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Solved: In 8794, find the dot product and the angle

Precalculus | 9th Edition | ISBN: 9780321716835 | Authors: Michael Sullivan ISBN: 9780321716835 146

Solution for problem 88 Chapter 9

Precalculus | 9th Edition

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Precalculus | 9th Edition | ISBN: 9780321716835 | Authors: Michael Sullivan

Precalculus | 9th Edition

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Problem 88

In 8794, find the dot product and the angle between v v and w

Step-by-Step Solution:

Adv. Prin. of Criminal Justice Study Guide Exam 3  Exam date: April 19 th  Covers chs 8-14 in the textbook and all lectures  I have divided up this study guide into specific sections, not chapters  Highlighted = P. Krohn specifically mentioned this would be on the test Issues with Policing  External Issues o Political  Policies and laws are enacted by police  Federalism- division of power between state, local and federal gov  Must follow state, federal and local laws  Must follow impacts of judicial decisions  Amendmentth  4 - search and seizure- must have probable cause or reasonable suspicion for warrant o Warrantless searches  Consent- no duress or coercion  Searches incident to arrest- occur at time of arrest and arm-span rule (limited search)  Plain view- must be visible and have legal right to be in location  Automobile search (know Caroll v US)  Searches based on exigent circumstances (ex: hot pursuit, danger to others or evanescent evidence) th  Administrative search- inventory  5 - no forced confession and due process  6 - right to be informed as to why they are arrested o Miranda v Arizona o Terry stop- temporary detention for pat down  8th- no cruel and unusual punishment o Economic influences  Budget constraints  Police consolidation (ex: fire, EMT and police are one)  Merging organizations  Police dissolved  Share services/resources  Reorganize internally- civilianization  Multitasking postitions  External funds/ grants o Contingency theory- police have more than one concern with ties to grant o Resource dependency theory- so desperate for money- don’t care about what needs to be implemented to get it o Social influences  Woman and policing  Early times- “police matrons”- cared for criminals  1972- full-fledged officers  Today only 12% are women  Race and policing  Black police rare before civil rights laws  Today 25% are minority (mostly black and Hispanic)  Juveniles and policing  Before 1900s- treated as adults  Today- treated when they are suspects, in need of protection or for community service activities  Societal norms and policing  Ex: tattoos, gay marriage, marijuana legalization, etc.  Police take these into account when preventing crime o Technological influences  Can be used by police to aid work or for corruption (ex: privacy)  Can be used by criminals (ex: social media)  Internal Issues o Police subculture- form bonds with other police because of  Potential and unpredictable danger  Territorial control- command over beat  Order maintenance  Authorized to use force and consequences  Solidarity-stick together (blue wall of silence)  No two encounters the same  Discretion and consequences  Can be based on organizational, neighborhood, situational and individual characteristic variables  Use of force continuum- can use force one level higher than force applied  Deadly force is rare  Stress  Internal, organizational, operational and external o PTSD and critical-incident stress debriefing o Police misconduct  Rotten apple theory- one bad cop ruins reputation for all police  Systematic theory- police system allows for bad cops to get away  Types  Abuse of authority- excessive use of force  Police corruption- receives material reward  Occupational deviance- use position for personal gain  Police crimes o Code of ethics taught in training o Internal affairs unit and citizen review boards investigate  Punishments  Incapacitation- protect society from criminals  Rehabilitation- criminals affected by internal or external factors which need to be addressed  Deterrence- ensure criminal or others do not commit crime  Retribution- punish offenders because they deserve it  Reintegration- inmates must understand that conforming is necessary  Restitution- inmate reimburses society for wrongdoing Courts  History o o Article III of the Constitution and Judiciary Act of 1789  Marbury v Madison creates judicial review o Payments to court (BOT= to victim, WITE= to king) o Compurgation- take oath to claim innocence and people attest to honesty  Tied to status of individual and did not work o Trial by ordeal (complete challenge) or battle  God protects innocent victims (survived=innocent, died=guilty)- not work o Grand jury- 12 judges who traveled from city to city, check on prosecutor and determined evidencth o Jury trials in the 13 C  Court of the Star Chamber- king’s counselors  Today- adversary system and evaluate facts  Types- differ in jurisdiction and venue o State courts- each usually has own system  State supreme courts- final decision on state law violations  Courts of limited jurisdiction- misdemeanors and pre-investigations o Assembly line justice- cases decided quickly  Courts of general jurisdiction- serious felonies and incarcerations  Specialty courts- specific offenses (drugs, juveniles)  Appellate courts- re-evaluate lower court decision (constitutionality) o Federal courts  Supreme court- appellate and uses writ of certiorari to demand that lower courts send records of previous decision to review (4/9 judges needed) o judges on cases with US as party or disputes between states o amicus curiae- friend of the court writes brief on behalf of side o Judge decision  Majority- no unanimous, most judges agree  Concurring- same opinion, different reasoning  Dissenting- disagree with decision  Per curiam- court agrees with parts of lower court decision o Current court has 9 judges, differing political opinions o Judicial restraint- less active o Judicial activism- more active  Court of Appeals- appellate with 12 regional courts  District Courts- 94 judicial districts and trials  Federal Magistrates- issues warrants, conducts hearings and set bail  Others- military, tax, etc.  Actors o Judges- hear cases and makes decisions  Qualifications- resident of state, 25-70 years old, member of State Bar Association and licensed for law  Some jurisdictions don’t even require degree  Earlier times- no bar or license or degree o Prosecutor- bring case against accused  Use discretion and decides charges, bail and plea bargaining  Important relationships with media and police  Santobello v NY- prosecutor recommended sentence illegally and sentence was overturned because of it o Defense attorneys- ensure proper representation and minimal acquittal  public defenders are inexperienced, lack resources and overloaded  Assigned counsel- appoint private offender in rural setting  Contract system- block grant given/hire private law firm o Law / court clerks- assist in duties of courts o Bailiff- armed law enforcement officers who keep order in courtroom o Stenographer- records events of court case o Witnesses, media and victims also play role o pro bono- "for the public good"- less money for large role (public defenders)  Juries o Plea bargaining- guilty pleas 90% of time, but issues with coercion o Jury selection (voir dire)  Challenges for a cause- prejudiced for or against party  Preemptory challenges- dismissed without reason stated o no exclusion of cognizable group, but sometimes capital punishment and juvenile cases exclude groups legally o Attorneys try to find jurors who do not agree with them or won't side with them in the case o "death qualified"- offender could be sentenced to death if found guilty (jury influence)  Started with Harrisburg 7  Levett, Crocker and Kovera- biased questions and bias with class  Responsibilities- decides issues of facts/law and injects community values  200-1000 potential jurors each month- ~30 selected for duty  Selection not very effective (studies by Johnson and Haney)  Social scientists assist with trail consulting  Attitudes really only matter on ambiguous cases  Methods- mock trial, community survey and shadow juries  Explanation for decisions making o Step 1: story creation (coverage, coherence, uniqueness) o

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Chapter 9, Problem 88 is Solved
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Textbook: Precalculus
Edition: 9
Author: Michael Sullivan
ISBN: 9780321716835

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Solved: In 8794, find the dot product and the angle