×
Log in to StudySoup
Get Full Access to Statistics For Engineers And Scientists - 4 Edition - Chapter 8.2 - Problem 6e
Join StudySoup for FREE
Get Full Access to Statistics For Engineers And Scientists - 4 Edition - Chapter 8.2 - Problem 6e

Already have an account? Login here
×
Reset your password

The following table lists values for three variables

Statistics for Engineers and Scientists | 4th Edition | ISBN: 9780073401331 | Authors: William Navidi ISBN: 9780073401331 38

Solution for problem 6E Chapter 8.2

Statistics for Engineers and Scientists | 4th Edition

  • Textbook Solutions
  • 2901 Step-by-step solutions solved by professors and subject experts
  • Get 24/7 help from StudySoup virtual teaching assistants
Statistics for Engineers and Scientists | 4th Edition | ISBN: 9780073401331 | Authors: William Navidi

Statistics for Engineers and Scientists | 4th Edition

4 5 1 286 Reviews
19
1
Problem 6E

The following table lists values for three variables measured for 60 consecutive eruptions of the geyser Old Faithful in Yellowstone National Park. They are the duration of the eruption (x1), the duration of the dormant period immediately before the eruption (x2), and the duration of the dormant period immediately after the eruption (y). All the times are in minutes. (Variable x2 was presented in Supplementary Exercise 3 in Chapter 7.)

 

 a. Compute the least-squares line for predicting the duration of the dormant period following an eruption (y) from the duration of the eruption (x1). Is there a linear relationship between the duration of an eruption and the waiting time until the next eruption occurs?

b. Compute the least-squares line for predicting the duration of the dormant period following an eruption (y) from the duration of the dormant period preceding the eruption (x2). (You already did this if you did Supplementary Exercise 3 in Chapter 7. The results in this problem will be slightly different, since there are 60 points instead of 59.) Is there a linear relationship between the duration of the dormant period preceding an eruption and the waiting time until the next eruption occurs?

c. Fit the multiple regression model that includes both the duration of the eruption x1, and the duration of the dormant period preceding the eruption x2 as independent variables.

d. If you could find the value of either x1 or x2 but not both, which one would you want to know to predict y? Would it help much to know the other one as well? Explain.

Step-by-Step Solution:
Step 1 of 3

StudyQuestionsfortheTextbook:Unit 3 Gingerich PSY325 Spring2016 Hilighted=keytermsHilighted=payattentiontoHilighted=importantpeople Chapter8 1. WhathappenedwhenPenfieldstimulatedthesubstantianigraofa65-year-oldwoman • Surgeonsunexpectedlydiscoveredthatstimulatingthisareaofthebraincould producesymptomsofdepression • Shortlyafterstimulation,thewomanleanedover,begancrying,reportednothaving purposetoliveanylonger. o Lessthan90secondsaftertheelectrodeswereremoved,herdepressionwent away,andwithin5minutesshewashappyandcheerfulagain 2. DistinguishbetweenEEG,MEG,PET,andfMRI.Howwouldbrainresearchersusethemto learnaboutpersonalityWhataresomeofthedifficultiesininterpretingemotional responsesindicatedbythesetechniquesAlso,whatdoesTMSdo a. EEG:electroencephalography:electrodesareplacedonthescalptopickupelectrical signalsthataregeneratedwhenthebrainisactiveunderneathelectrodes b. MEG:magnetoencephalography:usesdelicatesensorstodetectmagnetic(as opposedtoelectricalwithEEG)indicationsofbrainactivity i. BothEEGandMEGareusefulfordeterminingwhenthebrainisactive,but notspecifictojustwhereinthebraintheactivityisconcentrated c. PET:positronemissiontomography(PET):createsamapofbrainactivitybyfollowing thelocationofaradioactivetracerinjectedintothebloodstream i. Harderthebrainworks=morebloodpumpingthrough,soresearcherscan learnwherethebrainismostactiveduringcertainactivities d. fMRI:functionalmagneticresonanceimaging:monitorsmagneticpulsesgenerated byoxygeninthebloodtomapwherethebrainismostactiveatagivenmoment e. Nooneofthesemethodsisthebest,andeachservesauniquepurpose f. TMS=transcranialmagneticstimulation;usesrapidlychangingmagneticfieldsto temporarilyturnoffareasofbrainactivity i. Thisallowsresearcherstocreateavirtuallesiontoseewhatareasofthebrain arenecessaryforapsychologicaltask 3. Doestheamygdalaonlyplayapartinnegativeemotion a. No,thefunctionoftheamygdalaisalsorelatedtopositiveemotions,suchassocial attractionandsexualresponsiveness i. Italsoeffectsreactionstopleasurablestimulisuchasphotographsofhappy scenesandpleasanttastes ii. Afterthebrainassessesasituation,theamygdalamayrespondbymaking heartbeatfaster,raisingbloodpressure,andreleasingcortisoland epinephrine 4. Personalitypsychologistsarequiteinterestedintheactivityoftheamygdalaaswellasthe insulaandanteriorcingulate.Explain. a. Thefunctionoftheamygdalahelpstoexplainthewidevarietyofpersonalitytraits thatappearrelevanttothese3structures 2 i. Theserelevanttraitsincludechronicanxiety,fearfulness,sociability,and sexuality—whichallrelatetowhetherornotpeopleareseenasattractiveor threatening b. TheimportanceoftheamygdalawasillustratedinthecaseofCharlesWhitman,who shothiswife,hismother,andthenmanyothersfromthetopofabuilding i. Hehadatumorinthebasalganglianexttotheamygdala 5. HowdothestoriesofCharlesWhitman,PhinneasGage,andElliott(andlaterinthe chapter,RosemaryKennedy)showtheconnectionbetweenbrainanatomyand personality a. Animportantlessonfromallofthesecasesisthatemotionandcognitionare intimatelyintertwined,andwhentheybecomedetached,consequencescanbe severe 6. DescribeCapgrassyndrome. a. Capgrassyndrome:personsuffersasevereinjurytotherightfrontallobe,which affectsemotionalresponsegreatly i. Whenthesepatientsrecognizealovedone,theyfailtofeelanyemotional responsetothisrecognition(usuallybelievetheirlovedoneshavebeen replacedbyimposters) 7. Whatismeantby“theneuralcontexteffect” a. Theactivitiesofthebraininindividualareasmaynotbeanverymuchintheabsence ofknowledgeaboutwhatotherareasofthebrainaredoingatthesametime i. Theeffectofcontextisimportanttokeepinmind;withoutit,brainscienceis indangerofdevolvingintoasimplisticattempttomattraitsandbehaviors ontospecificlocationsinthebrain(p.279). 8. Howmighttheexperiencesonehasearlyinliferelatetodopamineandextroversion a. DopamineworksincombinationwiththenucleusaccumbenstoformtheBehavioral activationsystem(BAS),whichproducesandreinforcesthemotivationtoseek rewards b. Peoplewhohavehadanabundanceofrewardingexperiencesinearlylifemay developmuchmorecells,causingthedopaminergicpartofnervoussystemtobewell developedandactive i. Asaresult,theywillseekoutmorerewardsandarecapableofenjoyingthem strongly ii. Theyalsobecomemoreassertive,dominant,andoutgoing(extraverts) 9. InBigFiveterms,whatpersonalitychangesmightoccurwhensomeonetakesanSSRIlike Prozac a. SSRI=selectiveserotoninreuptakeinhibitor b. Peoplebecomemoreextravertedandobtainedlowerscoresonaneuroticismtest i. Reportfeelinghappierandlesshostile c. Thesecanbeclassifiedas“antineurotics”ratherthanantidepressants 10. HowdidShelleyTaylorthinkmenandwomenmightresponddifferentlytothreat a. Duringprehistoricera:menhadachoicetostandandfight,orrunaway,whereasa womanwasmaternal,andtheoptiontoeitherfightorrunawaymightputherand herchildrenatanunacceptablerisk. 3 i. Itmademoresenseforawomantocalmeveryonedownandbandpeople togethertofendoffthethreat—alsocalledthetend-and-befriend b. Oxytocin:releasedinstressresponseandinfemales,promotesnurturantand sociablebehavioralongwithrelaxationandreductionoffear(theoppositeoffightor flight) 11. Whichhormoneplaysaroleinsexuality,aggressiveness,anddominanceWhichoneis calledthe“lovehormone”andassociatedwithmother-childbondingandloweringof anxietyWhichone,inhighexcess,mightleadtochronicanxietyandevenbraindamage a. Testosterone=aggression,sex,dominance b. Oxytocin=thelovehormone,mother-childbonding,romanticattachment,andsexual response c. Excesscortisolproductionininfantscanleadtodevelopingsocialphobias i. Inadults,responsetostressreleasescortisol,andthisexcessproducedbytoo muchfearandanxietyincreasesriskofheartdiseaseandmay(overtime) evenmakeone’sbrainsmaller 12. AresomeoftheneurotransmittersandhormonesinthischapterassociatedwithBigFive traitsSeeTable8.1. a. Yes,hormonesandneurotransmittersareassociatedwithBFItraits. b. HighCortisol=lowinnarcissism c. Highoxytocin=moreextraverted(lessfearfulofstrangers) Chapter9 1. WhatisaheritabilitycoefficientWhataretheapproximateheritabilitycoefficientsofthe BigFivetraitsCheckoutTable9.2forheritabilitiesofmorepsychologicaltraits.Which psychiatricillnesseshavethehighestandlowestheritabilitycoefficients a. Heritabilitycoefficient:thedegreetowhichvariationinbehaviorisduetogenetic (thinkofitasapercentage) b. Schizophreniahasthehighestcoefficientof.80 c. Phobiashavethelowesfrom.20-.40 i. Butthelowestnotarangeisgeneralizedanxietydisorderof.30 2. Dosharedfamilyenvironmentshaveaninfluenceonpersonality a. Amajormeta-analysisdoneshowdthatthesharedfamilyenvironmentwas importantinthedevelopmentofmanypsychopathologybetweenchildhoodand adolescence,including: i. Conductdisorder,rebelliousness,anxiety,depression(p.308) 3. Explainthestatementonpage310thatdivorceisheritable,inrelationtopersonality. a. Ifoneormoreofyourcloserelativeshavebeendivorced,youaremorelikelytoget divorcedthanifnoneofyourrelativeshavebeendivorced—evenifyou’venevermet them b. Theseresultsimplythatoneormoregeneticallyinfluencedtraitsarerelevantto divorce i. Wedon’tknowwhichtraitstheseareorhowtheyinteracttoinfluence divorce 4. Dosinglegenesleadtopersonalitytraits 4 a. Example:the5-HTTgeneisassociatedwithserotonintransporterprotein i. Has2alleles:shortandlong ii. Peoplewithshortallelescorehigheronmeasuresofneuroticism,isrelevant toanxietyandoverreactiontostress 1. Theiramygdalaalsoshowsstrongerresponses iii. Thegenealsoappearstoregulatethedegreetowhichtheamygdalaand prefrontalcortexworktogether,whichmayofferacluetothebrainstructure ofdepression 5. Explainhowabetterintellectualenvironmentforeveryonewouldleadtohigher heritabilitycoefficientsforIQ.AreheritabilitiesforIQdifferentinhigherandlowerSES groups a. Inanenvironmentwhereintellectualstimulationvaryalotbetweenchildren,IQwill varytooandismoreincontroloftheenvironment b. ChildrenwhoarestimulatedandeducatedwillgrowuptohaveanIQnearthe maximumoftheirgeneticpotential c. Childrenwhoaren’tstimulatedwillgrowuptohavealowerIQ,andheritabilityofan IQwillbelow(heritabilitycloseto0). d. ChildreninlowSESfamilies:varianceinIQwasaccountedforbytheirenvironments e. ChildreninhighSES:varianceinIQwasduetogenes 6. InCaspi’sstudies,certaingenesinteractedwithstressandabuse.Giveageneral explanation,anddiscusstheissueofreplication. a. Results:maltreatedboyswhohadthealleleofagenethatinfluencedfunctioningof stressneurotransmittersandlowMAOA(thegene)activityshowedthat85% demonstratedsomeformofantisocialbehavior i. Thesefindingswerereplicatedfoundthat15%ofboyswithadverse backgroundsandthehighMAOAgenedevelopedantisocialbehaviors, whereas35%ofboyswithadversebackgroundsandthelow-activityformof thegenehadthisoutcome ii. Inconclusion:thelow-MAOAgenemorethandoubledtheriskofdeveloping antisocialbehaviors,butonlyifthechildhadsufferedmaltreatment(p.316). 7. Howwouldyouanswertheauthor’squestion:“Wheredoesneuroticismcomefrom” a. Neuroticismisaresultofmanycomplextransactions i. Apersonmayhaveabiologicalvulnerabilitytostressthatisgenerally influenced,probablybydifferentgenes ii. Mayalsohavepsychologicalvulnerabilitycausedbyenvironmentalfactors b. These2influencescancombinetoproduceageneralinabilitytohandlestresswell, whichisthedefinitionofneuroticism(essentially) 8. Congratsonbeing“thelatestinalong,unbrokenchainofwinners!”Speakingof evolutionarypsychology,whywouldself-esteembeimportanttosurvivalDepression a. Accordingtothesociometertheory,feelingsofself-esteemevolvedtomonitorthe degreetowhichapersonisacceptedbyothers i. Humansarehighlysocial,andtheworstpotentialthingistobeshunnedby thecommunity 5 ii. Ifwearen’taccepted,selfesteemdecreases,andwearemotivatedtodo better iii. Peoplewhodidn’tbetterthemselvesfailedtosurviveandreproduce b. Depressionpromotessocialreactions(crying,heartbreak,etc.)orfailurereactions (fatigue,shame,guilt),allofwhichpromotesurvival i. Thepainoffailureorwhensomethinghasgonewrong,signalsthatchances forreproducingorevensurvivingmaybeatrisk 9. Theauthorstatesthatsomemenarecharacterizedby“theDarkTriad”oftraits.Explain howthosetraitsmightrelatetoevolutionarytheory. a. TheDarkTriad:narcissism,psychopathy,andMachiavellianism b. Amalemaysucceedinhavingthegreatestreproductivesuccessbyhavingasmany childrenbyasmanywomenaspossible(justpassontheirgenesinnumbersisthe goal) c. Menarepronetocertainkindsofwishfulthinkinginwhichtheyarequickto concludethatwomenaresexuallyinterestedinthem 10. Whatdoweknowaboutmenwhoscorehigherandlowerinsociosexuality a. Bothmenandwomenwhoscorehighonthistraitareespeciallyinterestedinthe physicalattractivenessandsocialvisibilityofpotentialpersonality b. Menhigherinsociosexualityalsoaremorelikelytoengage“conspicuous consumption”—buyinganddisplayingexpensiveobjectstotryandattractwomenfor short-termencounters c. Menlowerinsociosexualitywerechosenlessasapartnerbywomenthanthemen whoarehigherinthistrait 11. Whatdoyouthinkofthe“sexyson”hypothesis(Seethetopofpage334,too.) a. Afewwomentaketheirchancesbymatingwithanunstablebutattractivemale(as opposedtoastablebutunattractiveone). b. Thetheory:iftheyproduceaboy,andthefatherleaves,thesonwillbejustlikehis dad i. Whenthesongrowsup,hewillspreadnumerous“sexy”children(including themother’sgenes)inthesameirresponsible,albeiteffectivemannerashis father c. However,thistheoryconvenientlyleavesoutthefactthatwomenconsistentlyseek stablemates,andtheempiricalfactthatsomewomendotheopposite(p.334) i. So,thesexysonhypothesisisabittooconvenient(p.334) 12. What’stherelationshipbetweenevolutionarypsychologyandindividualdifferences a. Thebasicmechanismofevolutionrequiresindividualdifferences b. Specieschangeonlythroughtheselectivepropagationofthegenesofthemost successfulindividualsinearliergenerations,whichcan’thappenifeveryoneisthe same 13. Howmightthetraitsofpeoplewithslowlife-historiesdifferfromthosewithfastlife histories a. Slow-lifehistory=reproducingslowlywithnofearofdyingquickly(mosthumans) 6 b. Fast-lifehistory=reproducingmultipletimesatyoungagebutdoesnotdevotemany resourcestoprotectingtheoffspring;typicallydieyoungsothat’swhytheydothis (ex.Rabbits) c. Safe,predictableenvironmentspromoteslow-LHindividualswhomarrylate,have fewchildren,andputlotsofresourcesintoprotectingthem i. Behaviors:considerate,kind,hard-working,andreliable ii. Alsosociallyawkward,insecure,andovercontrolling d. Dangerousenvironmentsleadtofast-LHlifestyles,whohavechildrenyoungbut oftenabandonthemwithoutraisingthem i. Behaviors:hostile,manipulative,andimpulsive ii. Butalsotalkative,sociallyskilled,dominant,andcharming e. NeitherLHstrategyis“better”—therearetradeoffstoboth 14. Whatdoyouthinkaboutthe“stresstests”oftheevolutionaryperspective(5) a. Methodology:speculatingbackwards;i.e.,whatcircumstancesinthepastmighthave producedabehavioralpatternweseetoday i. Evolutionarypsychologistsarereadytoputthesetheoriestoempiricaltestif possible b. ReproductiveInstinct:evolutionarypsychologyassumesthateveryonewantsas manychildrenaspossible i. Why,then,doweusecontraception ii. Forthetheorytobecorrect,itisnotnecessaryforpeopletoconsciouslydo whatthetheorysaystheirbehaviorsaredesignedtodo 1. Allthatisrequiredisforpeopleinthepasttohavefollowedacertain behavioralpatterntohaveproducedmorepeopleofthepresent generationthandidthosewhodidnotfollowthatpattern c. ConservativeBias:evolutionarytheoryimpliesthatthecurrentbehavioralorderwas notonlyinevitablebutalsoprobablyunchangeableandappropriate i. Peoplehaveanissuewiththis(example:childabuseandrape=reprehensible) ii. Evolutionaryresponse:theseconcernsarenotscientificallyrelevant; scientistsdon’tassumethatwhatisnaturalisgood d. Humanflexibility:Evolutionaryideasdescribespecificbehaviorthatisgenetically programmed,whereaspsychologyteachesusthathumansareflexiblewitha minimumofinstinctivebehaviorpatternscomparedtootherspecies e. BiologicalDeterminismorSocialStructurePeopleevolvetobeflexibleclosely relatestoevolutionaryapproach i. Manybehavioralphenomenamaybetheresultofnotevolutionaryhistory, butofhumansrespondingtochangingcircumstances,especiallysocial structure(p.337) 15. DescribepersonalityusingtheanalogyofBabyRockefeller’swealth. a. Inheritanceofgenesisonething;whatone’sinhabitationintheworldandits influenceonthemdoesfortheirpersonalitycanchangeeverythingintermsof personalitydevelopment i. Justlikeinheritingmoney 7 16. HowdoesFunderanswerthequestionheposesattheendofthechapter:“Willbiology replacepsychology” a. Nope!Itprobablywon’t,eveninthedistantfuture.Biologicalapproachesto personalitytellusmoreaboutbiologythanaboutpsychology(p.341). Chapter10 1. Whatarethemainideasthatmakeuppsychoanalysis a. PsychicDeterminismandtheunconscious i. Psychicdeterminism:nothingyoudoisrandom;everythingthatyoudois determinedbyyoursubconscious b. InternalStructuresofthemind(id,ego,superego) c. Mentalenergytowardlife(libido)anddeath(thanatos) d. Psychosexualstagesoflife(wheretheenergyisdirectedtoward)andfixations e. Parapraxes(FreudianSlips) f. Anxiety,anddefenses i. Reviewdefensemechanismsonpage378 2. Onpage359,Fundersaysweshouldkeepouranalysesofotherstoourselves.Doyou agree a. Funderarguesthatweshoulddothisbecauseifwearewrong,itwillmakethem mad.Ifweareright,ifwillmakethemevenmadder. b. Thisisagoodpoint;however,hemaybespeakingfromexperiencewiththefirstdate hedidn’tknowverywell.Ibelievewhenweknowsomeonewellenough(ex:abest friendorpartner),wecanofferthesetothem,andiftheytakeitthewrongwayit mostlikelywon’truintherelationshipyouhavebuilt.And,ifyou’reright,theymay behappytohavelearnedsomethingyouobserved. 3. ExplainthedoctrineofoppositesasitrelatestoFreudiantheory. a. Thedoctrineofoppositesstatesthateverythingimplies,evenrequires,itsopposite (p.360) i. Liferequiresdeath,happinessrequiressadness,andsoforth 1. Onecannotexistwithouttheother ii. Freudiantheoryislikethisinthejuxtapositionofthelifedrive(libido)with thedeathdrive(thanatos) 4. WhatarethethreeaspectsofeachofFreud’spsychosexualstagesofdevelopment a. Oral:birthto18mos i. Psychologicaltheme:Dependence,passivity ii. Adultcharacter:dependentoroverlyindependent b. Anal:18mos-31/2years i. Psychologicaltheme:obedienceandself-control ii. Adultcharacter:obedient,obsessedwithorder,oranti-authorityandchaotic c. Phallic:3.5years-7yrs i. Psychologicaltheme:genderidentityandsexuality ii. Adult:over-orunder-sexualized d. Latency:7yrstopuberty i. Psychologicaltheme:learningandcognitivedevelopment 8 ii. Adult:N/A e. Kidsshouldbelearninghowtooperateintheworldduringthisstage i. Psychicenergydirectedtowardlearning ii. Genital:pubertythroughadulthood iii. Psychologicaltheme:creationandenhancementoflife iv. Adultcharacter:amatureadult(seldomachieved) 5. Describethe“oralcharacter”andhowthepersongottobethatway.Inwhatwayswas Freud“ontosomething,”evensupportedbymodernresearch,withregardtohisoral stageHowdoweknowifsomeonehashadanappropriateresolutiontotheoralstage a. Thepsychologicalthemeoftheoralstageisdependency b. Ifthebaby’sneedsaren’tfulfilledduringthisstage:babyisn’tfedwhenhungry, coveredwhencold,orcomfortedwhenupset,thebabymaydevelopabasicmistrust ofotherpeopleandneverbeabletoadequatelydealwithdependencyrelationships c. Asecondpotentialissueisthatthebaby’sneedsweremettooquicklyand automaticallythattheideaoftheworldrespondingdifferentlyneveroccurstothat person—thus,theincreasingdemandsoflifecomeasashock i. Thispersonmaywanttobebackattheoralstage,whereallthatwas necessarywastowantsomethinganditimmediatelyappeared 6. Describethe“analcharacter”andhowthepersongottobethatway.Onceagain:Isthere modernresearchtosupportFreud’sbasicpointWhatpatternofbehaviorwouldyou expectfromsomeonewhowasnotfixatedatthisstage a. Twothingsmaygowronginthisstagetocreatethe“anal”person: i. Unreasonableexpectationscanbetraumatic—demandsfromtheparentsthat kidscan’tmeetcancauselong-lastingpsychologicaltrauma ii. Neverdemandingthatthechildcontroltheirurges(bowelmovements)can beequallyproblematic b. Achildwillneverworkthestagethroughsufficientlyiftheenvironmentistooharsh ortoolenient c. Thesemishapsproducetheanalcharacterasanadult,whosepersonalityisorganized aroundcontrolissues 7. DescribetheOedipalcrisis,andthe“phalliccharacter.” a. Oedipalcrisis:youngboysfallphysicallyandemotionallyinlovewiththeirmothers, andbecauseofthistheyfeartheirfather’sjealousy i. Theirspecificfearisthattheirfatherswillcastratetheminretaliation b. Aphalliccharacterhasdevelopedacompletelyrigidmoralcode,onethatbrooksno shadesofgrayandnoexceptions i. Alsopossibletolackamoralcodealtogether(i.e.,theoppositeofthe extreme) 8. Describethelasttwodevelopmentalstages,andFreud’sideaofmaturity. a. Latencystage:psychologicalthemeislearninganddevelopment b. Genitalstage:verydifferentfromallotherstages;notsomethingindividualspass through,butsomethingtheymustattain i. Afterphysicalpuberty,apersondevelopsamatureattitudeaboutsexuality (however,somesimplydon’tmatureinthisway) 9 ii. Genitalrefersnotonlytothephysicalorgan,butalsotheprocessof reproductionandgivinglife 9. Whattypeofthinkingoccurs(accordingtoFreud)whensomeoneismumblinginastateof delirium 10. Whensomeoneasksyoutotalkaboutamovieyousawlastnight,yourabilityto rememberandanswerinvolveswhichofthethreelevelsofFreud’sconsciousness a. Youareusingthepreconsciousleveltorecallthis,whichconsistsofideasthatyou arenotcurrentlythinkingabout,butthatyoucanbringintoconsciousnesseasily 11. InFreudiantheory,whydopeople“forget”WhatcausesslipsWhatishappeningwhen someonedeniesthattheirforgettingorslipsmeansomething a. Slipsoccurasunintendedactionscausesbytheleakageofsuppressedthoughtsor impulses b. Themoreloudandmorevehementtheirdenialis,themoreaFreudianwillsuspecta powerfulandimportantimpulsebehindtheslip 12. Canyoudistinguishbetweenthedefensemechanisms a. Checkpg.378 13. Whichofthecriticismsdoyouthinkisthemostsignificant a. TheuntestabilityofFreud’stheoriesisaveryimportantcriticism,becauseit’strue thatit’sunethicalandcannotbedistinguishedasscientificwhenlookingtotest thingsempirically Chapter11 1. WhatwasthegistofAdler’stheoryHowdopeoplecompensateforfeelingsof inferiorityAndwhatmoderntermswereAdler’scontributions a. InferiorityandCompensationbyAdler i. Adlerwasthefirstmajorneo-FreudiantoendupatoddswithFreud b. Adlerbelievedthatpeopleattainequalitywithorsuperiorityoverothersto compensateforwhatevertheyfeltinchildhoodwastheirweakestaspect(knownas organinferiority) c. Today’sideasfromAdler:needsforpower,love,andachievementallhaverootsin earlyexperience i. Twofamiliartermswithrootsinhisideasare:inferioritycomplexandlifestyle 2. WhatideasdidJungandHorneycontribute a. CarlJungisbestknownforhisideaofthecollectiveunconscious b. Healsobelievedthatallpeoplesharedinbornhumanmemoriesandideas,mostof whichresideintheunconscious,whicharecalledarchetypes i. Archetypesgotothecoreofhowpeoplethinkabouttheworld,consciously andunconsciously c. AnotherJungideaisthepersona:thesocialmaskonewearsinpublic i. Tosomeextent,everyone’spersonaisfake,becauseeveryonekeepssome aspectsoftheirrealselvesprivate(oratleastfailstoadvertiseallaspectsof theselfequally) d. Horneyneverfeudedwiththemaster(Freud) 10 i. Shewroteaboutself-analysis,andhowitcanhelppeoplethrough psychologicaldifficultieswhenprofessionalpsychoanalysiswasimpracticalor unavailable e. HorneydisagreedwithFreudontheideaofwomenbeingobsessedby“penisenvy” andthedesiretobemale i. Shearguesthatwomenenvymenbecauseoftheirstatusandabilitytobe freerthanwomen,topursuetheirowninterestsandambitions(thinkof Horney’sgeneration—womencouldn’tyetvote) 3. TellsomeoneaboutErikson’sstages. a. UnderstandErickson’spsychosocialstages(p.400)vs.Freud’spsychosexualstages (generaldifferences,don’tneedtoknoweverystageofErickson’s) 4. Whatdoesobjectrelationstheorypositastheprimarycauseofinterpersonalproblems Whatareitsmainthemes a. ObjectRelationsTheorybyKleinandWinnicott b. Theprimaryideaofthetheoryisthatwecanonlyrelatetootherpeopleviathe imagesofthemweholdinourminds,andtheseimagesdonotalwaysmatchreality i. Mismatchbetweenthetwocausesproblems c. Relationshipsalwayscomewithamixofloveandresentment(example:youlove yourfamily,buttherearealwaysthingsthatmakeyouresentthemattimes) 5. Inobjectrelationstheory,whatismeantby“splitting”Andwhydopeopleidealize parentsorlovedones a. Splittingreferstodividingyourimportantloveobjectsintotwoparts,onegoodand onebad i. Thegoodpartpleasestheperson ii. Thebadpartfrustratesthem iii. Childrenwanttodestroythebadpartbecausetheyfearbeingdestroyedbyit 6. WhatistheniffleWhatisitspurpose a. TermderivedbypediatricianWinnicottafterapatientwhowashospitalizedand couldn’tsleepwithouthis“niffle”—apieceofclothtowhichhedevelopedan emotionalattachment(p.404) i. Whenhisnifflewaslost,hewashostile,stubborn,andannoyingtothepoint wherehisparentsbroughthimtoWinnicottfortherapy b. Winnicottthusnamedthetransitionalobject,whichthechildusestobridgethegap betweenprivatefantasyandreality 7. WhichofWinnecott’sconceptsremindsyouofJung’s“persona” a. Thenotionofthe“falseself”—whichchildren(andlateradults)learntoputonto pleaseotherpeople 8. DoesmodernresearchsupportpsychoanalytichypothesesGivesomeexamples. a. Yes,afewbravepsychologistsarepursuingresearchrelevanttopsychoanalysis,and moredoingsowithoutrealizationoftheconnectiontoneo-Freudianideas b. Examples:unconsciousmentalprocesses;self-defensivethoughtandself-deception; sexualoraggressivewishesastheyinfluencethought,feeling,andbehavior 9. Describeattachmenttheory,includingBowby’sideaabouthowweevolvedtoattachto caregivers,andthelessonswelearnfromourearlyattachments.Next,describe 11 Ainsworth’scategoriesofattachment,andhowtheserelatetopersonalities.Finally,how havemodernresearchersmodifiedherclassificationsystem a. AttachmentTheory:focusesonpatternsofrelationshipswithothersthatare consistentlyrepeatedwithdifferentpatternsthroughoutlife(p.409). b. Bowlby:thebasisofloveisattachment i. Hehypothesizedthat,duringevolution,humansevolvedastrongfearof beingalone,especiallyinunusual,dark,ordangerousplaces c. MaryAinsworth:inventedtheexperimentalprocedurecalledthestrangesituation,in whichthechildisbrieflyseparatedfrom(andthenreunitedwith)hismother i. Thechild’sreactionstobeingreunitedwithmomwilldemonstratetheir attachmentstyles(securevs.anxious/ambivalent) ii. Thesewillleadtolateradultpersonalitiesasthedevelopingattachmentstyle affectsoutcomesthroughlife d. Modernresearchersmodifiedattachmentresearch:theyhavemovedontoatwo- dimensionalmodelonwhichpeoplevaryaccordingtotheirdegreeofanxietyabout relationships,andtheiravoidanceofrelationships i. Onlyapersonlowinbothcategorieswouldbeconsideredsecurelyattached 10. ReadWesten’s“fiveneo-Freudianpropositionsthathavebeenfirmlyestablished”onpage 415.Doyouagree a. Checkoutpage415(consideryouropinion)

Step 2 of 3

Chapter 8.2, Problem 6E is Solved
Step 3 of 3

Textbook: Statistics for Engineers and Scientists
Edition: 4
Author: William Navidi
ISBN: 9780073401331

Other solutions

People also purchased

Related chapters

Unlock Textbook Solution

Enter your email below to unlock your verified solution to:

The following table lists values for three variables