic acid 43% 13%

m-toluenesulfonic acid 4% 8%

p-toluenesulfonic acid 53% 79%

(a) Explain the change in the product ratios when the temperature is increased.

(b) Predict what will happen when the product mixture from the reaction at 0 °C is heated to 100 °C.

(c) Because the SO3H group can be added to a benzene ring and removed later, it is sometimes called a blocking group. Show how 2,6-dibromotoluene can be made from toluene using sulfonation and desulfonation as intermediate steps in the synthesis.

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Week 4 Mon 9/12 CH 4 Schedules of Reinforcement : specify which responses will be followed by the reinforce 1. Continuous Reinforcement Schedule: every instance of the behavior is followed by the reinforce a. Acquisition: the development of a new behavior through reinforcement i. Ex: when they first begin a behavior, you will reinforce every time they do the behavior until it is well-established. This is when you switch to intermittent reinforcement schedule 2. Intermittent/partial reinforcement schedule: not every instance of the behavior is followed by the delivery of the reinforce a. Maintenance: continuation of an operant behavior with intermittent reinforcement i. Ex: used to maintain; helps operant behavior stay in place for a long period of time b. Behaviors that are reinforced continuously are extinguished very easily and rapidly; if you’re only reinforced every once in a while, the behavior will keep on i. Skinner came up with this idea in rats- they will keep pressing the lever because they never know when the food is going to come ii. Ex: gambling pays out sometimes (they get lured in because sometimes they do win and they don’t understand probability and statistics); creates superstition because sometimes it is true based on probability

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Chapter 17, Problem 60SP is Solved
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Textbook: Organic Chemistry
Edition: 8
Author: L.G. Wade Jr
ISBN: 9780321768414

Organic Chemistry was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9780321768414. Since the solution to 60SP from 17 chapter was answered, more than 426 students have viewed the full step-by-step answer. The full step-by-step solution to problem: 60SP from chapter: 17 was answered by , our top Chemistry solution expert on 05/06/17, 06:41PM. The answer to “Unlike most other electrophilic aromatic substitutions, sulfonation is often reversible (see Section 17-4). When one sample of toluene is sulfonated at 0 °C and another sample is sulfonated at 100 °C, the following ratios of substitution products result:Reaction TemperatureIsomer of the Product 0 °C 100 °Co-toluenesulfonic acid 43% 13%m-toluenesulfonic acid 4% 8%p-toluenesulfonic acid 53% 79%(a) Explain the change in the product ratios when the temperature is increased.(b) Predict what will happen when the product mixture from the reaction at 0 °C is heated to 100 °C.(c) Because the SO3H group can be added to a benzene ring and removed later, it is sometimes called a blocking group. Show how 2,6-dibromotoluene can be made from toluene using sulfonation and desulfonation as intermediate steps in the synthesis.” is broken down into a number of easy to follow steps, and 125 words. This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: Organic Chemistry, edition: 8. This full solution covers the following key subjects: toluenesulfonic, acid, Product, Ratios, toluene. This expansive textbook survival guide covers 25 chapters, and 1336 solutions.

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Unlike most other electrophilic aromatic substitutions,