A process has the transfer function, G(s) = 2e-0 2s! (s + 1). Compare the PI controller settings for the following design approaches: (a) Direct Synthesis method (Tc = 0.2) (b) Direct Synthesis method (Tc = 1.0) (c) ITAE performance index (disturbance) (d) ITAE performance index (set point) (e) Which controller has the most conservative settings? Which has the least conservative? (t) For the two controllers of part (e), simulate the closedloop responses to a unit step disturbance, assuming that Gd(s) = G(s).

Pipeline Systems (Whitaker Chapter 8) • Start with steady, Mechanical Energy Balance. • Unit mass basis (divide by mass flow rate). • Divide by g; every term now has units of length. 1 1 2 2 v2 ρv vn•→A → 2 22 g K.E. term becomes “velocity head” ρgz() • →A→ gz z Potential Energy term becomes “liquid head” pp pA)• →→ ρρ g Pressure work rate becomes “pressure head” WE−→ W=− −v→v vE Terms for work (pump(+), turbine(-) v m ρ ρ gQ and frictional losses CHE377 – Fall 2016 Digression: head H as a measure of energy rate (running water: our modern life of luxury after the industrial revolution) W = ρgQ