A source-follower circuit using NMOS transistors is constructed following the pattern shown in Fig. 11.2. All three transistors used are identical, with Vt = 1 V and nCox = 20 mA/V2; VCC = 5 V, R = RL = 1 k. For linear operation, what are the upper and lower limits of the output voltage, and the corresponding inputs?
1. Common Law (Original British Colonies) a. Judge made law (e.g. Rancher lets cows graze on farmer’s grass→ Judge decides who needs to put up a fence) b. Face/Dispute Law creates constant opportunity for change i. Idea is that the courts are adversarial, best decision will be made c. Precedent i. Idea of cultural norm 1. We should not change our rules so lightly 2. New Facts + Precedent = Slow Process of Change ii. Apply rule iii. Modify rule iv. Create exception to rule v. Overturn or Create new rule 2. Federalism a. Two sovereign powers i. FEDS: Specific Power requires authorization from enumerated powers ii. STATES: Specific Prohibitions requires a prohibition in order to NOT do something 1. 14th Amendment extreme limitation to state power a. Equal protection of the law b. Due process clause c. Applies the Bill of Rights to the states 2. Boling v. Sharp: segregation of schools in D.C. (Federal Enclave) 3. Interpretation a. Specific vs. Vague b. Originalism Application i. What would the founders have decided OR ii. What language would they use & how iii. E.g. FREEDOM of press, CRUEL & UNUSUAL, UNREASONABLE search & seizure c. Living Use of vague principles *important for the Great Compromise i. requires /authorizes current interpretation ii. Trying to represent the majority of public opinion Legal System Basics Two levels of courts: 1. Trial Courts find facts a. 94 Fed. Trial Courts called District Courts i. 2900 Judges b. 14 Fed. Courts of Appeals i. 2 deal with contracts & patents ii. 12 geographically placed courts of appeals 2. Supreme Courts can hear two types of cases a. Disputes between states (rare) b. Discretionary hearing of a case by a supreme court i. Best way to be heard by supreme court is to have different rulings by different courts ii. Only requirement for supreme court justices is that they serve for life iii. Supreme Court is the only court that is required