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Find the Maclaurin series for and | Ch 11 - 53, 7th Edition

Single Variable Calculus | 7th Edition | ISBN: 9780538497831 | Authors: James W Nilsson ISBN: 9780538497831 151

Solution for problem 53 Chapter 11

Single Variable Calculus | 7th Edition

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Single Variable Calculus | 7th Edition | ISBN: 9780538497831 | Authors: James W Nilsson

Single Variable Calculus | 7th Edition

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Problem 53

Find the Maclaurin series for and its radius of convergence. You may use either the direct method (definition of a Maclaurin series) or known series such as geometric series, binomial series, or the Maclaurin series for , , ,

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PSY 320 Drugs & Behavior Chapter 14 Hallucinogens Hallucinogens • Largeclassofpsychedelicdrugsthatproduceperceptualdistor▯onsastheirmain pharmacologicaleffects • Mostrepresenta▯vedrug:LysergicAcidDiethyamide(LSD) MixedS▯mulantPsychedelics • Substancesthatexhibitbothpsychos▯mulant&perceptualchangesastheirprimary pharmacologicaleffects,&someenhanceempathy • Mostrepresenta▯vedrug:3,4-methylenedioxyethamphetamine(MDMA/Ecstasy) Dissocia▯veAnesthe▯cs • Seda▯ve,pain-relievingdrugsthatproducedisconnec▯onsfromthebodyalongw/depressant &s▯mulanteffects • Phencyclidine(PCP)&Ketamine Terms • Phantas▯ca: ◦ Drugsthatcreateaworldoffantasyinourminds • Psychedelic: ◦ Mind-viewing-atermthatcontroversiallyimpliesabeneficial,visionarytypeofeffect • Psychotomime▯c: ◦ Mimickingpsychosis-produceshallucina▯ons&somealteredsenseofreality.These drugsproduceastatethatcouldbedescribedaspsycho▯c • Psyche: dn im ◦hT • Delos: ◦ Toview,makeclear,orexpand ◦ TermcoinedbyBri▯shpsychiatristHumphreyOsmond • Empathogen: ◦ Producesexperiencesofemo▯onalcommunion/oneness/relatedness/emo▯onal openness-empathy. • Entheogen: ◦ Producesagodlyinspira▯onw/inanindividual.Substancesthatcreatespiritualor religiousexperiences • Hallucinogens: ◦ Producesprofoundaltera▯onsinpercep▯on,includingunusualvisualsensa▯ons& changesinpercep▯onofone'sownbody Classifica▯on • 2majorgroups: ac▯sa tnahP c i s sa◦lC : • Alterpercep▯onswhileallowingusertoremainincommunica▯onw/thepresent world s tna i r i l◦D : PSY 320 Drugs & Behavior • Producemorementalconfusion,greatercloudingofconsciousness,lossoftouch w/reality • Lossofmemoryfortheperiodofintoxica▯onmayoccur Phantas▯ca:MajorGroups • IndoleHallucinogens-drugsthathavetheindolestructurealsofoundinserotonin )moo rhsu m( n i byco l i sp , D ◦SL • Catecholhallucinogens-drugsthathavethecatecholnucleusthatformsthebasicstructureof theneurotransmi▯ersnorepinephrine&dopamine ◦ Mescaline,MDMA LSDHistory • Notfoundinnature • SynthesizedfromalkaloidsextractedfromergotfungusClavicepspurpurea ◦ Ea▯nggraininfectedw/moldcausesanillnesscalledergo▯sm ◦ Duringfamine,infectedgrainsmightbeconsumedinsteadofdestroyed,leadingto outbreaksofergo▯sm ◦ Associatedw/SaintAnthonyinthe12thcentury"SaintAnthony'sFire" ◦ Possiblelinkbtwnergo▯sm&1692Salemwitchtrials • 1938-SynthesizedbyDr.AlbertHofmanninSwitzerland • 1943:Hofmanntookalargedose&describeditseffects ◦ Firstconsumedbyaccident,graduallyconsumedlargerdoses • Potencyofdruga▯racteda▯en▯on-verysmalldoseproduceseffects ◦ Comparableeffectsfrommescalinerequire4000▯mesthedose ◦ MarketedasDelyside ◦ Marketedinthe1950s • 1953-1966largequan▯▯esofLSDwereproducedforresearchintoseveralpoten▯aluses: ◦ Psychotherapy-helppa▯entsbringuprepressedmemories&mo▯ves ◦ Alcoholdependence-possibletreatment ◦ Terminalcancer-helppa▯entsexploretheirfeelingsabouttheirownmortality • MostresearchonLSDfoundtocontributeli▯letoourunderstandingofitseffects • Mostresearchbetween1970s-2000wasconductedonanimalstounderstandneuraleffects HallucinogenResearch • HarvardpsychologistsTimothyLeary&RichardAlpert ◦ Vaca▯onedinMexico&experimentedw/substancesusedbyna▯veMexicanIndians ◦ Usedpsilocyben&mescaline(fromcactuses) ◦ Beganw/propersupervision&controls ◦ Laterchangedinwaysthatconfoundedscien▯ficvalidityoftheresearch ◦ LearydismissedfromHarvard-likedtoomuchmediaa▯en▯on ◦ Alpertwentonsabba▯caltoIndia&becameknownasBabaRamDass • 1965Learyestablishedaprivateresearchfounda▯on ◦ LeagueofSpiritualDiscovery(LSD) ◦ FirststudiesofLSD'seffectsonpersonality Recrea▯onalSpreadofLSD • CIAsecre▯veresearch ◦ Experimentedw/LSDtoexploreeffectsontrauma,memoryetc. PSY 320 Drugs & Behavior ◦ Manycollegestudentspar▯cipated&returnedtoschoolwith"openedminds" • KenKesey ◦ Worked&observedmentalunit ◦ ReturnedtoStanfordUniversity e t◦rW OneFlewOvertheCuckoo'sNest ◦ Joinedw/friendgroupatStanfordtofindachemisttorecreatedrug&spreadaround BayArea ◦ "KenKesey&theMerryPranksters"-threwLSDpar▯es,madeLSDspikedfruitpunch, handedoutdrugs • Crea▯onofGratefulDeadband-playedatallthepar▯es • Explosionofrecrea▯onaluse • Musicrevolvingaroundpsychedelics • Influencedculture-music,clothes,hippies,etc. • Usepeakedinlate60s&decreasedduetoreportsofproblemsassociatedw/use 1960sHallucinogenUse • 1966-AMAcalledforgreatercontrolsduetoriskofpanic/psychosisinsomeusers • 1967-LSDlistedasaSchedule1drug • Inthe60s,averagesingledosageunitwassomewhathigherthanitistoday • Currentstatus: ◦ S▯llaround,thonotnearlyasprevalent ◦ StandarddoseofLSDforthepast20yrsbtwn50-150ug ◦ Nowayfortheaverageusertodeterminethestrengthotherthanbywordofmouth LSDPharmacology • LSDisodorless,colorless,tasteless,&oneofthemostpotentdrugsknown • PhysicaldependencetoLSDorotherhallucinogenshasnotbeenshown • NoknowhumanODdeaths ◦DL 50about400▯mesthebehaviorallyeffec▯vedose • Absorbedrapidlythroughthegastrointes▯naltract • LSDusuallytakenorally ◦ Blo▯erpaperorcapsules • Absorbedrapidlya▯eroraladministra▯on ◦ Effectsonsetin30-60minutes ◦ Mostprofoundpsychoac▯veeffectspeakat2-4hours • Metabolizedintheliver • Elimina▯onhalf-lifeapproximately2.5hrs • LSDisasympathomime▯cagent: ◦ Autonomicsignsappearquicklyfollowingadministra▯on ◦ Dilatedpupils,elevatedtemp/BP,increasedsaliva▯on • IndolestructureofLSDresemblesserotonin ◦ LSDworksbyac▯ng@serotoninreceptors ◦ Effectscomplexdueto#of/varia▯onamongsubtypesofreceptorsLSD'sdiffeffects ◦ BestevidenceindicatesLSDactsbys▯mula▯ngserotonin-2Areceptorsubtype • LSDcausesdeple▯onofserotonin&brainawakeningindream-likestate TheLSDExperience PSY 320 Drugs & Behavior • Modifica▯onofpercep▯ons ◦ Visualimages-usersseeshapes,pa▯erns,intensecolors,brightness ◦ Alteredsenseof▯me,changesinpercep▯onoftheirownbodies,altera▯onofauditory input ◦ Synesthesia-mixingofsenses,soundsmightappearasvisualimages,orimagesmight alterinrhythmw/music ◦ Enhancedemo▯onality • "Trips" ◦ Peakac▯vitytypicallylast6-9hours ◦ Autonomicresponsesoccuroverfirst20min ◦ Altera▯onsinmood/sensa▯onbegininnext30-40min rh 1 n i /w no▯ac i xo tn i l l◦ uF • Lossofself-awareness,lossofcontrolofbehaviormayoccur ◦ Unique&variableexperiences • Expansive&pleasant-userfeelsthey'reuncoveringgreatsecrets/profundi▯es • Constricted&nega▯ve-userexperiencesparanoia/feelingsofpersecu▯on • Adversereac▯ons: ◦ Impossibletodeterminetrueincidence ◦ Somebadreac▯onsmaybeduetoimpuri▯esinstreetLSDorpreexis▯ngpsychological condi▯onsintheuser ◦ Panicreac▯ons ◦ Flashbacks • Recurrenceofsymptomsweeksormonthsa▯eranindividualhastakenLSD • Rare,variable,unpredictableinoccurrence • DSM-4classifiesthemas"hallucinogenpersis▯ngpercep▯ondisorder" Psilocybin • Mushrooms • Longhistoryofuseamongna▯vesofMexico • PsylocybeMexicanathemostwell-knownpsychoac▯vemushroom ◦ Undergills-purple=hallucinogen,red=poison • Primaryac▯veingredient:indolepsilocybin ◦ Driedmushroomsare0.2-0.5%psilocybin • EffectssimilartoLSD&mescaline • Cross-toleranceexistsamongall3 • Effectsdependondose ◦ Upto4mgcausesrelaxa▯on&somebodysensa▯ons ◦ Higherdosescauseperceptual&body-imagechanges,w/hallucina▯onsincome individuals ◦ Sympathe▯carousalsymptoms • GoodFridaystudy(1962)byoneofTimothyLeary'sgradstudents ◦ Seminarystudentsgivenpsilocybinorplacebo90minutesbeforea▯endingareligious service ◦ Studylookedateffect&magnitudeofchangescausedbythedrug&atthedurabilityof thechanges PSY 320 Drugs & Behavior ◦ Researchersconcludedthatundercertaincircumstances,thedrugenhancesmys▯calor religiousexperiences • Shroomsfoundtobegrowinglocally Peyote • Small,spinelesscarrot-shapedorpin-cushion-shapedcactus • LophophorawilliamsiiLemaire ◦ Mostlysubterranean • Longpre-ColumbianhistoryofuseamongMexicanIndianswhousetheplantceremonially • Upperpart(crown)slicedintodisks&dried,crea▯ngmescalbu▯ons ◦ Driedbu▯onsremainpsychoac▯veindefinitely ◦ Mescalineprimaryac▯veagent • Peyotecultmovednorth&becamewidelyestablishedamongIndiansoftheplainsbythelate 19thcentury • Na▯veAmericanChurch-amalgama▯onofChris▯anity&tradi▯onalbeliefs&prac▯cesof Na▯veAmericans\ se i no me r ec o t n i de t a roprocn i esu e t oy◦e P ◦ Alsousedastreatmentforillnessorwornasprotec▯veamulet Mescaline • Peyoteincludesmanyotherpsychoac▯vealkaloids • Butmescalinehasbeeniden▯fiedasprimarilyresponsibleforvisualeffects • Usersmayexperiencebadtrips,nausea,physicaldiscomfort • SanPedroCactus-mescaline-containingcactusTrichocereuspachanoialsobeenusedfor thousandsofyear ◦ Recrea▯onaluselimitedbyfrequentadversesideeffects • Pharmacology: ◦ Rapidlyabsorbediftakenorally ◦ Half-lifeofabout6hrs ◦ Effects: • Lowdoseeffectsprimarilyeuphoric • Higherdosescausefullsetofhallucinogeniceffects ◦ Psychoeffec▯vedosecausessympathe▯carousal ◦ Mostmescalineisexcretedunchanged ◦L 50bout10-30xthedoseneededtocausebehavioraleffects ◦ TolerancedevelopsmoreslowlytomescalinethanLSD • Cross-tolerancebtwnLSD&mescaline MixedS▯mulant/Hallucinogens-EmpathogenicDrugs • Beyondtheserotonin-likehallucinogens • Chemicallyrelatedtoamphetamines • Duetochemicalstructure:havefews▯mulanteffects&actmuchmorelikecatechol hallucinogens • Examples: ◦ DOM,MDA,designerdrugs,MDMA/ecstasy • AlexanderShulgin(MDMA) PSY 320 Drugs & Behavior ◦ Americanpharmacologist,chemist,author,drugdeveloper ◦ IntroducedMDMAtopsychologistsinthelate1970sforpsychopharmaceu▯caluse MDMA/Ecstasy • Crossbtwnamphetamine&mescaline ◦ Morepotent,toxic,causesmoreunpleasantsideeffects • Headaches,nausea ◦ 75-100mginducesastateofenhancedawarenessofemo▯ons&sensa▯ons ◦ Hasneurotoxiceffects • Generaleffects: ◦ Heightenedsenseofclosenessw/others ◦ Increasedheartrate ◦ Drymouth ◦ Grindingofteeth gn▯aews esu f o◦rP ◦ Autonomiceffects • Canbetakenorally • Reachespeakbloodlevelsin~2hrs • Producesincreasesinwakefulness,endurance,energy ◦ Createssenseofeuphoria,increasedsenseofwell-being,sharpenedsensorypercep▯on, extraversion ◦ Extrememoodli▯,egoso▯ening,increaseinenergy,spiritualexperiences • Nega▯veeffects: ◦ Appe▯teloss,visualdistor▯on,eyejiggling(nystagmus),mildvisualhallucina▯ons, moderatelyincreasedHR&BP,restlessness,nervousness,shivering,changeinbody tempregula▯on,upwellingsofemo▯on,strongdesireformoreduringcome-down • MajorityofdrugeitherexcretedunchangedormetabolizedtoMDA • Half-lifeof~8hrs • Effectssubjecttorapidacutetolerance ◦ Notconducivew/con▯nuoususe History • Patentedin1914asappe▯tesuppressant ◦ Neverproducedcommercially • Earlyreportspublishedofuseasadjuncttopsychotherapy • 1986-reportedasrela▯velymild,shortac▯ngdrug ◦ Heightenedcapacityforintrospec▯on&in▯macy ◦ Withoutperceptualchangesoremo▯onalunpredictabilityassociatedw/LSD • 2002-reportedasabletocause"profounddopaminergic&serotonergictoxicity" ◦ Possiblyexplainingreportednega▯veshort-term&long-termeffects ◦ Ques▯onablefinding,neverreplicatedinotherlabs Molly • Only13%ofMollyseizedinthelat4yearsactuallycontainsMDMA ◦ Thoo▯enmixedw/otherdrugs • ThemajorityofMollyisdangeroussynthe▯cdrugs ◦ Toxicmixofunknownchemicals PSY 320 Drugs & Behavior ◦ Constantlychangingformulas • DrugsfrequentlyfoundinMolly:Methylone,MDPV,4-MEC,4-MMC,Pentedrone,MePP • Methylone-"Explosion" ◦ ClosestructuralanalogueofMDMA ◦ ResemblesMDMAinbehavioralprofile ◦ Observedsybjec▯veeffectsofmethylone&MDMAnotcompletelyiden▯cal ◦ Hasan▯depressantac▯onbutnoteuphorogeniceffectsofMDMA • Symptoms:swea▯ng,jawclenching,violent/bizarrebehavior,psychosis ChasingMolly-Ar▯cleNotes FindingMolly-Ar▯cleNotes Methylone • "Explosion" • ClosestructuralanalogueofMDMA • ResemblesMDMAinbehaviorprofile • Observedsubjec▯veeffectsnotcompletelyiden▯cal • Hasalmostan▯depressantac▯on(pleasant&posi▯on) • ButnoeuphorogeniceffectsofMDMA mCPP • Meta-Chlorophenylpiperazine • Psychoac▯vephenylethylaminederiva▯ves • Generallyconsideredunpleasantexperience,notdesiredbydrugusers • Producesdepressive/anxiogeniceffects • Caninducepanica▯acks • CanworsenOCDsymptoms BathSalts • Unknowndrugsdisguisedinpacketsw/crystals(usuallyepsomsalts) • O▯encontainsynthe▯ccathinones-typicallychemicalsMDPV&Alpha-PVP ◦ Ultra2014:2deathsfromBathSalts ◦ Deathtocutealpha-PVPtoxicity • Alpha-PVPoccasionallysoldasbathsaltsor"gravel"&actslikemethamphetamine Dissocia▯veAnesthe▯c • Phencyclidine&Ketamine • Mechanism-NMDAreceptorantagonist • Severalsynthe▯copioids: ◦ Meperidine(Demerol) ◦ Dextropropoxyphene(Darvon)-nowoffthemarket ◦ Dextromethorphan(DXM) • Func▯onaddi▯onallyasNMDA-antagonists PCP • Phencyclidine • 1-1-phenylcyclohexylpiperidinehydrochloride • Ini▯allyappearedagoodanesthe▯c ◦ Doesn'tdepressbloodcircula▯onorrespira▯on ◦ Doesn'tproduceHRirregulari▯es • Discoveredtohaveprofoundeffectonmentalityw/veryunpredictableoutcomes PSY 320 Drugs & Behavior • Effects: ◦ Reac▯onsunpredictable ◦ Somepa▯entsexperiencedchangesinbodypercep▯on,hallucina▯ons,prolonged confusion-outofbodyexperience ◦ Somebecameangry,uncoopera▯ve,unmanageablymanic ◦ Mostexperiencediminishedpain,touch,&posi▯onsense • Overall,PCPcausesdissocia▯vestatethatresemblesschizophreniamorethantheLSDstate • 1960-PCPcharacterizedas: ◦ Excellentanesthe▯cformonkeys ◦ Medicallysafebutpsychologicallytroublesomeanesthe▯cforhumans ◦ HallucinogendifferentfromLSD&mescaline • Profoundeffectsonbodypercep▯on • PCPcurrentlylicensedforuseasanimalanesthe▯cbutnothuman • Recrea▯onaluse: ◦ Hasbrief,sporadicperiodsofpopularity ◦ Rela▯velyinexpensive/easytomanufacture ◦ Sprinkledontooregano/parsley/alfalfa&soldasmarijuana • "AngelDust" ◦ Jointsmadea/PCP&MJorotherplantsubstance:"killerjoints"or"sherms" ◦ Someusersdeveloppsychologicaldependence • Animalstudiesindicatedependence-producingpoten▯al ◦ Unpredictable ◦ Someusersbehaveviolently ◦ Urbanlegendsofsuperhumanstrengthduringusefalse ◦ Butpolicea▯emp▯ngtoarrestusershavetroublesubduingthemduetoanesthe▯c effects Ketamine • Ketaminehydrochloride-"SpecialK" • Originallycreatedforuseashumananesthe▯c ◦ S▯lloccasionallyusedasgeneralanesthe▯c ◦ Moreinveterinarymedicine • Lowerdoses-mild,dreamy,floatyfeeling,numbness ◦ IncreaseHR • Higherdoses-hallucinogeniceffect,outofbodyexperience ◦ "EnteringaK-hole" ◦ Comparedtoneardeathexperiencew/sensa▯onsofrisingaboveone'sownbody ◦ Manyusersfindexperiencespirituallysignificant,somefrightening ◦ InaK-holeit'sdifficulttomove-pplusuallystayseatedorlyingdown ◦ Depressesconsciousness&breathing ◦ Extremelydangeroustocombinew/alcohol&otherdepressants Deliriants • Comparedto"phantas▯cants,"deliriantshavemoreatendencytoproducementalconfusion& lossoftouchw/reality • Deliriantsactthurmul▯plebrainmechanisms PSY 320 Drugs & Behavior • Thetermisgenerallyusedforan▯-cholinergicdrugs An▯cholinergicHallucinogens • Naturallyoccurringagentscomingfromthepotatofamily&manyotherplants • Theoriginaldeliriant • Effectscomefrom3pharmacologicallyac▯vealkaloidsthat'recentral&peripheralcholinergic blockingagents ◦ Atropine(dl-hyoscyamine) ◦ Scopolamine(l-hyoscine) ◦ I-hyoscyamine • Manyusedaspoisons • Alsoproducehallucinogeniceffects • Produceconfusion&delirium • Inducefear&panic • Effects: ◦ Blockproduc▯onofmucusinnose/throat ◦ Preventsaliva▯on&perspira▯on ◦ Temperaturecanincreasetofeverlevels ◦ IncreasedHR ◦ Eyesdilate,inabilitytofocusonnearbyobjects ◦ Highdoses-behaviorpa▯ernresemblestoxicpsychosis: • Delirium,mentalconfusion,lossofa▯en▯on,drowsiness,lossofmemoryfor recentevents Belladonna • "Deadlynightshade" • Ac▯veingredient-atropine • Atropabelladonna ◦ Comesfrom2majorhistoricaluses: ◦ Deadlypoison-Atroposoneofthe"ThreeFates"inGreekmythology-cutsthethreadof life • 14berriescontainlethaldoseofatropine ◦ Beautyaid-Belladonna"beau▯fulwoman" • Dilateseyes,thoughttoimproveappearance • Someusersreportsensa▯onofflying Henbane • Hyoscyamusniger • Containsscopolamine&l-hyoscyamine • Longknown&usedaspoison-Shakespeare's"Hamlet" Datura • Containsall3an▯cholinergicalkaloids • Longhistoryofreligious&medicinaluse ◦ China:usedtotreatcolds&nervousdisorders ◦ AncientGreece:oracletoApolloinDelphi ◦ India:worshipofShiva,ingredientinlovepo▯ons ◦ Na▯veAmericans:Daturainoxia SalviaDivinorum • "Diviner'ssage" PSY 320 Drugs & Behavior • UsedforcenturiesinOaxaca,Mexicoforreligiousceremonies • Tradi▯onalmethodsofuse: sevae l gn iwe ◦C ◦ Drinkingteafromcrushedleaves sevae l de i rd gn i k◦oS • Produceshallucinatoryeffect • Recrea▯onalusereportedinMexico&US • NotcurrentlylistedascontrolledsubstanceintheUS • Mechanismofac▯on: ◦ Ac▯veingredient:salvinorinA-highlypotentagent ◦ SalvinorinAbindsselec▯velytokappaopioidreceptor ◦ Actsasantagonist Chapter 15 Marijuana Marijuana • Classifiedseparately ◦ Effectsarevaried&complex: ◦ Seda▯on,painrelief,hallucina▯ons(inlargedoses) • Effectssufficientlydifferentfromeffectsofdepressants,narco▯cs,hallucinogens • Cannabis-thegenusofplantknownasmarijuana BotanyofCannabis • Theplant • Marijuanapreparedfromleaves • THC/tetrahydrocannabinoil-Primarypsychoac▯veagent ◦ Oneof483compoundsfoundintheplant ◦ Including84cannabinoids • Cannabissa▯va ◦ Dioeciousannualw/male&femaleflowers ◦ Dis▯nc▯vecompoundleafw/7leaflets ◦ Psychoac▯veproper▯esconcentratedinresinproducedbyglandulartrichomes ◦ Maxamountofresininfemaleplants • Especiallyunfer▯lizedfemaleflowers Potencies • THC-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinoil;themostac▯vechemicalinmarijuana • Concentra▯onofTHCvariesgreatlyw/variety,sex,climate,growthcondi▯ons ◦ Sinsemillavarie▯eshavehighestTHClevels ◦ Varie▯escul▯vatedforfiber(hemp)havelowestTHClevels • Potentvarie▯es • SensimillaHybridsresultfromcrossingCannabissa▯va&Cannabisindica • Sinsemilla-Cannabisflower"withoutseeds" • Amethodofgrowingmorepotentmarijuana PSY 320 Drugs & Behavior ◦ Consistsofdriedfloweringtopsofplantsw/pis▯llateflowers(femaleplants) ◦ Maleplantsremovedfromthefieldsbeforethefemaleplantsarepollinated ◦ Fer▯lizedseedsconcentratemoreenergyintoproducingflowers ◦ Unfer▯lizedplants(female)producemoreTHC • AverageTHCcontentofU.S.sinsemillasamplesis7-15% ◦ Recentlysomestrainsw/higherpotencieshavebeenreported • Coloradoreports18%average History • Earliestrecordeduse~4,000-5,000yearsago ◦ Chinesepharmacybook(2737BC) ◦ Calledcannabisthe"LiberatorofSin" • SocialusespreadtoMuslimworld&NorthAfricabyAD1000 ◦ "Hashishiyya"religiouscultcarriedoutpoli▯calmurdersrewardedw/hashish ◦ StoryofcultspreadinworksbyMarcoPolo&Boccaccio1299-1350s) • Late1800sMedicalvial ◦ CannabisindicafluidextractproducedbytheAmericanDruggestsSyndicate r eyaB ro f ro t▯ep m◦C ◦ Tinctureofcannabinoidscombinedw/alcohol USHistory • Early1900sli▯lepublicinterestoruse ◦ Notoriginallyarecrea▯onalsubstance • 1926seriesofnewspaperar▯cleslinkedMJ&crime ◦ Targe▯ngspecificgroupsofppl(Mexicanimmigrants,blackjazzmusicians) • Mostearlyregula▯onefforts: ◦ Basedonconcernsaboutuse ◦ NotbasedondirectevidencelinkingMJw/crimeorviolence • Word"marijuana"notcommonlyusedun▯l1930s ◦ Priorreferredtoascannabisorhemp • 193536stateshadlawsregula▯nguse/sale/possessionofmarijuana • FollowingendofProhibi▯on: • 1936gvtreleaseddocudrama"ReeferMadness" ◦ BureauofNarco▯csheadHarryAnslinger ◦ Propagandacampaigntoraiseawarenessof"dangers"linkedtorape,murder,crime,etc. • "PyramidofPrejudice" ◦ MJuseassociatedw/lower-classgroups&recentimmigrants ◦ Regularreferencemadeinpopularliteraturetomurderingcultofassassinsassugges▯ve ofdrugcharacteris▯cs ◦ Shakyfactualgroundofstories ◦ Nylonbusinessfoughthempproduc▯on • Medicalusedeclinedbeforetaxact ◦ **slide50 • 1937MarijuanaTaxAct: ◦ Followedregula▯on-by-taxa▯onthemeof1914HarrisonAct ◦ Taxedgrowers,purchasers,&users PSY 320 Drugs & Behavior • Physicianstaxed~$100perprescrip▯on(veryexpensive)un▯l1969 ◦ Didn'tmakeMJillegal ◦ Madeitvirtuallyimpossibletoobtain • 1950s&60s ◦ Li▯lescien▯ficresearchdoneoncannabis ◦ Usecon▯nuedtoincreaseinthe60s-80s ◦ Commonsymbolofyouthfulrejec▯onofauthority/adultvalues ◦ Iden▯fica▯onw/aneweraofpersonalfreedom • 1969SupremeCourtdeclaredMJTaxActuncons▯tu▯onal • 1970changedbySubstanceControlAct ◦ MJcostincreasedsignificantly ◦ ReportspublishedthatMJhaslessseriouseffectsthancommonlybelieved • 1970CongresspassedComprehensiveDrugAbusePreven▯on&ControlAct ◦ CategorizedMJseparatelyfromotherdrugs ◦ Eliminatedmandatoryfederalsentencesforpossessionofsmallamounts ◦ FederallycriminizedMJ ◦ Usepeakedinpopularity • 1985Dronabinol(Marinol) ◦ Synthe▯cTHC ◦ ClassifiedasSchedule2drug ◦ Approvedbygvtfortrea▯ngnausea/vomi▯ngduringcancerchemotherapy • MarijuanaremainsaSchedule1drug ◦ "Highabusepoten▯al&nomedicaluse" • 1988DEAturneddownJudgeFrancisYung'ssugges▯ontoreclassifyasaprescrip▯vedrug (Schedule2) • 2001USSupremeCourtruled8-0againstmedicinalMJunderfederallaw • Marijuanapreviouslyaround3%potentaroundWoodstockera • Potencygreatlyincreasedtopresent▯mes Currently • 4/6/16 • DEAwilldecidewhethertochangeclassifica▯onofMJinJuly • GvtcurrentlyholdsamonopolyonMJproduc▯onforresearchpurposes ◦ UMississippi ◦ ResearcherscanonlyobtainMJbypurchasingproductfromNIDA(Na▯onalIns▯tuteof DrugAbuse) ◦ Sitegrows3%potentMJ • Btwn2010-2015gvtonlyprovidesMJforanaverageof9researchstudiesperyear • Classifica▯onasSchedule2willallowformajoradvancesinresearch • Statesneeda2/3rdsmajority(~30states)infavorforafederalchangetomakeMJna▯onally legal • ReciprocitylawsforalreadylegalstateslikeOregon&Washingtonbeingworkedout • MJthefastestgrowingindustryintheUS ◦ $1.5billion-valueoflegalMJmarketin2014 ◦ $2.7billion-projectedvalueof2015 ◦ $11billion-projectedvalueof2019 PSY 320 Drugs & Behavior CannabisResin • Primarypsychoac▯veagent:delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinoil(THC) • THCconcentratedintheresin,mostlyfoundinfloweringtops sevae l n i s s◦ eL ◦ Li▯leinfibrousstalks • Psychoac▯vepotencyofCannabisprepara▯onsdependsonamtofresinpresent Hashish • Hashish-Concentratedresinfromthecannabisplant • Consistsofpureresinremovedfromthesurfaceofleaves&stems • Maybelesspuredependingonhowcarefullytheresinwasseparated • PrimarilyavailableinMiddleEast&Europe,notcommoninUS • AverageTHCcontentranges15-40% • Currentaverageabout20% Chemistryofcannabinoidsiscomplex: • 11-hydroxy-delta-9-THC-majorac▯vemetabolite • Cannabigerols(CBG) • Cannabichromenes(CBC) • Cannabidiols(CBDS)-an▯convulsant&seda▯ng • Tetrahydocannabinoids(THC)-euphoria -◦Δ THC ◦ Isolated&synthesizedin1964byIsraelipharmacologist ◦ Mostpharmacologicallyac▯vecannabinoid • Cannabinol(CBN)&cannabinodiol(CBDL) • Othercannabinoids(suchascannabicyclol(CBL))cannabielsoin(CBE)&cannabitriol(CBT) • *Majordifferencesinchemistrydeterminedbyextenttowhichthey'repsychologicallyac▯ve • 3classesofcannabinoidsnotknowntobepsychologicallyac▯ve: ◦C ◦C :D◦C • Probablymostabundantcannabinoidcontribu▯ngupto40%ofresin • Mayhavean▯-anxietyeffects&lessenTHCeffects • Plantw/greaterpercentageofCBDmayreducepotency • Psychologicallyac▯vetovaryingdegrees: ◦ THC: • Whenexposedtoair,oxidizes&formsCBN :N◦C • Onlyveryweaklypsychoac▯ve • Interactsw/THCtoreduceeffects • Marijuanale▯tositoutoxidizes&becomeslesspsychoac▯ve,producesCBN LD◦C MarijuanaModesofAbsorp▯on • Mostcommonmethodissmoking ◦ Looselyrolledcigare▯e(joint)orthrupipe(bowl)orwaterpipe(bong) ◦ HeatvaporizesTHC&readilypassesthrulungsintotheblood ◦ W/insecondsofinhala▯on,THCpassesthruBBB&entersthebrain PSY 320 Drugs & Behavior ◦ Peakplasmalevelsreachedw/inminutes • THCabsorbedrapidlybyblood&travelstobrain/restofbody • W/in30-45min,mostTHCisgonefromthebrain • Peakpsychological/cardiovasculareffectsoccurtogetherw/in5-10min • Vaporizer ◦ Causesac▯veingredientstoevaporateintoagasw/oburningtheplantmaterial ◦ Lowerpropor▯onoftoxicchemicalsreleasedthanbysmoking ◦ Methodproducesdifferenteffectsthansmoking ◦ Duetoflashpointsofdiffcannabinoidsthatwouldnormallybepresentinsmokebutnot invapor ◦ Diffcannabinoidsarereleased@difftemperatures • Muchmorerapidabsorp▯onthrusmokingthanthruea▯ng ◦ Canbecookedinfoodsorbrewedastea ◦ Viaoralinges▯onabsorp▯onisslower • Inthelivertransformsinto11-hydroxy-delta-9-THC ▪ LessTHCreachesthebrain ◦ PPLreachedbtwn1-4hrs • About90minfollowinginges▯on Pharmacology • Cannabinoid-chemicalsuniquetotheplant • Over480naturalcomponentsfoundw/inthecannabissa▯vaplantbesidescannabinoids ◦ 66classifiedascannabinoids ◦ Difficulttoproducesynthe▯cmedica▯onsw/sameeffects • THCalonehasdiffeffectsthanwhencombinedw/othercannabinoids • Mostwell-known&researchedcannabinoidisΔ9-THC(delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinoil) ◦ Substanceprimarilyresponsibleforthepsychoac▯veeffectsofcannabis • EffectsofTHCbelievedtobemoderatedbyinfluenceofothercomponentsoftheplant ◦ Mostpar▯cularlythecannabinoids • Metabolites ◦ Havediffhalf-lives ◦ A▯er1week,25-30%ofTHC&metabolitesmightremaininthebody ◦ 2-3weeksmayberequiredtocompletelyeliminatealargedoseofTHC&metabolites • HighlipidsolubilityofTHC&metabolites ◦ Selec▯velytakenup&storedinfa▯y▯ssuetobereleasedslowly ◦ NoeasywaytomonitorTHC&metabolitelevels MechanismofAc▯on • Anandamide-Endogenoussubstanceisolatedfrombrain▯ssuew/marijuana-likeeffects ◦ Fromananda(Sanskritfor"bliss") ◦ Maybenaturallyreleasedintothebodyfromthebrain • THC&othercannabinoidsbindin2receptors: ro t p ece r 1◦BC • Primarilyfoundinbrain&widespreadthruthebody • Poten▯alac▯onswidespread • Highdensityofreceptorsinspecificbrainregions PSY 320 Drugs & Behavior ▪ Basalganglia(movementcoordina▯on) ▪ Cerebellum(finebodymovementcoordina▯on) ▪ Hippocampus(memorystorage) ▪ Cerebralcortex(highercogni▯vefunc▯ons) ▪ Nucleusaccumbens(rewardsystem) ro t p ece r 2◦BC • Foundmainlyoutsidethebraininimmunecells ▪ Poten▯alroleofcannabinoidsinmodula▯onofimmunesystem PhysiologicalEffects • CardiovasularEffects: ◦ IncreasedHR • Peaksw/in10minofsmoking&returnstobaselinea▯er~90min ◦ Mixedfindingsonbloodpressure ◦ Cardiovascularrisksofusehaven'tbeenshowninyoung,healthyusers • Pplw/CVdiseaseshouldprobablyavoidsmoking/inges▯ngTHCduetoHR effects • PulmonaryEffects: ◦ Bronchodila▯onfollowingacuteexposuretomarijuana • Opensupair-ways • Beingstudiedastreatmentforasthma • Notasstrongeffectsifnotsmoked ◦ HeavyMJsmokingoveralongperiodcouldleadtoclinicallysignificantimpairmentof pulmonaryfunc▯on • Notmuchresearch/evidencefindingsofemphysemaorCOPDfoundinsmokers • Tholong-term/frequentsmokingmayimpairlungfunc▯on: ▪ Cough,precancerouspulmonarylesions • Reddeningofeyes • Drynessofmouth&throat • Long-termeffects: ◦ Smokingthemostharmfulmethodofconsump▯on ◦ Vaporiza▯ononly40%aslikelytocauserespiratorysymptoms ◦ Reduceamtofcarbonmonoxideconsumed ◦ Systema▯creviewsofliteraturefoundnoevidenceofarela▯onshipbtwncannabisuse& cancer Subjec▯veEffects • Euphoria,high,mellowness,hunger,s▯mula▯on ◦ Peakeffectsoccurw/in5-10min&lastabout2hrs ◦ OralTHCsimilareffectsbutdiff▯mecourse ◦ Magnitudeofeffectsgreaterw/higherTHCconcentra▯ons • Regularuserscandis▯nguishfromplacebo • Infrequentsmokers: ◦ Experiencesimilarbutmoreintenseeffectscomparedwithexperiencedsmokersdueto lowertolerance ◦ AthighTHCconcentra▯ons,mayreportnega▯veeffectssuchasmildparanoiaand hallucina▯ons PSY 320 Drugs & Behavior • Cogni▯vePerformance: ◦ Acuteadministra▯ontoinfrequentusersdisruptscogni▯veperformance • Slowedprocessing • Impairedshort-termmemory • Impairedinhibitorycontrol • Lossofsustainedconcentra▯on • Impairedvisuospa▯alprocessing ◦ Acuteadministra▯ontofrequentusers: • Causeslessdrama▯ceffects(tolerance) • Slowedcogni▯veprocessingconsistentlyseen • Lessdrama▯ceffectsdrivinghighthandrivingdrunk ◦ Acutecogni▯veeffectswhichcanbenega▯veforyoungppl ◦ HighlyunlikelythatMJcauseswidespreadchangesinbrainstructure*incontrastto alcohol : nwonknu l l◦ ▯S • Extentofposi▯veornega▯veeffectsdependonra▯oofTHCtoCBD/other cannabinoids • WhetherhighpotencyMJaltersbrainstructure/func▯on ▪ Par▯cularlynewhighlyconcentratedforms(sha▯er,dabs) • Effectsonlong-termcogni▯vefunc▯oning: ◦ Moredifficulttopredict ◦ Studieshavehaddivergentfindings ◦ Par▯cipantsfollowedfrom20sto50sshowsomecogni▯veimpairment ◦ Currentevidenceshowsabstainingforoveramonthreducessomeimpairment • Foodintake: ◦ Significantlyincreasestotaldailycaloricintake ◦ Clinicaluseofcannabis-baseddrugsfromappe▯tes▯mula▯on ◦ UnclearifaveragechronicMJusersareoverweight • Verbalbehavior: ◦ Verbalexchangesdecrease ◦ Nonverbalexchangesincrease • Reproduc▯veEffects: nem n i s l eve l eno r e t so t set decud ◦R ◦ Diminishedspermcounts&abnormalsperm • *Studiesnotreplicatedsincethe70s ◦ Lowerbirthweight/heightininfantsofwomenwhoareregularMJusers • Alsohighlyrelatedtonutri▯on/foodintakeofwomenunderinfluence • Impossibletodis▯nguisheffectssincemostwomenalsoregularusersofalcohol/ tobaccoaswell • ImmuneSystemEffects ◦ Mixedfindings • SomeevidencethatMJusereducesimmunitytoinfec▯on • Whenanimalsinjectedw/THClevelswellabovethatobtainablebysmokingMJ ◦ MortalitydatadoesNOTshowrela▯onshipbtwnmarijuanause&overalldeathrate MedicalUses PSY 320 Drugs & Behavior • Renewedinterestinpoten▯almedicaluse ◦ Leadtoareviewofolderreports • Maybeeffec▯veasan▯convulsantwhenpreferredmedica▯onineffec▯ve • Mayrelievetension/migraineheadaches • An▯eme▯c-reducesnausea&vomi▯ng • Reducesseverenauseacausedbycertaindrugsforcancer ◦ 1985:OralTCH(dronabinol/Marinol)licensedforsaletocancerpa▯entsw/nauseafrom chemotherapy ◦ 1993:Approvedtos▯mulateappe▯teinAIDSpa▯ents • 1999Ins▯tuteofMedicinefindings: ◦ MJrela▯velysafe/effec▯veforpa▯entssufferingchroniccondi▯ons • MarijuanaResearch: ◦ 1994Californiaapprovedresearchofmarijuana ◦ CenterforMedicinalCannabisResearchatUCSD ◦ Focusonneuropsychiatriceffects • Sa▯vex ◦ Cannabinoidmedicinefortreatmentofspas▯cityduetomul▯plesclerosiswhichisalso indevelopmentforcancerpain&neuropathicpainofotherregions ◦ Nowlaunchedin11countries(nottheUS) ◦ Abusepoten▯al: • Studiesshowhumans&animalsself-administerdrug • MJcigare▯esw/higherTHCcontentpreferred • OralTHCdoesn'thavehighabusepoten▯al ▪ Likelyduetosloweronseteffects Abuse&Dependence • Researchsuggestsabs▯nencesyndromedoesexist • Notlifethreatening,butunpleasant • #ofindividualsseekingtreatmentfordependenceexceedsallotherdrugsexceptalcohol • Abusepoten▯alonTHCcontent ◦ Usersmorelikelytoprefer/self-administerproductsw/higherTHCcontent • Symptomsofwithdrawal: ◦ Nega▯vemoodstates-anxiety,irritability pee l s d e t pur s◦iD ◦ Decreasedfoodintake gn i va◦rC ◦ Aggressivebehavior(insomecases) • Veryrare • MJdependencynotrecognizedbytheDSM-5 ◦ Beginsabout1daya▯erlastdose ◦ Lasts4-12days ◦ ~5%ofregularusersexperiencetheseeffects • Researchstudy: ◦ Experiencedmarijuanasmokersgivenrepeatedopportuni▯estotakeoralTHCpillsor receive$2 • Par▯cipantsselectedmoneyonmoreoccasionsthanpills PSY 320 Drugs & Behavior • Par▯cipantsselectedmoredrug-containingpillsthanplacebos • Par▯cipantsselectedmorepillsduringsocial/recrea▯onalperiodsthannon-social periods ▪ IndicateoralTHC'sabusepoten▯alismodestatbest ToxicityPoten▯ al • IncreasedHR,possiblyriskyforsomeonew/pre-exis▯ngCVD • NohumanODdeathsreported • Panicreac▯ons: ◦ Characterizedbyfearoflossofcontrol&fearthatthingswon'treturntonormal ◦ Morecommonamongless-experiencedusers ◦ Paranoia • Chroniclungexposurefromsmoking: ◦ Dailysmokingimpairsairflowthrulungs ◦ Long-termimplica▯onsunclear • MJsmokecontainsmanybutnotallchemicalsintobaccosmoke ◦ Tar ◦ Carbonmonoxide ◦ Hydrogencyanide ◦ Nitrosamides ene r ypozn ◦eB • CarcinogenfoundinhigherlevelsinMJcigare▯esthantobaccocigare▯es • Thoughfrequentuserssmokelessjointsthantobaccouserssmokecigare▯es • NodirectevidencethatMJsmokingcauseslungcancer • MJcigare▯esnotfiltered • Drivingability: ◦ Mixedfindings ◦ MJproducessignificantimpairmentininfrequentsmokers ◦ Li▯leevidencefromcrashreportsthatdriversusingMJalonearemorelikelytobe involvedinanaccident • BurningTobaccovs.Marijuana: ◦ Eachhavesimilarchemical,thofoundinvariedpropor▯ons ◦ Tarhigher(almost2x)inMJ ◦ COhigherintobacco ◦ Nico▯nehigherintobacco ◦ AmmoniahigherinMJ • *Loweramountsofsubstancesfromvaporizers • Amo▯va▯onalSyndrome ◦ Heavy/chronicusersshow • Diminishedmo▯va▯on • Impairedabilitytolearn • School/familyproblems ◦ Probablymoreduetoconstantintoxica▯onthanlong-las▯ngchangesinbrainfunc▯on ◦ Chicken&eggcaseofwhetherusersdevelopdiminishedmo▯va▯onorhadapre- exis▯ngcondi▯onoflackingmo▯va▯on/inhibi▯onthatleadsthemtosmokeallday • Psychosis de t rope r neeb evah sedos i pe c▯ohc y◦sP PSY 320 Drugs & Behavior ◦ Maybenocausalrela▯onship ◦ Mayoccurinindividualsw/historyofpsychiatricproblems Synthe▯cCannabis • K2or"Spice" ◦ O▯enmarketedasherbalincenseorherbalsmokingblends • DesignerdrugswhichsupposedlymimicTHC ◦ Containalarge/complexvarietyofsynthe▯ccannabinoids ◦ PrimarilyJWH-018-synthe▯ccannabinoidthatbindstoCB1&CB2receptors • FirstsynthesizedbyDr.JohnW.Huffman ◦ Quotedsaying"Peoplewhouseitareidiots" • Cancauseacutepsychosis&maytriggerchronicpsycho▯cdisorderamongvulnerable individualsw/familyhistoryofmentalillness • Canleadtoslighttremorstoseizureac▯vi▯es9 CNNSeriesonMarijuana • Dr.SanjayGupta: ◦ Woman's5-yr-olddaughtersufferedupto300seizuresaday ◦ Cannabidoildropsunderhertonguedroppedseizurestoonceaweek Chapter 17 Prevention of Drug Abuse Preven▯onvs.Treatment • Publichealthissue ◦ 50%Americanssufferfrompreventable/chronicdiseases ◦ O▯enduetolifestylechoices • Wespend75%ofourhealthcare$$ontrea▯ngpreventablecondi▯ons ◦ Ourcountrydealsw/trea▯ngproblemsratherthanpreven▯ngthem • OneofthebiggestdifferencesbtwnhealthcareintheUS&otherhigh-incomecountriesisthe emphasisweplaceontreatmentvs.preven▯on • Substanceabuseisapreventablecondi▯on ◦

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Chapter 11, Problem 53 is Solved
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Textbook: Single Variable Calculus
Edition: 7
Author: James W Nilsson
ISBN: 9780538497831

Since the solution to 53 from 11 chapter was answered, more than 244 students have viewed the full step-by-step answer. Single Variable Calculus was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9780538497831. The full step-by-step solution to problem: 53 from chapter: 11 was answered by , our top Calculus solution expert on 11/15/17, 04:21PM. The answer to “Find the Maclaurin series for and its radius of convergence. You may use either the direct method (definition of a Maclaurin series) or known series such as geometric series, binomial series, or the Maclaurin series for , , ,” is broken down into a number of easy to follow steps, and 39 words. This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: Single Variable Calculus, edition: 7. This full solution covers the following key subjects: Series, maclaurin, known, direct, either. This expansive textbook survival guide covers 11 chapters, and 637 solutions.

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Find the Maclaurin series for and | Ch 11 - 53, 7th Edition