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In the analysis of the 741 second stage, note that Ro2 is

Microelectronic Circuits | 6th Edition | ISBN: 9780195323030 | Authors: Adel S. Sedra ISBN: 9780195323030 147

Solution for problem 12.51 Chapter 12

Microelectronic Circuits | 6th Edition

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Microelectronic Circuits | 6th Edition | ISBN: 9780195323030 | Authors: Adel S. Sedra

Microelectronic Circuits | 6th Edition

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Problem 12.51

In the analysis of the 741 second stage, note that Ro2 is affected most strongly by the low value of Ro13B. Consider the effect of placing appropriate resistors in the emitters of Q12, Q13A, and Q13B on this value. What resistor in the emitter of Q13B would be required to make Ro13B equal to Ro17 and thus Ro2 half as great? What resistors in each of the other emitters would be required?

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Lecturegivenon3/22/16 Antibodies–Y-shaped,twoaminoacidsjoinedbydisulfatebonds;thereisaconstant regionandavariableregion • Constantregionisthesameforeveryantibodyproduced • Variableregionisdifferentbasedondifferentgenes • Antibodiespromoteantigeneliminationthrough: o Neutralization-bindingtosurfaceproteinsonavirusorbacteriumand blockingitsabilitytoinfect o Agglutination–usingbothbondingsitesofanantibodytojoininvading cellstogetherinaclump o Precipation–linkdissolvedantigenmoleculestogether o Activationofcomplementsystem Cell-mediatedimmunity–anadaptiveresponseproducedbyT-cells,respondsto pathogensthathavealreadyenteredintothebodycells • KindsofTcells: o CytotoxicTcells o HelperTcells o MemoryTcells • Cell-mediatedresponseisproducedbycytotoxicTcells,battlepathogensthat enterbodycells • HelperTcellstriggerbothcell-mediatedandhumoralresponse,signalsfromthe helpercellsinitiateproductionofantibodies • TworequirementsmustbemetforahelperTcelltoactivateadaptiveresponse: o Foreignmoleculemustbepresentthatcanbindspecificallytoanantigen receptor o Antigenmustbedisplayedonsurfaceofantigen-presentingcell;includes macrophagesandBcells • Macrophagesingestforeignparticlesandbreakthemdown,andthenself proteinsbindtothenon-selfmolecules;theseselfproteinsdisplaythenon-self onthecellsurface • HelperTcellsrecognizeandbindtotheselfandnon-selfcombination–calleda self-nonselfcomplex • ActivatedhelperTcellspromoteimmuneresponsethroughsecretingproteins o StimulateclonalselectionofhelperTcellswhichproducesmemoryand effectorhelperTcells o ActivateBcellsandstimulatetheimmuneresponse o StimulatetheactivityofcytotoxicTcells CytotoxicTcells–theonlyTcellsthatkillinfectedcellsoncetheyareactivated • Clonalselectionoccursandtheeffectorcytotoxiccellsidentifyinfectedcells throughaself-nonselfcomplex • KillerTcellsbindtotheinfectedcell,whichactivatesittosynthesizetoxic proteinslikeperferin–thismakesholesintheinfectedcell’smembranewhich causeslysesordeath Chapter43:ReproductionandEmbryonicDevelopment Lecturegiven3/24/16 *mustunderstandthestructuresofthemaleandfemalereproductiveanatomy ModesofReproduction: • Asexualreproduction o Creationofgeneticallyidenticaloffspringbyoneparent o Rapidformofreproduction o Lessgeneticdiversitycomparedtosexualreproduction o Canoccurvia 1. budding–newindividualsformonadult;canstaythereorbreak off 2. fission–parentanimalbreaksintwopieces 3. fragmentation-piecesofanimalsbreakofftoformnewanimals o Parthenogenesis–formofasexualreproduction,stimulatesaneggto divide(usuallytriggeredbysperm)andproducethenextindividual • Sexualreproduction o Joiningofgametes–eggsandsperm o Someanimalsusebothmodesofreproduction o Hermaphroditism–individualhasbothmaleandfemalereproduction systems;makesiteasiertofindamate,butcanstillexchangegametes withotherindividuals o Twotypes: 1. Externalfertilization–wheneggsandspermaredischargednear eachothersimultaneously;fishandamphibians 2. Internalfertilization–spermisdepositedinthefemale reproductivetractinvariousways;mostterrestrialspecies HumanReproduction • Bothspeciesmusthaveasetofgonads,ductsforgametetransport,and structuresforcopulation

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Chapter 12, Problem 12.51 is Solved
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Textbook: Microelectronic Circuits
Edition: 6
Author: Adel S. Sedra
ISBN: 9780195323030

This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: Microelectronic Circuits, edition: 6. The full step-by-step solution to problem: 12.51 from chapter: 12 was answered by , our top Engineering and Tech solution expert on 11/15/17, 04:00PM. Since the solution to 12.51 from 12 chapter was answered, more than 245 students have viewed the full step-by-step answer. Microelectronic Circuits was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9780195323030. This full solution covers the following key subjects: emitters, resistors, required, make, effect. This expansive textbook survival guide covers 15 chapters, and 1344 solutions. The answer to “In the analysis of the 741 second stage, note that Ro2 is affected most strongly by the low value of Ro13B. Consider the effect of placing appropriate resistors in the emitters of Q12, Q13A, and Q13B on this value. What resistor in the emitter of Q13B would be required to make Ro13B equal to Ro17 and thus Ro2 half as great? What resistors in each of the other emitters would be required?” is broken down into a number of easy to follow steps, and 72 words.

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In the analysis of the 741 second stage, note that Ro2 is