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History 160 Quiz 3 Study Guide: Revolution Onwards Treaty of Paris ends war, marking everything east of the Mississippi River as American land meanwhile, the Articles of Confederation govern the Unites States, and problems begin to arise due to the following implementations and surging ideas: Separation between North and South due to different wants: -Northern slaves want true freedom -indentured servants tired of being used/viewed as slaves -constant debate over federalism -women want an education [ideas surges from idea of Republican Motherhood: mothers needed to teach their children how to behave and have good values, thus an education would facilitate such process]. -Virginia passes law that allows for religious tolerance and operation separate from govt. 1781-89: The Articles are the ultimate creation of a decentralized government; composed of a loose anti- monarch federal confederation Created in a way that the government could not interfere with state issues Congress could only do things clearly listed in the Articles Each state has their own currency and prints their own money No judicial branch; congress was the supreme court and controlled post office; no laws that would levy taxes Land Ordinance of 1785: set up laws that governed frontier land Authorized by Jefferson; land that would be turned into townships with 36 sections to them Set rules of how land could become states it is because of this ordinance that U.S. states square -one square would be set aside for public use -outlawed slavery in North Western territory -got colonies to give up their claims Shay’s Rebellion: Revolutionary war veterans rose against them after government forced them to pay their debts, when they were never paid for their service. -Daniel Shay and followers closed down local courts, doing so in a revolutionary spirit for unjust system -James Madison thought the Articles were ineffective and would come to anarchy, as demonstrated by Shay’s Rebellion. In Constitutional Convention (1787), the goal was to create a new Constitution, not just amend Madison comes up with Virginia Plan as a solution to the problem of getting things done. Federalism [aka Roman Republic Model] stated that a weak central government was needed in order to have democracy Madison proposed more centralized government with 3 branches; i. Power to act upon any issue of importance ii. Came up with idea of bicameral legislature iii. National government would have veto powers over state laws our Constitution is a series of compromises with all issues debated. Biggest issue was that of state representation Representation: the great Compromise Smaller states wanted equal 1 vote for all states Bigger states wanted representation based on population RESULT: bicameral legislature, hose of reps elected by popular vote and population; served 2-year terms. Senate composed of 2 delegates for each state but elected by state legislators [this doesn’t change until th 1812: 17 amendment] 3/5 COMPROMISE: Since southern states are small, this compromise allowed slaves to count as 3/5 of a vote [also proposed by Madison] Dirty Compromise: as a means of protecting slaves, Atlantic slave trade was stopped for 20 years RESULTS: 9/13 of the states had to agree to ratify constitution G. Mason wanted a Bill of Rights; rights that people had and could not be taken away Anti-Federalists thought that without listed rights, government could take them away Federalists believed that it would be harder to create new rights if Bill of Rights was in place -Congress wanted amendments BILL OF RIGHTS: first 10 amendments Applied primarily to rich male land owners with no mention to voting other than them. Meanwhile… G. Washington is elected president with John Adams as Vice President -only had 3 branches: secretary of state, war, and treasury Alexander Hamilton dreamed of an economic power house; that human greed was the most powerful tool for growth [CAPITALISM] Proposed to create a greedy nation and propel it forward by making the nation richer as people got richer -to do this, he proposed that federal government should take over the states’ debt -wanted to create a bank that would print money, and sell bonds -proposed takes on sale production of goods such as whiskey. this led to lots of Western Frontier farmers that grew wheat for whiskey were mad about taxes; leads directly to Whiskey Rebellion. WHISKEY REBELLION: Farmers dressed in women’s clothing attacked a tax collector, then proceeded to tar and feather him. -done repeatedly with various tax collectors and other cities -1794: group of farmers burn tax collector’s house this group later turns into army of 7,000 men that march to Pittsburgh whiskey Rebellion created distrust of government. FEDARLISTS VS. DEMOCRATIC REPUBLICANS: John Adams (fed.) became president after 2 Washington terms and dealt with the backlash of French Revolution Was afraid that Americans would become like the French during Reign of Terror. Jefferson’s presidency: turn of 1800s Had contradictory policies and campaigns that promoted democracy Got rid of all direct taxes, shrunk military size, spread presidential power [with Louisiana Purchase and the exploration of it and the western coast which was not allowed] Passed embargos against British goods Came up with idea of reading the Constitution as literal as possible Thought slaves were condemned to inferiority, but thought that Natives had a chance at being civilized. Native diplomatic relations existed among them, but with inequality. Native leaders begin preaching about Native Unification TECUMSEH: envisioned an alliance of Natives to push back white civilization Traveled all throughout U.S. preaching this message with his brother. Brother was a prophet; they were not very successful due to American Military CREEK RED STICKS: Suffered devastating loss due to Andrew Jackson at Horseshoe Bend Lost 14 million acres of land in Mississippi and Georgia territory this allowed for westward expansion of slavery into deep south BATTLE OF TIPPICANOE th William H. Harrison: 9 President (for only a month) was in charge of creating devastating battle for Tecumseh, which led him to ask aid from British. WAR OF 1812 2 international issues: 1. U.S. wanted to keep trading positions 2. Wanted to stop British pirates from kidnapping Americans -Meanwhile British had been supplying Natives with guns and other goods to fight against Americans -Young congressmen that did not experience war pushed Madison to go to war --British burn down white whole while Americans rejoice from battle of New Orleans Treaty of Ghent: 1814: reverted arrangement with Britain post war, but ends war of 1812 EFFECTS: -America beats most powerful army in world twice --Next president (Monroe) would issue Monroe Doctrine, where all land in North America was off for European colonization MARKET REVOLUTION After revolutionary war and war of 1812, America experienced drastic economic change. industrial revolution: shift to manufacturing aided in this process; the burning of coal and wood was essential for this change to occur. Market Revolution: Capitalists become important, trying to create more wealth from industries. Panics (recessions) withheld America growth at times AMERICAN SUCCESS: 1. transportation revolution; since the U.S has lots of land, the creation of the 1 interstate system brought in lots of money (1829) 2. Earie Canal (1825) connected Great Lakes to Hudson river and ocean for more efficient trading routes 3. Steamboat services facilitated everyday transportation 4. Trains [first developed in G. Britain] 1827: Baltimore and Ohio train company connected the 2 states and everything in between Used to bring agricultural products from west to east and send manufactured good from east to west. Railroads wanted everywhere, but panics pushed train stations at risk. 5. Communication revolution: Samuel Morse invents telegraph from his first invention, Morse code; D.C. to Baltimore telegraph line -speeded communication process and gave importance to businesses such as newspapers/magazines -international lines establishes in Britain as well 6. Farming technology/practices became more mechanized Invention of steal-bladed plow and reaper 1790s: Americans begin stealing British technology Steal plans to spin wool and make cloth Lowell memorized plans for factories in order to build mills in America w/o being caught These mills [Lowell Mills] defined American manufacturing; established first in Massachusetts. MILL GIRLS Worked by young, single women. Long hours loud, dangerous work space Lived and ate in dormitories established within factories Life became determined by the clock for first time ever -Lowell was the first mill to go on strike; first attempt was unsuccessful but second attempt allowed them to have Sundays off (1836) Growth of factories led to cities becoming more urbanized quickly New relationship between employer and employee (more distant). Creation of a new class: The Working Class: the poor would work in the factories, but still lived in poverty, whereas poor people used to simply not work. Northerners liked this system much more than southern slave work MARKET REVOLUTION AND FAMILY DYNAMIC: -being married and having kids was viewed as successful for middle class women people begin idealizing women work/social life separate Spheres: thought that women only worked in the home, in the private sphere [this theory mainly applied to upper classes, because lower class women did not have the option to stop working] This attributes to idea of women being delicate THE COTTON KINGDOM Northern textile factory system is fueled through slave cotton labor in the South Eli Whitney: inventor of Cotton gin; turns cotton picking into a more mechanized process Since textile demand in the North was so great, South began to expand westward into deep south and kidnap free men from the North and take them to work in deep south plantations after Atlantic slave trade was made illegal. Deep South known as “Black Belt” Slaves were the highest most prized commodity of cotton owners Cotton and slavery defined the social system in the south; the owning of slaves was a symbol of wealth, thus all whites wanted them COSTT OF COTTON: The horrid conditions created by the high demand of cotton, slaves would create their own institutions to try and survive and have lives other than that of slavery. -married created Southern Black culture comprised of long kinship, Christian beliefs [as impact from whites] NAT TURNER’S REBELLION: A slave by the name of Nat Turner had a vision from God that he had ti kill his master Him and 6 other slaves tried freeing all of Virginia by going from plantation to plantation trying to gain followers -killed 57 whites on 11 plantations for every rebellion that occurred, harsher laws governing the lives of slaves were passed These laws broke down the ability to attend black churches without white pastor and ruined their culture, 1820s: white owners and their slaves move to Missouri and apply for statehood, creating one more slave state At this point in time, no one wanted to ruin the perfect balance of state and free states, so this caused a problem. MISSOURI COMPROMISE: Missouri would be admitted as slave state, but Maine would become a free state. Also drew an imaginary line dividing the North and South, stating that no new Northern/southern state could be anything other than the state form they were supposed to be based on their position with that line [northern land=free southern land=slave state] ANTI-SLAVERY AND ABOLITION Americans begin joining reform movements to create change These movements were impacted by ABOLITION & 2 ND GREAT AWAKENING 2ND GREAT AWAKENING Second religious revival that was more intense than the first people would join revivals due to change in communities [loneliness felt within the new industrial world, where a sense of unity could be felt in religion This spirit of individualism caused by the revival was applied to social life in order to make Christian reforms This spirit later leads to the idea of abolition [which became a global fight against slavery 1840: Anti-slavery Convention: global movement With combination of 2 Great Awakening and individualist spirit at the global level, Americans became more radical Reformers William Lloyd Garrison and Lucretia Mott: Christians that believed they could appeal to religious aspect of slaveholders -Garrison’s Liberator newspaper helped spread the word about abolition and established more anti-slavery communities -created campaign in South with pamphlets saying they should free slaves for the salvation of their souls RESULTS/ progress: Women gave public speeches -1836 Gag Rule: prohibited any discussion about abolition on Congress floor FREDERICK DOUGLASS: Self-educated runaway slave that traveled all throughout U.S. to spread anti-slavery movement FUGITIVE SLAVE ACT 1850: California applies for statehood as a free state [this is a problem because it ruins balance of free to state ratio] Compromise: if slave escapes to free states, citizens are obligated to return them or face prosecution.