A tow rope, parallel to the water, pulls a water skier directly behind the boat with constant velocity for a distance of 65 m before the skier falls. The tension in the rope is 120 N. (a) Is the work done on the skier by the rope positive, negative, or zero? Explain.(b)Calculate the work done by the rope on the skier.
Origins of freemasonry • Mythical origins ◦ Solomon’s temple important because the architectural aspects mimicked the freemason tradition of stone builders, (act of creation), Hiram (master builder of construction/masons) who had a secret word with various groups which signified the degree of the freemason, Three men wanted to know the secret word of a higher degree to receive a higher salary, killed Hiram because he did not give them the word, Freemasons are looking for the knowledge this word symbolizes, architecture of solomon temple such as two pillars included in many freemason lodges today ▪ Relate origins to ancient builders and the Bible because most European religions took from the bible ◦ Knight Templars commissioned by the papacy during the crusades to act as a special forces, Later exterminated by the King and pope because they owed them money, Templars gave a letter to crusaders as they deposited items and received the equivalent in Jerusalem ▪ Templars became a symbol of those who protected land, knowledge, christianity, etc… Templars symbolized every value the Freemasons cherished, which Freemasonry mimicked and inherited the prestige they held ◦ Egypt and Persia borrowed elements from these two cultures, certain symbols and idea of secret societies, Priests in Ancient Egypt had secret societies and secret knowledge with whom they only shared within these ◦ Dignify the order with ancient origins legitimized by providing the dignity and value linked to these ancient traditions ▪ Many people wanted to join because they wanted to attain this ancient knowledge ◦ Ritual Content ancient origins provided a lot of content for the masonic degrees, traditions, and ritual • Historical Origins ◦ Operative Freemasonry Guilds of stonemasons and shoemakers, etc… in Medieval times in which there were levels or degrees; that was the knowledge you get and salary you receive; Three degrees used then are the same ones used in Freemasonry ◦ Guilds of medieval builders Stonemasons were different because Stonemasons were allowed to travel between different places because their skill set was unique; they had knowledge of geology, mathematics, geometry, astronomy ▪ many people were jealous of this knowledge which is why the stonemasons became such a secretive society and knowledge came in accordance with the degrees ◦ Privileges,bonds with Roman Church Stonemasons built churches and cathedrals for the church; church liked them and granted privileges to them ◦ Degrees: Apprentice, Fellow, Master ◦ Special and secret ceremonies created in order to recognize each other and protect their knowledge ▪ e.g Many masons arrive in London to build a cathedral but over long distance you can recognize through these secrets, nowadays if a freemason requires help can be noticed by these secrets ◦ Symbols: compass, square, triangle, etc. many symbols of freemasonry came form the medieval time period; tools of construction given humanistic features from Stonemason tools ◦ Saints: John the Baptist Masonic ideas mainly borrowed from Christian traditions, Masons had saints as well • Speculative (Modern) Masonry ◦ Many people moving into cities (Industrial Revolution) create a new class because they don’t fit into any of the established ones; rise of the individual because of the dissolution of the guild system ▪ Old regime = belonged in society because you were part of a group not an individual because you are a soldier, or priest not John or Carlos ▪ New regime = People coming in did not belong to any group so the individual arose; able to interact with each other without any intermediary ◦ Decadence of building art ◦ Accepted Masons (17th century) all guilds were disappearing, Stonemasons did not want to fade away, therefore they started to accept people who were not Stonemasons; incentive to join was again the knowledge but this time was a real secret knowledge such as astronomy or geometry; Intellectuals such as lawyers and physicians joined, Freemasons only accepted people with knowledge the freemasons wanted to learn from as well, These new accepted people changed what masonry was, charged new members fees since no churches or castles were being built; association of thinking and discussion ◦ Four lodges established the Grand Lodge of England (London), 1717 consulted and created the Grand lodge, June 24, 1717 is considered birth date of modern freemasonry; any subsequent lodge should be authorized by this lodge ◦ Anderson’s Constitutions (Anderson and Desaguliers), 1723 Constitution's created by the freemasons, landmarks and rules/laws of freemasonry from then on ◦ Moral Architecture changed idea from physical architecture to this moral architecture; building and crafting the perfect individual to craft a perfect society through a new set of values ◦ Regularity all freemasonry stemming from this Grand Lodge of London