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When the temperature in degrees Fahrenheit (TF) is plotted

Chemistry | 8th Edition | ISBN: 9780547125329 | Authors: Steven S. Zumdahl ISBN: 9780547125329 153

Solution for problem 27 Chapter 1

Chemistry | 8th Edition

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Chemistry | 8th Edition | ISBN: 9780547125329 | Authors: Steven S. Zumdahl

Chemistry | 8th Edition

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Problem 27

When the temperature in degrees Fahrenheit (TF) is plotted versus the temperature in degrees Celsius (TC), a straight-line plot results. A straight-line plot also results when TC is plotted versus TK (the temperature in kelvins). Reference Appendix A1.3 and determine the slope and y-intercept of each of these two plots

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BMS 508.03 3/23/2016 Chapter 23 (cont) Respiration (cont) The Lungs • The Lungs • Left and right lungs • In left and right pleural cavities • The base • Inferior portion of each lung rests on superior surface of diaphragm • Lobes of the lungs • Lungs have lobes separated by deep fissures • Lobes and Surfaces of the Lungs • The right lung has 3 lobes • Superior, middle, and inferior • Separated by horizontal and oblique fissures • The left lung has 2 lobes • Superior and inferior • Separated by an oblique fissure • Lung Shape • Right lung • Wider • Displaced upward by liver • Left lung • Longer • Displaced leftward by the heart forming the cardiac notch • The Bronchi • The Bronchial Tree • Formed by the primary bronchi and their branches • Extrapulmonary Bronchi • The left and right bronchi branches outside the lungs • Intrapulmonary Bronchi • Branches within the lungs • A Primary Bronchus • Branches to form secondary bronchi (lobar bronchi) • 1 secondary bronchus goes to each lobe • Secondary Bronchi • Branch to form tertiary bronchi (segmental bronchi) • Each segmental bronchus • Supplies air to a single bronchopulmonary segment • Bronchopulmonary Segments • The right lung has 10 • The left lung has 8 or 9 • Bronchial Structure • The walls of primary, secondary, and tertiary bronchi • Contain progressively less cartilage and more smooth muscle • Increased smooth muscle tension affects airway constriction and resistance • Bronchitis • Inflammation of bronchial walls • Causes constriction and breathing difficulty • The Bronchioles • Each tertiary bronchus branches into multiple bronchioles • Bronchioles branch into terminal bronchioles • 1 tertiary bronchus forms about 6500 terminal bronchioles • Bronchiole Structure • Bronchioles • No cartilage • Dominated by smooth muscle • Autonomic Control • Regulates smooth muscle • Controls diameter of bronchioles • Controls airflow and resistance in lungs • Bronchodilation • Dilation of bronchial airways • Caused by sympathetic ANS activation • Reduces resistance • Bronchoconstriction • Constricts bronchi • Caused by: • Parasympathetic ANS activation • Histamine release (allergic reactions) • Asthma • Excessive stimulation and bronchoconstriction • Stimulation severely restricts airflow • Pulmonary Lobules • Trabeculae • Fibrous connective tissue partitions from root of lung • Contain supportive tissues and lymphatic vessels • Branch repeatedly • Divide lobes into increasingly smaller compartments • Pulmonary lobules are divided by the smallest trabecular partitions (interlobular septa) • Each terminal bronchiole delivers air to a single pulmonary lobule • Each pulmonary lobule is supplied by pulmonary arteries and veins • Each terminal bronchiole branches to form several respiratory bronchioles, where gas exchange takes place • Alveolar Ducts and Alveoli • Respiratory bronchioles are connected to alveoli along alveolar ducts • Alveolar ducts end at alveolar sacs • Common chambers connected to many individual alveoli • Each alveolus has an extensive network of capillaries • Surrounded by elastic fibers • Alveolar Epithelium • Consists of simple squamous epithelium • Consists of thin, delicate type I pneumocytes patrolled by alveolar macrophages (dust cells) • Contains type II pneumocytes (septal cells) that produce surfactant • Surfactant • An oily secretion • Contains phospholipids and proteins • Coats alveolar surfaces and reduces surface tension • Respiratory Distress Syndrome • Difficult respiration • Due to alveolar collapse • Caused when type II pneumocytes do not produce enough surfactant • Respiratory Membrane • The thin membrane of alveoli where gas exchange takes place • Three Layers of the Respiratory Membrane • Squamous epithelial cells lining the alveolus • Endothelial cells lining an adjacent capillary • Fused basement membranes between the alveolar and endothelial cells • Diffusion • Across respiratory membrane is very rapid • Because distance is short • Gases (O an2 CO ) are2lipid soluble • Inflammation of Lobules • Also called pneumonia • Causes fluid to leak into alveoli • Compromises function of respiratory membrane • Blood Supply to the Lungs • Respiratory exchange surfaces receive blood • From arteries of pulmonary circuit • A capillary network surrounds each alveolus • As part of the respiratory membrane • Blood from alveolar capillaries • Passes through pulmonary venules and veins • Returns to left atrium • Also site of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) • Capillaries supplied by bronchial arteries • Provide oxygen and nutrients to tissues of conducting passageways of lung • Venous blood bypasses the systemic circuit and flows into pulmonary veins • Blood Pressure • In pulmonary circuit is low (30 mm Hg) • Pulmonary vessels are easily blocked by blood clots, fat, or air bubbles • Causing pulmonary embolism • The Pleural Cavities and Pleural Membranes • 2 pleural cavities • Separated by the mediastinum • Each pleural cavity: • Holds a lung • Lined with a serous membrane (the pleura) • The Pleura • Consists of two layers • Parietal pleura • Visceral pleura • Pleural fluid • Lubricates space between 2 layers Introduction to Gas Exchange • Respiration • Refers to two integrated processes 1. External respiration • Includes all processes involved in exchanging O and CO 2 2 with the environment 2. Internal respiration • Result of cellular respiration • Involves the uptake of O and 2roduction of CO within 2 individual cells • Three Processes of External Respiration • Pulmonary ventilation (breathing) • Gas diffusion 1. Across membranes and capillaries • Transport of O an2 CO 2 1. Between alveolar capillaries 2. Between capillary beds in other tissues • Abnormal External Respiration Is Dangerous • Hypoxia 1. Low tissue oxygen levels • Anoxia 1. Complete lack of oxygen Pulmonary Ventilation • Pulmonary Ventilation • The physical movement of air in and out of respiratory tract • Provides alveolar ventilation • The Movement of Air • Atmospheric pressure • The weight of air • Has several important physiological effects • Gas Pressure and Volume • Boyle’s Law • Defines the relationship between gas pressure and volume P = 1/V • In a contained gas: • External pressure forces molecules closer together • Movement of gas molecules exerts pressure on container • Pressure and Airflow to the Lungs • Air flows from area of higher pressure to area of lower pressure • A Respiratory Cycle • Consists of: • An inspiration (inhalation) • An expiration (exhalation) • Pulmonary Ventilation • Causes volume changes that create changes in pressure • Volume of thoracic cavity changes • With expansion or contraction of diaphragm or rib cage • Compliance • An indicator of expandability • Low compliance requires greater force • High compliance requires less force • Factors That Affect Compliance • Connective tissue structure of the lungs • Level of surfactant production • Mobility of the thoracic cage • Pressure Changes during Inhalation and Exhalation • Can be measured inside or outside the lungs • Normal atmospheric pressure • 1 atm = 760 mm Hg • The Intrapulmonary Pressure • Also called intra-alveolar pressure • Is relative to atmospheric pressure • In relaxed breathing, the difference between atmospheric pressure and intrapulmonary pressure is small • About 1 mm Hg on inhalation or 1 mm Hg on exhalation • Maximum Intrapulmonary Pressure • Maximum straining, a dangerous activity, can increase range • From 30 mm Hg to 100 mm Hg • The Intrapleural Pressure • Pressure in space between parietal and visceral pleura • Averages 4 mm Hg • Maximum of 18 mm Hg • Remains below atmospheric pressure throughout respiratory cycle • The Respiratory Cycle • Cyclical changes in intrapleural pressure operate the respiratory pump • Which aids in venous return to heart • Tidal Volume (V ) T • Amount of air moved in and out of lungs in a single respiratory cycle • Injury to the Chest Wall • Pneumothorax allows air into pleural cavity • Atelectasis (also called a collapsed lung) is a result of pneumothorax • The Respiratory Muscles • Most important are: • The diaphragm • External intercostal muscles of the ribs • Accessory respiratory muscles • Activated when respiration increases significantly • The Mechanics of Breathing • Inhalation • Always active • Exhalation • Active or passive

Step 2 of 3

Chapter 1, Problem 27 is Solved
Step 3 of 3

Textbook: Chemistry
Edition: 8
Author: Steven S. Zumdahl
ISBN: 9780547125329

The answer to “When the temperature in degrees Fahrenheit (TF) is plotted versus the temperature in degrees Celsius (TC), a straight-line plot results. A straight-line plot also results when TC is plotted versus TK (the temperature in kelvins). Reference Appendix A1.3 and determine the slope and y-intercept of each of these two plots” is broken down into a number of easy to follow steps, and 50 words. Since the solution to 27 from 1 chapter was answered, more than 301 students have viewed the full step-by-step answer. This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: Chemistry, edition: 8. This full solution covers the following key subjects: temperature, degrees, straight, versus, results. This expansive textbook survival guide covers 22 chapters, and 2897 solutions. Chemistry was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9780547125329. The full step-by-step solution to problem: 27 from chapter: 1 was answered by , our top Chemistry solution expert on 11/15/17, 04:25PM.

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When the temperature in degrees Fahrenheit (TF) is plotted