When organic compounds containing sulfur are burned, sulfur dioxide is produced. The amount of SO2 formed can be determined by reaction with hydrogen peroxide: The resulting sulfuric acid is then titrated with a standard NaOH solution. A 1.325-g sample of coal is burned and the SO2 collected in a solution of hydrogen peroxide. It took 28.44 mL of 0.1000 M NaOH to neutralize the resulting sulfuric acid. Calculate the mass percent of sulfur in the coal sample. Sulfuric acid has two acidic hydrogens.
1. Factors that determine withindistrict differential allocation School size: principles, teacherscosts are fixed and based off of enrolled students Physical plant: different schools have different requirements to maintain the physical structure of the buildings and landscaping. Investments: computer labs, books tends to exist in wealthier neighborhood Special needs students: additional resources are provided to students that need them. Magnet: special education programs schools get more money if they have these types of programs Uneven salaries: more wealthy neighborhoods spend more on teachers with more experience, and less experienced teachers tend to exist in lower class neighborhood and get paid less. 2. Inequalities o Low student spending: Property taxes shape inequality across districts. Dependent on the tax value of one’s home and are deductible. Home owners get a substantial portion of the money that they spend on taxesincrease their wealth and thus increase the gap between the richest and poorest. So the rich have more money to invest in schools = “Federal subsidy for an unequal education” o Equal dollars per student may not result in equal educational opportunities To what extent do students receive equal resources negative selection: the students that are most likely to receive resources are the ones who need those resources the least. Top spending districts get the most resources for their students Districts that face the toughest challenges are the ones that receive the fewest resources Reproduction of inequalities o Pattern of negative selection Evidence isn’t clear whether higher spendin high academic achievement Social class Student Achievement School attended Race + Student Achievement ++ School attended School resources/student composition Social class ++ Student Achievement + School Attended School resources/student composition 3. 2 tasks of school Accommodate different abilities (want to offer differentiated education, so that different levels of abilities, learning styles… can be accommodated) Provide equal educational opportunity for all students Critics argue that differentiation benefits mostly students assigned to high level courses and reproduces socioeconomic and racial inequalities that exist in larger societies. Students at lower levels tend to benefit from mixed ability grouping, and do better when there’s more differentiation. However higher level students do worse. Evidence suggests that track placement is separate and unequal.it provides different experiences and leads to different outcomes. 4. Selection bias: people are selected into going into these levels of higher education and it’s influencing the outcomes Pretreatment heterogeneity Preexisting differences between individuals who do and do not complete college, that influence whether they go to college and their future socioeconomic outcomes (attainment) Differences can be: family background, ability achievement in school, types of schools… They bias the association between later achievement and education because of the perceived association Treatment effect heterogeneity: Differences between individuals who do and do not complete college, in the benefit that they would receive from college (about heterogeneity in the effects based on those characteristics) 5. Negative selection: individuals who are least likely to attend college benefit most from college (based more on sociological theory). 2 reasons: Differential selection mechanism (differential decision making processes to attend college): this rational choice framework differs by socioeconomic background. A lot of research indicates that the decision to attend college is influenced by a lot of other factors other than the potential costs and benefits, or the costs and benefits differ. There is a lot of noneconomic factors that influence college attainment: social norms, circumstances… family background (parents level of education) that influence college attainment Differential earnings prospects. There are different effects on different segments on the population and those different segments correspond whether they are likely or unlikely to go to college.