At an amusement park, a swimmer uses a water slide to enter the main pool. If the swimmer starts at rest, slides without friction, and descends through a vertical height of 2.31 m, what is her speed at the bottom of the slide?
History 112 March 1, 2016 New Deal video -Herbert Hoover believed in self-help not government help People lived Shanty town aka Hoover Ville Hoover didn’t believe his people were starving Franklin D. Roosevelt was born in Hyde Park in NY Roosevelt became a lawyer and entered the election as a Democratic He became ill with polio Roosevelt government of NY as a Democratic in 1928 - In the election he offered Americans a New Deal and get Americans back to work - He beat Hoover and became President o He won 42 out of the 48 states o “the only thing we have to fear is fear itself” - He wanted to restore the economy at first o Close all banks for 4 days o He wanted Congress to pass laws to change the system Wanted the people have confidence in the system again o 1 ask; bear being sold again (21 amendment) o Agricultural Adjustment Act- paid out money to farmers who earned less o WPA- gave work to about 8 million people o CCC- cleared thousands of acres to prevent soil from being washed away o TVA- built a series of damns to prevent floods o Blue eagle was the symbol of the NRA- encouraged firms to raise minimum wage etc People wrote to the President bc they thought he could deal with their problems - Rich resented paying higher taxes to help build the economy o They thought Roosevelt was a sell out for helping the poor rise - 1936 Election Alfred Landon attacked the New Deal and thought it was unpractical - Roosevelt won the Election of 1936 as well A huge dust bowl and the farmers could not grow anything - Thousand migrates to California to find work - No welcome from the people of California Filming and Hollywood became popular in the 1930’s Life of the refugees in result of the dust bowl were not living well Supreme Court declared Roosevelt’s New Deal unconstitutional 1936- Strikes swept the country, and workers refused to leave their posts in strikes and not go to work 1938- Unemployment rose again New Deal began to transform the country - Built roads, schools, new damns to help with the way of life - Increased the buying power of many groups Class Notes Franklin D. Roosevelt Most famous quote: “The only thing we have to fear….is fear itself” - Election of 1932 changes partisan geopolitics- nontraditional Democrats, “New Deal Coalition” - Immediately closes banks- 1 presidential act o Bold and risky move - Fireside Chats inspire confidence and make government personal - Promises direct relief o For businesses and farmers Proposes 3 Immediate Objectives 3 R’s Relief, Reform, Recovery Relief and reform will be the most controversial - Provide relief to destitute - Foster the economic recovery of farms and business - Reform the government and economy in ways that would reduce risk of devastating consequences in future economic slumps o Farmers are the poorest of the poor during this time because of environmental reasons o He wants to help businesses o He promotes banking reform, programs to help get people working Black people are less likely to benefit from New Deal Woman were larger underrepresented during this time, new deal benefits goes to the head of the household New deal Programs All Passed within first 100 days of Roosevelt being in office - Banking and Finance Reform - Civilian Conservation Corps o Young male unemployed workers, administered by US army reserves o Earned $30 a month, had to give $25 back to parents - Tennessee Valley Authority o Best parts of the new deal o Built damns to build electricity for low income communities Many people hired and benefitted Uses Federal money instead of State money - Works Progress Administration o Give unemployed Americans government funded jobs o Oral historians during this period- how we learned how slavery was o Established jobs to actors, dancers, musicians, photographers o ¾ jobs did involve infrastructure - Social Security o Act passed in 1935 for the elderly and handcapped o Hoover criticizes social security as a hand out More Controversial Legislation: - Agricultural Adjustment Act - National Recovery Act - Fair Labor Standards Act 1938- minimum wage law Environment Dust Bowl - Created lack of rotation for crops - Soil was not rich and fertile - Drouts results from loose top soil - Dark winds - People flee from these areas because the soil is horrible and children can’t be outside because of the - “Black Sunday” 1935- thousands of birds flee from the areas a huge storm arises FDR get criticed from the Republicans (those who believe FDR is doing too much to intervene on the economy directly), and from those who think FDR isn’t doing enough Huey Long: “The Kingfish” Populist- wanted to help to ordinary people Program: called “Share the Wealth” “Everyone is a King, but no one wears the crown” - Initially supported FDR but became a challenge from the Left; Louisiana governor - *Advocated for: o Wanted more direct aid for people, yearly income caps for rich people, redistribution of excess wealth, old age pension for elderly people - Incredibly charismatic; popular among the poor who needed more relief - Assassination in 1935 prevented challenge from going further; FDR re-elected with overwhelming majority Election of 1936: Roosevelt won with the majority Election of 1940: Roosevelt won with the majority (3 term) Election of 1944: th Roosevelt won (4 term mostly due to WWII context) Brown 1 History 112 March 3, 2016 WWII video WWII Prelude to war - U.S. Neutrality - Hitler violates appeasement - Invasion of Poland, September 1939 leads to war between Germany and Britain/ France - Battle of Britain - Italy enters the war June 1940 and France falls to Axis forces Neutrality Amended - Congress: 1937 Neutrality Act - Neutrality Act repealed in November 1939 to allow cash and carry - Lend lease approved 1941 - Atlantic Charter signed August 1941 between Britain and the US (Churchill and FDR) 1940: Congress passed Selective Service Act- 1 peacetime draft Many volunteers after Pearl Harbor Full Scale wartime mobilization brings depression to a halt even though it is deficit spending December 7, 1941: Pearl Harbor attack Double V Campaign - Victory over our enemies at home and victory over our enemies on the battlefields abroad - A Phillip Randolph wanted integrated workforces for defense industries- threat of mass marches in Washington resulted in Executive Order 8802 - Unequal pay for African Americans Woman on home the home front Brown 2 Japanese American Internment - 1940- Alien Registration Act o Noncitizen adult residents must register with government - December 7, 1941 o Pearl Harbor attack; Roosevelt issues Proclamation 2525 Restricts travel by alien Japanese - February 19, 1942 o Executive Order 9066 Designates military exclusion zones and removal of dangerous persons - August 12, 1942 o Forced evacuation and removal of over 110,000 people of Japanese ancestry under administration of War Relocation Authority - 10 camps across the country, forced “Loyalty Questionnaires” determined threat level D-Day June 6, 1944 D-Day turns tide of war - July 1944: o Allies recaptured Paris - February 1945: o Yalta Conference Before the end of the war- between Big three Allies: Britain, US, and Soviet Union (Churchill, FDR, Stalin) - April 12, 1945: o FDR dies - April 14, 1945 o Hitler dies (commits suicide) - April 28, 1945 o Mussolini dies (Leader of Italy) - May 7, 1945 o Germany surrenders Brown 3 Ending War with Japan - August 6, 1945 o Air Force Colonel Paul Tibbets, in the B-29 named “Enola Gay, drops atomic bomb over Hiroshima - August 8, 1945 o Soviet Union declared war on Japan - August 9, 1945 o Second bomb detonated in Nagasaki - August 10, 1945 o Japan surrendered Cold War - July17- August 2, 1945: Postdam Conference o “The Big Three”: President Harry S. Truman, Soviet Leader Joseph Stalin, British PM Winston Churchill (replaced on July 26 by Clement Attlee) o Demilitarize Germany and divide into four zones of allied occupation (US, France, UK, USSR) o Nuremberg Trials convict high ranking Nazi officials for war crimes - Tension rises between US and USSR- USSR knows US has an atomic bomb, good espionage network in the US government - Fall of the Iron Curtain in Eastern Europe, under USSR control - Communists oust Nationalist in China- Maoist China - Beginning the COLD WAR One final note: LGBT Soldiers in the WWII and After - Small number of gay servicemen in the armed service; lesbian women in the WACS - Many discharged from armed forces o Settled in urban areas like NY and San Francisco - Small communities growing, leading up to gay rights movement of 1960-1970’s - Image from July 11,1949, from a sensationalist newspaper in San Francisco History 112 March 15, 2016 Chapter 26: Cold War Politics in the Truman Years Cold War “Square Dance” Painting - Kyra Markham, 1945 - People are happy that war is over - People are rejoicing, but it is not universal - Woman in red dress seems sad/ reflective, not colorful - “Everything is not as rosy as it seems” Start of the Cold War - US and Soviet Union have different political ideas and they question each other instead of building trust o Soviets believe in communism o US depends of free trade and capitalism - Wartime Losses and Postwar Prosperity disagreements because US and Soviet Union disagree o Soviet Union lost more soldiers- they felt they were more ‘invested’ than the US o US had 50% of world’s wealth but only 6% population- Soviet Union resented US - Hard to decide on terms of peace because everyone wanted a ‘Sphere of Influence” for national security - Decolonization movement- now 3 world countries begin to overthrow governments o Weak nations o Had to start over their governments (people had no experience) o Natural resources o Which kind of government to set up Iron Curtain 1946- VERY IMPORTANT Winston Churchill in Fulton, Missouri “ We understand that Russians need to be secure on her western frontiers from all renewal of German aggression.. It is my duty, however, to place before you certain facts…From the Sterlin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic, and iron curtain has descended across the Continent… The Communist parties, which were very small in all these eastern states of Europe, have been raised to preeminence and power far beyond their numbers and are seeking everywhere to obtain totalitarian control *Is this true No one is sure - No one knows what the Soviet Union was up to - Do they want to take over the world - The “iron curtain” is concerning for Britain and US - Churchill’s speech creates tension between US/ Britain and Soveit Union - Postwar Foreign Policy - George Kennan 1946 o “Containment” Strategy The US should not try to get rid of communism where it already exists, but it should stop its spread by direct counterforce Try to “contain” communism - 1947 Truman Doctrine o military assistance – 480 million dollars to Greece and Turkey Attempt to stop spread of communism Give them money so they can continue free trade-not turn to communism - 1948-1952 Marshall Plan o Humanitarian Aid Wants to build Europe 13 billion dollars to restore Western Europe o Economic bolster Strong western Europe is good for US trade and markets for US trade - 1948- 1949 Soviet Union blockade half of Berlin o http://www.youtube.com/watchv=cH-GVf9floo (watch for 5 min) o US airlifted goods to these parts/ people trapped by blockade o Soviet Union does not attempt to stop US o Leads to permanent division of the city Democratic- West Germany Communism- East Germany - 1949 NATO- North American Treaty Organization o created to help stop the Soviet threat to Western Europe Cold war to Real war - China: 1949 o Chiang Kai-shek: American ally during WWII - Decades-long internal division between Nationalist Party (Kai-shek) and Communists - Mao Zedong (critic of Kai-shek) (communist) o Emerges as figurehead o Seen as able to fix China o Redistribute land - 1949 People’s Republic of China (PRC) o Mao Zedong’s group o Late 1970’s US recognizes PRC as China’s government Why did the Cold war start - Incompatible economic ideologies caused US and Soviet Union to question political agendas rather than build trust - Discrepancy in Wartime Losses and Postwar Prosperity - Difficulty of establishing terms of peace after WWII as each country desired a “Sphere of Influence” for national security Korean War (1950-1953) - “Forgotten War” not seen as rea; war, more like a conflict th o Postwar split between Soviet Union and Allies established at 38 parallel (latitude) Split Korea into North and South North: Communist South: Democratic - June 25, 1950 – North Korea invades South Korea o Violates 38 parallel o Eventually North Korea pushed out to behind 38 parallel - General Douglas MacArthur commands until April 1951 o 1952 Eisenhower also joins fight in the middle o Differing plans (between Mac Arthur and Truman) for containment verses victory Differing visions about containment vs victory Mac Arthur fired for subordination Troops come for 17 countries and from NATO US never official declares war - Truce signed in July 1953 o First ‘war’ where unites were not segregates by race- Truman passes executive order McCarthyism and Domestic Panic - National security act of 1947: o Department of Defense and National Security Council - House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) 1947-1949 - Executive Order 9835: o Investigate federal employees The Hollywood 10 McCarthyism - Senator Joseph McCarthy; o “205 card carrying communists” - Number eventually reduces, but still causes mass panic about domestic communists - Army- McCarthy Hearings 1954 leads to McCarthy downfall o Have you no decency o Atomic Anxiety - Atomic bomb accident at Mars, Bluff March 11,1958 o In 1958 in the midst of the Cold war, the US Air Force accidentally dropped an atomic bomb near hear. The unarmed 7,600 lb 10’8’ long bomb was aboard a B-47E bomber on a training mission headed for England. Its high explosive trigger detonated on impact, making a crater as large as 35 feet deep and 70 feet wide History 112 March 17, 2016 Growth of American Suburbs - Initially evolved in 1890’s in reaction to Gilded Age urban explosion - Dependent upon transportation and stable income - Reflects expansion of American middle class and prevalence of a mass consumption-driven postwar economy o Era where the second family car becomes important Contributing to Factors - G.I. Bill 1944: o Education of Veterans initiated no later than two years after discharge o Loans for the Purchase or construction of Homes, Farms, and business property o Employment of veterans o Involved an allowance (unemployment funds) when you are transitioning Allowed veterans to enter the middle class Politics in the Postwar Period - Truman wins election in 1948; does not run for re-election in 1952 after Korean ‘War’ - “Fair Deal” expansion of New Deal reform: wanted to maintain government’s oversight of economy in postwar period *every single Democracy after Truman tries to expand the New Deal *Republicans try to scale back the New Deal until it does not exist *President Eisenhower (will be on final exam not exam 2) *very famous general during WWII - wins election in 1952 -first Republican to enter office since Hoover - “Modern Republicanism” (Republicans have 2 sides and Eisenhower is in the middle - changes that the Republicans really want to scale back the New Deal but Eisenhower does not want to do this -Eisenhower is a moderate Republican (the politics of the middle way) -does not cut any programs of the New Deal but does not add to it as well - Easily won re-election in 1956 - Continued containment strategy for Cold War, justified by “domino theory’ logic - Was wary about military power in the US and huge defensive establishment Consumerism - Automobiles (car very important to identity in 1950’s) o Interstate highway and defense system act of 1956 o New concept of ‘freedom’ tied to cars The provide opportunity to date - Pent-up Demand after WWII o Saved up WWII salaries + Great Depression memories o Creates jobs, increases gross national product o Also causes inflation A lot of spending Stock market now has regulations o Credit cards as new form of payment o Company begin to offer pensions and insurance o Advertisement becomes a 10 million business o 60% of Americans are middle class o 50% only have a sense of savings - Housing becomes a huge amount of the mass consumptions o Are a status point - Levittown o Key concept of the suburban life o Tiny houses that all have the same style in the neighborhoods Build by Phil Levitt (wanted to mass produce the American dream- for people to have a piece of land that they owned) Designed for a family of 4 and produced at the very low cost Young families and veterans are mostly buying these homes - “Little Boxes Made of Ticky-Tacky” o By the end of the 1940s, ¼ of population moved to suburbs o Average house price $6,990 o Spacious compared to WWII housing or Depression apartments o Two- car families became necessary o Led to shopping centers and commercial development nearby for convenience Racialized Suburbia *Every home owner in Levittown signed a contract to not rent to a non-white person - Residential segregation due to neighborhood covenant- illegal but still enacted - Discontent among WWII veterans prompts new wave of activism - NAACP legal strategy tested: Brown V Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas (1954) - Massive Resistance in the Deep South in response to desegregation - Desegregation prompts ‘white flight’ Gender Roles - Women left wartime jobs and resettled in traditional ‘pink collar’ jobs - Many women encouraged to resume role as homemaker - Domestic ideals for men and women in the suburbs fostered impossible standards; reinforced by television - Domestic discontent escaped by substance abuse and alcoholism - **Betty Friedan The Feminine Mystique; “the problem that has no name” o There is a sense of discontent from woman but they are restless and wonder what their purpose in life is o Anxiety that happens in the women’s movement o Betty Friedan is a journalist but did not live this kind of lifestyle Deviance from the Suburban “Norm” - Dr. Alfred Kinsey’s studies on American sexuality as a ‘continuum’ - Playboy magazine as a response to ‘crisis of masculinity’ - The rise of Youth Culture