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The following graph plots the first, second, and third

Chemistry | 8th Edition | ISBN: 9780547125329 | Authors: Steven S. Zumdahl ISBN: 9780547125329 153

Solution for problem 145 Chapter 7

Chemistry | 8th Edition

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Chemistry | 8th Edition | ISBN: 9780547125329 | Authors: Steven S. Zumdahl

Chemistry | 8th Edition

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Problem 145

The following graph plots the first, second, and third ionization energies for Mg, Al, and Si.Without referencing the text, which plot corresponds to which element? In one of the plots, there is a huge jump in energy between I2 and I3, unlike in the other two plots. Explain this phenomenon

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Day 1 - Mills -> Sociological Imagination -> developing quality of mind -> bridging history & biography - What we think might be personal troubles might be impacted by public issues o Unemployment  1 person in a city vs. half of city unemployed - Public issue person may not be aware of can still impact them o External vs. internal factors - War -> Boeing o Tech. changes, competition, relocation o Fewer jobs for WA people -> public issue o More people go to college in order to get a job & take care of family o History impacting biographies - Things that happen to you -> not always your fault - Quality of mind -> thinking beyond self o May make best decision for you and family o Better analysis of the situation - Berger -> Invitation to Sociology - “The first tenet of sociology is this: things are not what they seem.” - Ex: Conflict Theory -> describes things as they are* o Haves/Have-nots (hierarchy) ->individual choices place people in this hierarchy o Mostly resonates in the U.S. o *Structure = static – like a building o Student/teacher -> assume students who do well choose to do well -> doesn’t allow us to ask a lot of questions  Maybe they learn differently  Grades reflect teaching, teaching reflects labor -> relational  If they’re integrated, dif. Structure  Educational vs. schooling o Freedom, individual choices, responsibility, equal opportunity, rights - Ontology -> atomistic, individualistic, mechanistic VS. - Relational – Marx - Structure -> can change (doesn’t have to be for the better) - Freedom -> knowing that things are not static & can change o Rules of the system (“game”) that impact H/HN - Wealth in Conflict Theory language -> H/HN, top 1% vs. 99% o Tell 1% to give 99% opportunity -> opportunity for what - Don’t talk about the rules & system o Limits our thinking - Back to labor controlling capitalists & laborers in different ways - Step back & look at it from a different angle o Gives possibility to think of different things  Help H/HN simultaneously o Gap between them doesn’t have to be as big but in the capitalist system there has to be H/HN o Rules can change (i.e. baseball, football, etc.)  Capitalist system in 1800s different than now b/c of this o Keynesian Capitalism -> Democratic Socialism (U.S.)  Social Security, Medicare, Medicaid, Family Leave Act, min. wage o Basque – Spain -> distributism - Too much of a gap -> crazy stuff happens - “Things are not what they seem” o Ask different questions o Think structure is static but it’s no - Other animals born into structures already there o Humans created our own  Doesn’t make sense to think we can’t change it - System currently allows 1& to gain more & more o Not helping 99% as much o 1% isn’t the villain necessarily o change system so there isn’t as much of a gap  as long as we’re capitalists, still going to be a difference - Marx p. 33 paragraph 3 “We must bear in mind… that man’s relation to himself becomes for him objective and actual through his relation to the oter man.” - How do you know you’re a student o Student loans o Enrolled in a program/class o Homework & tests for the class o Stress for high GPA o Rules, norms, values associated w/ students - You become the student when you adhere to the behaviors associated w/ being a student o In relation to the other & structure itself - Don’t just individually create selves - Compare & contrast - Different places in society - Often in relation to something else Day 2 - Aronowitz - Against Schooling o Education -> enjoyable & applicable for the rest of your life - Social class & inequality o If you come from a certain worldview it will lead you down a path -> how your biography is impacted by history - Berger – Sacred Canopy (Processes of worldbuilding fundamental dialectic society) 1. Externalization 2. Objectivation 3. Internalization o Related processes - Everyone has internalized this worldview of liberalism -> our solutions tto problems reflect this - Different understandings of things -> what’s normal, abnormal, etc. o Created o How do they impact us - Externalization o “Ongoing physical & mental activity of man in the world…” (part of it) o Create things o Usefulness of fire o Man creates society (and everything in it) - Objectivation o Conversion of a concept to an object o Fire  Cooking  Keeping warmth o Go back to externalization of matches, lighter/lighter fluid, etc. o Making reality happen o Vessel to show usefulness of what you created - Social interaction - Recognition of the need - Show what to do/what not to do - Prove thing is useful, create a need - Create norms, rules, etc. - Internalization o Know it in your head, become conscious of it o Become habitual -> don’t have to think about it anymore o Through process of socialization we internalize  Family  Peers  Various institutions  Media - Social construction of reality - Didn’t become useful until we made it useful o Fire, water  Out there, not created by man, but man created a usefulness for it  Converted concept of usefulness to it  After a while, habitual  Externalize other things for it - Society doesn’t develop linearly o Take steps backward, rethink things, move forward o Some things have constant progression - How does change occur o Not all things have to change o Not necessary to go from one point to another or constantly move forward o Reliant on us o Institute change  Externalize different use or different way - See something interesting, find use for it, show it to other people, become a norm - In order to show the usefulness of something, have to show it in relation to something else - Concepts can stay the same -> uses and vessels may change Day 3 (Video – Race: The Power of an Illusion, vol. 2: The Story We Tell) - Race is an idea o Constructed by society to further political and economic goals - Thomas Jefferson o “Blacks are inferior to whites” o Articulates theory of race o Wrote “all men are created equal” in the Declaration of Independence  Yet he owned 200+ slaves  Freedom only applies to certain people  Get away w/ excluding them by saying there’s something different about them  “Not quite men”  “Out of the human family” - Used to be distinguished by religion & wealth o Status instead of black & white - Turned to Trans Atlantic slave trade o Replaced indentured servants w/ slaves - “Christian” replaced w/ “white” - “Ego enhancement” & status white people got from racism - Slavery identified w/ Africans o People began to see it as natural - American Indians o TJ saw them as not much different from Europeans o “Naturally white people, just looked different because of sun exposure” o Savages but could be civilized o Other settlers thought they should be driven out o Cheapest/easiest way to avoid war & to acquire land  “Civilize” them  Assimilation  Education, convert from hunters to farmers  Assimilation of black people not supported - Try to call on science to figure out what makes blacks different from whites - Louisiana Purchase o American Indians lived there already - Cherokees transform, on a superficial level, their culture o Treaties ceding 90% of their land to U.S. o Some owned slaves, farmers, Christian, bilingual newspapers, gov’t patterned after U.S. - Taking American Indian lands and giving it to whites - Andrew Jackson 1828 o “Common Man” a.k.a. white men o Removing all American Indians east of the Mississippi is main goal  Indian Removal Act  Trail of Tears  Forced out, relocated, ¼ died - American Indians first told to abandon I.D. o Now told it’s inherent & should be embraced o In other words, they are no longer white people - Manifest Destiny & western expansion o Idea that the West belonged to white Americans - Momentum towards abolition of slavery o Tension builds o Debate over slavery, race, status of blacks o Question over species (are all people of different races the same species) o Trying to use science to back it up  Skull size -> brain capacity  Systematic errors in favor of systematic hierarchy o Race as defense of slavery  Belief of different species, “created as inferior” o Belief it didn’t violate democracy b/c “all men” didn’t apply to black people - Types of Mankind o First time races are distinctly separated & listed - Dred Scott Decision o Enslaved or free could never become citizens - War -> Emancipation Proclamation - When slavery is over -> rationalization for it remains o Would have been different if the justification was “we need their labor & we have the power to do this” - “White Man’s Burden” - World’s Fair o Tech. & cultural exhibits o Also human exhibits in “natural habitats”  Exploitation -> show them as defeated or conquered  Geronimo signing autographs  Recreation of plantation life o “Highway of human progress”  “Who’s in the fast lane”  Hint: it’s white people

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Chapter 7, Problem 145 is Solved
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Textbook: Chemistry
Edition: 8
Author: Steven S. Zumdahl
ISBN: 9780547125329

Since the solution to 145 from 7 chapter was answered, more than 571 students have viewed the full step-by-step answer. The full step-by-step solution to problem: 145 from chapter: 7 was answered by , our top Chemistry solution expert on 11/15/17, 04:25PM. This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: Chemistry, edition: 8. This full solution covers the following key subjects: plots, jump, energies, Energy, explain. This expansive textbook survival guide covers 22 chapters, and 2897 solutions. Chemistry was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9780547125329. The answer to “The following graph plots the first, second, and third ionization energies for Mg, Al, and Si.Without referencing the text, which plot corresponds to which element? In one of the plots, there is a huge jump in energy between I2 and I3, unlike in the other two plots. Explain this phenomenon” is broken down into a number of easy to follow steps, and 50 words.

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The following graph plots the first, second, and third