Suppose that each component of a certain vector is doubled. (a) By what multiplicative factor does the magnitude of the vector change? (b) By what multiplicative factor does the direction angle of the vector change?
Thursday, March 10, 2016 Chapter 3 Personality, Perception, and Attribution - Psychology is our main focus. - Which philosophical camp • heredity - we are what we are cause of genetics • environmental - we are what we are because of the environment we grew up in - Personality • relatively stable set of characteristics that inﬂuences an individuals’ behavior and lend it consistency - Four Measures of Personality • Self-Report Questionnaire - common personality assessment that involves an individuals response to a series of questions • Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) Instrument - developed to measure Carl Jung’s idea of individual differences • I - Introvert - energized by sending time alone E - Extrovert - energized by interacting with others • • S - Sensing - gathering information from ﬁve senses on what actually exists • N - Intuitive - gathering information from a “sixth sense” on what could be • T - Thinking - logical decision making • F - Feeling - personal, value-oriented decision making • J - Judging - closure and completion in decision making • P - Perceiving - explore alternatives with ﬂexibility and spontaneity - Personality Theories trait - personality theory that advocates breaking down behavior patterns into a • series of observable trains in order to understand human behavior 1 Thursday, March 10, 2016 • integrative - broad theory that describes personality as a composite of an individual’s psychological process Table 3.1: The Big Fiver Personality Traits Extraversion The person is gregarious, assertive, and sociable (as opposed to reserved, timid, and quiet). Agreeableness The person is cooperative, warm, and agreeable (rather than cold, disagreeable, and antagonistic). Conscientiousness The person is hardworking, organized, and dependable (as opposed to lazy, disorganized, and unreliable). Emotional stability The person is calm, self-conﬁdent, and cool (as opposed to insecure, anxious, and depressed). Openness to experience The person is creative, curious, and cultured (rather than practical with narrow interests). - Personality Characteristics in Organizations • Locus of Control - Internal - “I control what happens to me.” • better job performances typically promoted to manager • - External - “People and circumstances control my fate.” • hesitant in decision making • like have job structure - Self-Efﬁciency • persons overall view of himself as being able to perform effectively in a wide variety of situations - high self-conﬁdence at work and willing to try harder tasks - Self-Esteem • success increases self-esteem failure decreases self-esteem • - Self-Monitoring • extent to which an individual judges their behavior due to cues around them - high • pay attention to what is appropriate in particular situations • behavior of other people • behave accordingly - low • pay less attention to cues • act from internal states behave consistently • 2 Thursday, March 10, 2016 - Role of Affect • Positive - individual’s tendency to accentuate the positive aspects of himself, other people, and the world • Negative - individual’s tendency to accentuate the negative aspects of himself, other people, and the world - Four Measures of Personality • Projective Test - personality test that elicits an individual’s response to abstract to abstract stimuli Behavioral Measures - personality assessments that involve observing an individual’s • behavior in a controlled situation - MMPI: Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory • Perception (Environmental) - ﬁrst impressions - how perceptions can be colored Figure 3:2: A Model for Social Perception 3 Thursday, March 10, 2016 - Attribution Theory • explains how individual’s pinpoint the causes of their own and others’ behavior - Internal and External • internal - attributing events to something within the individual’s control • external - outside individual’s controls • Fundamental Attribution Error - tendency to move attributions to internal causes when focusing on someone else’s behavior • Self-Serving Bias - tendency to attribute one’s successes to internal causes and one’s failures to external causes 4