Explain why oceanfront areas generally have smaller temperature fluctuations than inland areas
Middle Childhood: Biosocial Development MiddleChildhood: ● Period between early childhood and early adolescence, approximately from ages 6 to 11. ● Time when fatal diseases or accidents are rare; these years are the healthiest of the entire lifespan. ● Safeguarded by genetic and environmental factors. ● Additional protection from education about risks and vaccines. Slower Growth, Greater Strength: ● Good childhood habits protect later adult health; influenced by peers and parents; lifelong impact. ● Oral health is important: time when permanent teeth come in. ● Muscles become stronger, including hearts and lungs. ● Children run faster and exercise longer. ● Children master any motor skills that do not require adultsized bodies. Physical Development: ● The specifies of motorskill development in middle childhood depend on the culture. Physical Activity: ● Active Play Contributions: ○ Better overall health. ○ Less obesity. ○ Appreciation of cooperation and fair play. ○ Improved problemsolving abilities. ○ Respect for teammates and opponents of many ethnicities and nationalities. ● Neighborhood Games: ○ Active, interactive and inclusive. ○ Flexible play. ○ Context adapted. ● Hindrances: ○ “Stranger danger”. ○ Recess elimination. ○ Afterschool programs. ○ Lack of access to outdoor play spaces. ● Sports Risks During Middle Childhood: ○ Loss of selfesteem (teammates and coaches are sometimes cruel). ○ Injuries (sometimes serious, including concussions). ○ Reinforcement of prejudice (especially against the other sex). ○ Increased stress (evidenced by altered hormone levels, insomnia). Athletic Clubs And Leagues: ● Sports organized by adults, such as a football team of 7 to 8 year old boys may be harmful to children. ● The best games are those that require lots of running and teamwork but no pushing or shoving. Health Problems In Middle Childhood: ● Chronic conditions can interfere with school, play, and friendship. ● Beginning of lifetime health habits are formed. ● Physical and psychological problems affect and are affected by social context. ● In 2010, 18% of 6 to 9 year olds in the U.S. were obese: ○ Body Mass Index (BMI): ratio of weight to height, calculated by dividing a person’s body weight in pounds by the square of his or her height in inches. ○ Childhood Overweight: In the child, having a BMI above the 85th percentile, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control’s 1980 standards for children of a given age. ○ Childhood Obesity: In a child, having a BMI above the 95th percentile, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control’s 1980 standards for children of a given age. ● Obesity: ○ Many 6 to 11 year olds eat too much, exercise too little, and become overweight or obese as a result. ○ Obesity now causes more deaths worldwide than malnutrition. ○ There are more than 42 million overweight children around the world. Childhood overweight correlates with asthma, high blood pressure, and elevated cholesterol. ○ Pester power contributes to weight gain. Ads And Obesity: ● Nations differ not only in obesity rates but also in children’s exposure to television ads for unhealthy food. ● The amount of advertising of unhealthy foods on television correlates with childhood obesityexcept in nations where few children watch TV. The Blame Game: ● Who or what is responsible for childhood obesity ○ Genes. ○ Parents. ○ Policies. Health Problems In Middle Childhood: ● Asthma : ○ A respiratory condition marked by spasms in the bronchi of the lungs, causing difficulty in breathing. ○ Causes : ■ Genes and environment. ■ Indoor and outdoor pollutants. ■ Hygiene hypothesis. ○ Prevention: ■ Primary prevention requires changes in the entire society. ■ Secondary prevention decreases asthma attacks among highrisk children. ■ Tertiary prevention includes the prompt use of injections and inhalers. Brain Development: ● Coordinating Connections: ○ Maturation supports an increasingly interconnected brain by age 7 or 8 years. ○ Complex tasks slowly mastered with brain maturation (prefrontal cortex). ■ Reading. ■ Variety of social skills. ■ Control impulses. ■ Planning for future. ■ Analyze consequences. ● Speed Of Thought: ○ Reaction time: time is takes to respond to a stimulus, either physically (with a reflexive movement such as an eye blink) or cognitively (with a thought). ● Attention ○ Selective attention: ability to concentrate on some stimuli while ignoring others: focus on most important elements in environment. ● Automaticity: ○ Automatization: process in which repetition of a sequence of thoughts and actions makes the sequence routine, so that it no longer requires conscious thought. Measuring The Mind: ● Aptitude ○ Potential to master a specific skill or to learn a certain body of knowledge. ● IQ Test: ○ Test designed to measure intellectual aptitude, or ability to learn in school. Originally, intelligence was defined as mental age divided by chronological age, times 100hence the term intelligence quotient, or IQ. ● Achievement Test: ○ Measure of the mastery or proficiency in reading, mathematics, writing, science, or some other subject. ● Flynn Effect: ○ Rise in average IQ score that has occurred of the decades in many nations. ● Multiple Intelligences: Sternberg: ○ Three distinct types of intelligence: academic, creative, and practical. ○ Instruction matched to analytic, creative, or athletic abilities. ○ Applications may not be supported by scientific research. ● Multiple Intelligences: Gardner: ○ Seven intelligences: linguistic, logicalmathematical, musical, spatial, bodilykinesthetic, interpersonal, and intrapersonal. ○ Later added two more: naturalistic and spiritual/existential. ○ Each associated with a region of the brain. ○ Used in education. Brain Development: ● Brain Scans: ○ Neurological measures do not necessarily correlate with written IQ tests. ○ Interpretations from IQ scores and neuroscientists are not always accurate or straightforward. ● Conclusions From Neuroscientists: ○ Brain development depends on specific experience. ○ Brain development continues throughout life. ○ Children with disorders often have unusual brain patterns. Children With Special Needs: ● Developmental Psychopathology: ○ Links the study of typical development with the study of disorders. ● General Principles: ○ Abnormality is normal. ○ Disability changes year by year. ○ Life may be better or worse in adulthood. ○ Diagnosis and treatment reflect the social context. ● Developmental Psychopathology Is Relevant In Middle Childhood: ○ Agegrouping and scheduled learning reveal peer differences. ○ Some disorders can be mitigated with early and targeted treatment. ○ Principles of multifinality and equifinality should lead to caution in diagnosis and treatment. ● Disorders Are Often Comorbid And Confused With Each Other: ○ Attentiondeficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): condition in which a person not only has great difficulty concentrating for more than a few moments but also is inattentive, impulsive, and overactive. ● Rates Of ADHD In Most Other Nations Are Lower Than In The U.S., But They Are Rising Everywhere: ○ Increases in ADHD diagnosis are worrisome for at least three reasons: ■ Misdiagnosis. ■ Drug abuse. ■ Normal behavior considered pathological. ● Drug Treatment Of ADHD And Other Disorders: ○ Medication. ■ Ritalin. ○ Controversy: ■ Medical professionals = prodrug. ■ Parents = antidrug. Children With Special Needs: Drugs For Children: ● More than 2 million U.S. children and adolescents under age 18 take prescription drugs to regulate their emotions and behavior. ● In middle childhood, at least 20 prescribed drugs given to treat wide variety of conditions. ● Professionals are more convinced than parents of drug therapy. Children With Special Needs: ● Learning Disorder: ○ Marked deficit in a particular area of learning that is not caused by an apparent physical disability, by mental retardation, or by an unusually stressful home environment. ● DSM% Diagnosis Of Specific Learning Disorder: ○ Now combines diagnoses of deficits in the perception or processing of information; such difficulty is commonly referred to as a learning disability. ● Dyslexia ○ Unusual difficulty with reading; thought to be the result of some neurological underdevelopment. ● Dyscalculia: ○ Unusual difficulty with math, probably originating from a distinct part of the brain. ● Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD): ○ The two main signs of an autism spectrum disorder are: ■ Problems in social interaction and the social use of language. ■ Restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, and activities. ○ ASD includes many symptoms of varied severity. ■ Some children never speak, rarely smile, and often play for hours with one object. ■ Others are extremely talented in specialized area (high functioning). ■ Social interaction is always impaired. ○ New criteria in DSM5. ■ Probable decrease in the number of children who fit the category, especially those who function well in most situations. ○ ASD Treatment: ■ Many treatments; none completely successful. ■ Parents, medical professionals, and scientists disagree. ● Biological treatment. ● Behavioral treatment. Special Education In School: ● Changing Policies: ○ Least restrictive environment (LRE). ○ Response to intervention (RTI). ○ Individual education plan (IEP). ● Cohort And Culture: ○ Some basic special categories are missing in the U.S. special education system. ○ Labels change more quickly than children do. Children With Special Needs: ● Gifted And Talented: ○ Varying kinds of definitions. ■ High IQ. ■ Talented. ■ Divergent thinker. Middle Childhood: Cognitive Development Building On Theory Piaget: ● Concrete Operational Thought: ○ Piaget’s term for the ability to reason logically about direct experiences and perceptions. ● Hierarchy Of Categories: ○ Classificatio ■ Organization of things into groups (or categories or classes) according to some characteristic they have in common. ■ By age 8, most children can classify. ● Other Logical Concepts: ○ Transitive Inference: ■ Is the ability to figure out the unspoken link between one fact and another. ■ Linked to maturation of hippocampus which reaches critical point at around age 7. ○ Seriation ■ Includes knowledge that things can be arranged in logical series. Piaget Significance Of Findings: ● Accepted: ○ Schoolage children can use mental categories and subcategories more flexibly, inductively, and simultaneously than younger children. ● Disputed ○ No sudden shift exists between preoperational and concrete operational logic. Vygotsky And SchoolAge Children: ● Role Of Instruction: ○ Education occurs everywhere and knowledge is acquired from social context. ○ Guiding each child through zone of proximal development is crucial. ○ Children are apprentices in learning. ○ Language is integral as a mediator for understanding and learning. ● International Contexts: ○ Vygotsky’s emphasis on sociocultural contexts contrasts with Piaget’s maturational, selfdiscovery approach. ○ Culture affects content and method of learning. ● Examples: ○ Varanasi children. ○ Mexican American Californian children. Cognition: Vygotsky And Middle Childhood: ● Two Ways To Learn: ○ Even when children currently live in the same settings and attend the same schools, they follow family cultural traditions in the way they learn. Information Processing: ● InformationProcessing Theory: ○ Compares human thinking processes, by analogy, to computer analysis of data. ● Like computers, people sense and perceive large amounts of information. ○ Seek specific units of information (as a search engine does). ○ Analyze (as software programs do). ○ Express their conclusions so another person can understand (as a networked computer or a print out might do). ● Learning The Number System (Siegler): ○ Number understanding accrues gradually. ○ New and better strategies for calculation are tried, ignored, halfused, abandoned, and finally adopted. ○ Practice with number lines in order to help them with other math concepts. Memory : ● Memory processes are affected by maturation and experience. ● Sensory Memory (sensory register) : component of the information processing system in which incoming stimulus information is stored for a split second to allow it to be processed. ● Working Memory (shortterm memory) : component of the information processing system in which current, conscious mental activity occurs. ● LongTerm Memory : component of the information processing system in which virtually limitless amounts of information can be stored indefinitely. ● Working memory improves steadily and significantly. ○ Capacity of longterm memory is virtually limitless by the end of middle childhood. ○ Memory storage expands over childhood, but more important is retrieval. ○ As the prefrontal cortex matures, children are better able to use strategies. Advances In Memory From Infancy To Age 11: ● Under 2 Years: Infants remember actions and routines that involve them. Memory is implicit, triggered by sights and sounds (an interactive toy, a caregiver’s voice). ● 25 Years: Words are now used to encode and retrieve memories. Explicit memory begins, although children do not yet used memory strategies. Children remember things by rote (their phone number, nursery rhymes) without truly understanding them. ● 57 Years: Children realize that some things should be remembered, and they begin to use simple strategies, primarily rehearsal (repeating an item again and again). This is not a very efficient strategy, but with enough repetition, automatization occurs. ● 79 Years: Children use new strategies if they are taught them. Children use visual clues (remembering how a particular spelling word looks) and auditory hints (rhymes, letters), evidence of the visualspatial sketchpad and phonological loop. Children now benefit from the organization of things to be remembered. ● 911 Years: Memory becomes more adaptive and strategic as children become able to learn various memory techniques from teachers and other children. They can organize material, themselves, developing their own memory aids. Information Processing: ● Extensive knowledge base makes it easier to master new, related information. ○ Factors Influencing Knowledge Base: ■ Experience. ■ Current opportunity. ■ Personal motivation. ○ Control Processes: ■ Emotional regulation. ■ Selective attention. ● Metacognition: ○ “Thinking about thinking”. ○ Involves ability to evaluate a cognitive task to determine how best to accomplish it, and then to monitor and adjust one’s performance on that task. ○ Improves with age and experience. Language: ● Vocabulary: ○ By age 6: ■ Know most of the basic vocabulary and grammar of their first language. ■ May speak a second or even a third language. ○ SchoolAge Children: ■ Learn as many as 20 new words a day and apply grammar rules they did not use before. ■ Become more flexible and logical. ■ Can understand prefixes, suffixes, compound words, phrases, metaphors, and figures of speech. ● Understanding Metaphors: ○ Schoolage children comprehend and enjoy puns, unexpected answers to normal questions, and metaphors. ○ New cognitive flexibility and social awareness make these funny. ● Pragmatics: ○ Ability to use words and devices to communicate in various contexts. ○ Allow children to change formal and informal codes to fit audience. Adjusting Vocabulary To The Context: ● The schoolage child can switch from one manner of speaking, or language code, to another. ● Each code differs in tone, pronunciation, gesture, sentence length, idiom, grammar, and vocabulary. ● Sometimes people switch from the formal code (used in academic contexts) to the informal code (used with friends). ● Many children use a third code in text messaging with numbers (411), abbreviations (LOL), and emoticons (^_^). Differences In Language Learning: ● Family Poverty: ○ Research shows a strong correlation between academic achievement and socioeconomic status. ■ Language exposure. ■ Adult expectations. ■ Macrosystem resources. Learning In School Context: ● English Language Learners (ELL): ○ Children in the U.S. whose proficiency in English is lowusually below a cutoff score on an oral or written test. ○ Many children who primarily speak a nonEnglish language at home are also capable in English; they are not ELLs. ○ Code changes are obvious when children speak one language at home and another at school. ○ Each aspect of language learning follows a distinct developmental path. Difference In Language Learning: ● Family Poverty: ○ Strong correlation between academic achievement and socioeconomic status. ● Causal factors of low achievement in middle childhood. ○ Limited early exposure to words. ○ Teachers’ and parents’ expectations. Teaching And Learning: ● Learning A Second Language: What Works ○ Research not yet clear as to which approach is best. ● Criteria For Method Success: ○ Literacy of the home environment (frequent learning, writing, and listening in any language helps). ○ National culture. ○ Warmth, training, and skill of the teacher. ● International Schooling: ○ Cultures differ in what they value, but there are some agebased goals. ○ Educational practices differ radically. ○ Variation greater in hidden curriculum. ■ Course selection. ■ Teacher characteristics. ■ Schedules and tracking. ■ Sports. ■ Competition. ■ Extracurricular activities. ■ Physical setting. Learning In School: ● International Testing: ○ Over the past two decades, more than 50 nations have participated in at least one massive international test of educational achievement. ● International Achievement Test Scores: ○ Literacy Study (PIRLS). ○ Trends in Math and Science Study (TIMSS). ● Gender Differences In School Performance: ○ PIRLS: ■ Girls ahead of boys in verbal skills in every nation. ■ Boys ahead of girls in math and science. ○ TIMSS: ■ Gender differences in math narrowed or disappeared (Gendersimilarities hypothesis). ○ Classroom: ■ Girls have higher grades overall; grades dip at puberty. ● Problems With International Benchmarks: ○ Elaborate and extensive measures are in place to make the PIRLS and the TIMSS valid. ○ Designing test items that are equally challenging to all students is impossible. Learning In School In The U.S.: ● Achievement within the U.S. National Standards: ○ No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act. ○ National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). ○ Common Core of high standards. Reading Wars, Math Wars, And Cognitive Theory: ● National Assessment Of Educational Progress (NAEP): ○ Ongoing and nationally representative measure of U.S. children’s achievement in reading, mathematics, and other subjects over time; nicknamed “the Nation’s Report Card.” Learning A Second Language: ● In the U.S., less than 5% of children under age 11 study a language other than English in school. ○ Brain maturation research suggest that later language learning is less effective in middle childhood and beyond. ○ Second language learning in U.S. influenced by political issues (immigration, globalization). ● Approaches: ○ Immersion. ○ Bilingual schooling. ○ ESL/ELL. Determining Educational Practice: ● Overview: ○ Central government sets public education in most nations. ○ Local jurisdictions provide most funds and guidelines in U.S. ● Types: ○ Public schools. ○ Charter schools. ○ Private schools. ○ Vouchers. ○ Home schooling. Middle Childhood: Psychosocial Development The Nature Of The SchoolAge Children: ● Children Between Ages 6 And 11: ○ Attempt to master culturally valued skills and develop a sense of themselves as either industrious or inferior, competent or incompetent. ○ Learn to care for themselves. ○ Often engage in activities without their parents’ awareness or approval. Adults Stay Out: ● In middle childhood, children want to do things themselves. What if parents grabbed each child’s hand and wanted to jump in too (in a pool)...That would spoil the fun. The Nature Of The SchoolAge Child: ● Erikson ○ Industry Versus Inferiority: ■ Fourth of Erikson’s eight psychosocial crises. ■ Characterized by tension between productivity and incompetence. ■ Selfpride depends not just on actual accomplishments, but on how others, especially peers, view accomplishments. ● Freud: ○ Latency: ■ Emotional drives are quiet and unconscious sexualc conflicts are submerged. ■ Children acquire cognitive skills and assimilate cultural values by expanding their world to include teachers, neighbors, peers, club leaders, and coaches. ■ Sexual energy is channeled into social concerns. ● SelfConcept: ○ Contains ideas about self that include intelligence, personality, abilities, gender, and ethnic background. ○ Gradually becomes more specific and logical. ○ Becomes less optimistic as influences from peer and societal influences are incorporated. ● Social Comparison: ○ Comparing one’s attributes to those of other people. ■ Helps children value themselves and abandon the imaginary, rosy selfevaluation of preschoolers. ■ Selfcriticism and selfconsciousness rise from ages 6 to 11. ■ Materialism increases. ● Effortful Control: ○ Ability to regulate one’s emotions and actions through effort, not simply through natural inclination. ○ Reduced by unrealistically high or low selfesteem. Resilience ● Resilience ○ Involves capacity to adapt well to significant adversity and to overcome serious stress. ○ Suggest differential sensitivity. ● Important Components: ○ Resilience is dynamic. ○ Resilience is a positive adaption to stress. ○ Adversity must be significant. Resilience And Stress: ● Resilience: capacity to adapt well despite significant adversity and to overcome serious stress. ○ Resilience isdynamic a person may be resilient at some periods but not at others. ○ Resilience is apositivadaptation to stres if rejection by a parent leads a child to establish a closer relationship with another adult, that child is resilient. ○ Adversity must be ignifican Resilient children overcome conditions that overwhelm many of their peers. Cumulative Stress: ● Accumulated stress over time, including minor ones are more devastating than an isolated major stress. ○ Repeated Stress: ■ Make resilience difficult. ■ Is more devastating than isolated major stress. ■ Includes such things as frequent moves, changes in caregivers, disruption of schooling. Resilience And Stress Coping: ● Coping measures reduce impact of repeated stress. ○ Interpretation of family situation. ■ Parentification. ○ Development of friends, activities, and skills. ○ Participation in school success and afterschool activities. ○ Involvement in community, church, and other programs. Families And Children: ● Shared And Nonshared Environments: ○ Genes affect half or more of the variance for almost every trait. ○ Influence of shared environment (children raised by the same parents in the same home) shrinks with age. ○ Effect of nonshared environment (friends or schools) increases. ● Remember! ○ Children raised in the same households by the same parents do not necessarily share the same home environment. ○ Changes in the family affect every family member differently, depending on age and/or gender. ○ Most parents respond to each of their children differently. Family Function And Family Structure: ● Family Structure: ○ Legal and genetic relationships among relatives living in the same home; includes nuclear family, extended family, stepfamily, and others. ● Family Function: ○ Way a family works to meet the needs of its member. ○ Families provide basic material necessities, to encourage learning, to help development of selfrespect, to nurture friendships, and to foster harmony and stability. Family Function In Middle Childhood: ● Families Help Children: ○ Provide basic material necessities. ○ Encourage learning. ○ Help them develop selfrespect. ○ Nurture friendships. ○ Foster harmony and stability. Diversity Of Family Structures: ● Nuclear Family: ○ Consists of a father, a mother, and their biological children under age 18. ○ Tend to be wealthier, better educated, healthier, more flexible, and less hostile. ○ Has biological and adoptive parents dedicated to their children. Diversity Of Family Structures: ● SingleParent Family: ○ Consists of only one parent and his or her children under age 18. ○ Has children who fare worse in school and in adult life than most other children. ○ Is often lowincome and unstable, move more often and add new adults more often in singlemother households. ○ Involves more than half of all contemporary U.S. children who will live in a singleparent family before they reach age 18. ● Extended Family: ○ Consists of parents, their children, and other relatives living in one household. ○ Includes one in six U.S. families in 2010; particularly common when children are small. ○ Is less costly and more common in lowincome households. ● Polygamous Family: ○ Consists of one man, several wives, and the biological children of the man and his wives. ○ Is rare and illegal in U.S. Connecting Family Structure And Function: ● Benefits Of Nuclear Families: ○ Generally function best. ○ Better educational, social, cognitive, and behavioral child outcomes. ○ Selection effects and parental alliance. ○ Positive effects beyond childhood. ● Function Of Other TwoParent Families: ○ Adoptive And Foster Parent Families: ■ Typically function well; often better than average nuclear families. ■ Vary tremendously in ability to meet child needs. ○ Stepparent Families: ■ Some function well; positive relationships more easily formed with children under 2; more difficult with teenagers. ■ Solid parental alliance more difficult to form. ■ Child loyalty to parents often undermined by disputes. ○ SameSex Couple Families: ■ Generally children develop well. ■ Limited long term studies. ○ SkippedGeneration Families: ■ Generally lower income, more health problems, less stability. ● Function Of Other SingleParent Families: ○ On average, structure functions less well. ○ Lower income and stability. ○ Stress from multiple roles. ○ Benefit from community support. ● Culture And Family Structure: ○ Cultural context always matters and varies in support. ○ In U.S., cohabiting structure is worse for children than marriage due to higher separation incidence. ○ Ethnic norms create differences. ○ SIngle parenthood is differentially accepted and supported. ● Divorce Three Facts: ○ U.S. leads world in rates of divorce and remarriage. ○ On average, children fare best, emotionally and academically, with married parents. ○ On average, divorce impairs children’s academic achievement and psychosocial development for years, even decades. ● Insight From Scholars: ○ Marriage commitments need to be made carefully to minimize the risk of divorce. ○ Once married, couples need to work to keep the relationship strong. ○ If divorce occurs, adults need to minimize transitions and maintain a child’s relationships with both parents. ○ In middle childhood, schools can provide vital support for children who are experiencing family change. Family Trouble: ● Two factors increase the likelihood of dysfunction in every structure, ethnic group, and nation. ○ Low income or poverty. ○ High conflict. Wealth And Poverty: ● Poverty FamilyStress Model: ○ Crucial question to ask about any risk factor is whether or not it increases the stress on a family. ○ Adults’ stressful reaction to poverty is crucial in determining the effect on the children. ○ Effects of poverty are cumulative; low SES is especially damaging during middle childhood. Family Trouble: ● Conflict ○ Family conflict harms children, especially when adults fight about child rearing. ○ Fights are more common in stepfamilies, divorced families, and extended families. ○ Although genes have some effect, conflict itself was a main influence on the child’s wellbeing. The Peer Group: ● Culture Of Children: ○ Particular habits, styles, and values that reflect the set of rules and rituals that characterize children as distinct from adult society. ■ Fashion. ■ Language. ■ Peer Culture. ■ Attitudes. ■ Independence From Adults. Friendships: ● Schoolage children value personal friendship more than peer acceptance. ● Friendships lead to psychosocial growth and provide a buffer against psychopathology. ● Gender Differences: ○ Girls talk more and share secrets. ○ Boys play more active games. Friendship And Social Acceptance: ● Older Children: ○ Demand more of their friends. ○ Change friends less often. ○ Become more upset when a friendship ends. ○ Find it harder to make new friends. ○ Seek friends who share their interests and values. Popular And Unpopular Children: ● Popular Children In U.S.: ○ Kind, trustworthy, cooperative. ○ Athletic, cool, dominant, arrogant, aggressive (around fifth grade). ● Unpopular Children In U.S.: ○ Neglected. ○ Aggressiverejected. ○ Withdrawnrejected. Bullies And Victims: ● Bullying ○ Repeated, systematic efforts to inflict harm through physical, verbal, or social attack on a weaker person. ● BullyVictim: ○ Someone who attacks others and who is attacked as well. ○ Also called a provocative victim because he or she does things that elicit bullying, such as stealing a bully’s pencil. Causes And Consequences Of Bullying: ● Causes: ○ Genetic predisposition or brain abnormality. ○ Parenting/caregiving environment. ○ Peers. ● Consequences : ○ Impaired social understanding, lower school achievement, relationship difficulties. ○ Depression. ● Successful Efforts To Eliminate Bullying: ○ The whole school must be involved, not just the identified bullies. ○ Intervention is more effective in the earlier grades. ○ Evaluation of results is critical. Children’s Moral Values: ● Children Show A Variety Of Skills: ○ Making moral judgements. ○ Differentiating universal principles from conventional norms. ● Influences On Moral Development: ○ Peer culture. ○ Personal experience. ○ Empathy. ● Kohlberg’s Levels Of Moral Thought: ○ Stages of morality stem from three levels of moral reasoning with two stages at each level. ■ Preconventional Moral Reasoning: emphasizes rewards and punishments. ■ Conventional Moral Reasoning: emphasizes social rules. ■ Postconventional Moral Reasoning: emphasizes moral principles. ● Criticisms Of Kohlberg: ○ Pros: ■ Child use of intellectual abilities to justify moral actions was correct. ○ Cons : ■ Culture and gender ignored. ■ Family not included. ■ Difference between child and adult morality not addressed. What Children Value: ● Prosocial Values Among 6 To 11 Year Olds: ○ Caring for close family members. ○ Cooperating with other children. ○ Not hurting anyone intentionally. ● Adult Versus Peer Values: ○ Protect your friends. ○ Don’t tell adults what is happening. ○ Don’t be too different from your peers. Developing Moral Values: ● Throughout Middle Childhood: ○ Moral judgement becomes more comprehensive, taking into account psychological as well as physical harm, intentions as well as consequences. ● Current Research Suggest: ○ Raising moral issues, and letting children talk about them, may advance morality not immediately, but soon. ○ Such conversations might help the child think more deeply about moral values.