Find the equivalent resistance between points A and B shown in Figure 2131.
Learning Objectives Anatomy of the Muscular System Ch. 7 1. Name the 4 types of basic tissues found in the mammalian body - Epithelium - Muscle - Connective - Nervous 2. Give the primary function of the muscular system - Composed of cells designed to relax and contract 3. Name some of the benefits derived form this function - Voluntary - Alimentation - Production of heat - Circulation - Respiration - Protection - Maintenance of posture 4. Briefly discuss the groupings of muscles by their shapes: a. Parallel: fibers parallel, greatest potential but weak arrangement (Abs) b. Fusiform: spindle-like arrangement (biceps) c. Pennate: fan-like, stronger arrangement of fibers but contract over shorter distance (Pecs) 5. Briefly discuss the groupings of muscles by their actions: a. Agonists vs antagonists - Agonist: prime, produce desired reaction - Antagonist: oppose, opposite of agonist reaction b. Flexors vs extensors - Flexors: decrease angle between joint - Extensors: increase angle between joint c. Abductors vs adductors - Abductors: move extremities away from the body - Adductors: move extremities toward the body d. Rotators - Twisting on its own axis e. Circumductors - Cone movement of extremity f. Sphincter muscles - Fibers encircling an opening 6. Name the 2 groups of muscles which flex and extend the elbow - Bicep: flex - Tricep: extend 7. Distinguish: a. Tendon: Fiberous band of collagen CT attaching muscle to bone (periosteum) b. Aponeurosis: Connects flat muscle to bone c. Ligament: Attaching bone to bone 8. Distinguish origin vs insertion of a muscle - Origin: proximal attachment - Insertion: distal attachment 9. Describe changes in muscle appearance: a. Atrophy: loss of nerve supply to muscle and decrease in size from normal b. Hypertrophy: growth in size of existing muscle fibers c. Hyperplasia: increase in size of structure due to increased number of cells