In general, the higher the charge on the ions in an ionic compound, the more favorable the lattice energy. Why do some stable ionic compounds have 1 charged ions even though 4, 5, and 6 charged ions would have a more favorable lattice energy? 23
Palmer, Spring, 2016 Psychology 2602 Exam #3 Review Sheet Do you understand the developmental sequence of attachment that was proposed by Bowlby Preattachment0 to 6 weeksundiscriminating social responsiveness(whoever provides basic needs) Attachment in the making6 to 8 monthsdiscriminating social responsiveness Clearcut attachment68 months to 18 monthstrue attachment Reciprocal relationship18 months to 2 yearsgoal directed partnership Why did Bowlby suggest that early attachment is so important for subsequent development So, do you know what the IWM represents Bowlby suggested that the attachments you develop when you are young will determine how your attachments are in adulthood. The Internal Working Model(IWM) is the lense you view relationships with and is determined by how your parents raised you and that attachments you developed Are you familiar with Ainsworth’s explanation of the sources of individual differences observed in human attachment styles Do you understand the various types of behaviors – and the differing attachment styles that have been observed in children tested in the Strange Situation Task Causes of variation in attachment: parental differences, characteristics of child and cultural differences SecureChild reacts positively to stranger as long as mother is presnet, becomes upset when mother leaves and is unlikely to be consoled by a stranger, calms down as soon as mother reappears. Anxious/Resistant stays close to mother, becomes upset when mother leaves but is not comforted by her return, simultaneously seeks to renew connection with mom while dismissing mom’s effort. Avoidant indifferent to if mom is there or not, totally comfortable with stranger, may or may not cry and can be comforted by stranger just as much as the mother Disorganized mix of avoidant and resistant behaviors are possibly shown; a “freezing” posture may be exhibited, many kids have lost their primary caregiver Do you understand Main’s attachment styles obtained through the use of the AAI in adulthood, how these connect to the attachment styles found using the Strange Situation task with children Autonomoussecure, healthy relationships Dismissingavoidant, minimize things Preoccupiedresistant, still angry at parents Unresolveddisorganized, still have attachment issues Earned Securityhorrible things happen but they still have healthy relationships because they find some way to forgive or find someone that makes them feel worth the love. Are you aware of the peer classification research that has been conducted That is, what these potential categories are,how those categories are assigned, some of the functioning or characteristics associated with these classification categories The peer classification test is given by asking students to say who they like/dislike or they give the child a class list to go through and say who they like/dislike. Popularoften designated a best friend, rarely disliked. Prosocialknow how to make and keep friends, They are socially skilled, attractive, middle to upper class, outgoing, academically well off. Antisocialknown for athletic ability, different races/ethnicity, lower class, more aggressive and push boundaries in class Averagereceive average positive/negative ratings Neglectedrarely nominated a best friend, not disliked Rejectedactively disliked, infrequently nominated as best friend Aggressivea bully, physical fights and verbal. In person or cyber bullying, believed to have hostile attribution bias, issues with family environment Withdrawnvictims of bullying, some lack social skills Aggressive Withdrawnhas hostile attribution bias, issues with family environment exhibit preemptive strike Controversialfrequently nominated as best friend AND being disliked Can you demonstrate an understanding of the hostile attribution bias, as proposed by Crick & Dodge Within the Rejected category in the Aggressive and Aggressive/Withdrawn individuals will exhibit the hostile attribution bias because of a flaw in fundamental social information processing. Can you show knowledge of how friendships matter, what they are based upon, in adolescence and adulthood compared with childhood In childhood friendship is based upon cognitive and social resources. Adolescence is based upon cliques and popularity. Adulthood is based upon similarities. In adolescence according to Sullivan peers help shape development, are a source of social fulfillment and reassurance of worth. Friendship in adulthood is based on similarities and become less important while they have children of their own. Do you understand the function of friendship termed companionship by Sullivan and how it is demonstrated Peers help shape development. They are sources of attachment, play, intimacy, and social fulfillment. They reassure us of our worth and let us share information. Are you aware of the characteristics of cliques Small groups averaging about 6. Usually same sex, age, ethnicity, and socioeconomic background. Do you understand what research suggests regarding friendships in terms of gender That is, when samesex preferences are first shown, what differentiates male and female friendships during adulthood From age 3 children prefer samesex groups. Males: more competitive, engage in outdoor activities. Women: more close friends, more intimate, talk more. Are you aware of when conformity to peers is at its peak Conformity reaches it peak at about 15 years and then usually drops back down as we age. Can you demonstrate familiarity with the aspects of bullying that are the most frequently reported as having been experienced by U.S. youth Are you aware of the potential consequences for those who engage in bullying, for those who are targets of bullying Being belittled by look or speech is the most common type of bullying but sexual comments/gestures are a close second. Some consequences is that the victims reported more loneliness and difficulty making friends. The bullies were more likely to have low grades, smoke and drink alcohol. Both the victims and bullies had more health problems than other children. Collins and van Dulmen (2006)cited in Santrock followed friendships from the end of adolescence through emerging adulthood and demonstrated a change in the number of friendship relationships for most individuals. Are you aware what the specific change in the number of friendship relationships was The number of friendships into adulthood decreased as we aged. Close relationships between friends, family members and romantic partners were more integrated and similar in adulthood than in adolescence. Do you understand the concept of social referencing Social referencing is the reading of emotional cues to determine how to act in a specific situation Are you aware of trends in leisure activity engagement for U.S adults over the age of 60 years, the particular importance of leisure for middleaged adults Many adults don’t do leisure activities which is a problem because leisure activities prepare us for when we retired. So once people retire they don’t know what to do with themselves. Are you aware of what the socioemotional selectivity theory suggests with regards to the behaviors, goals of older adults Older adults become more selective about their social networks because they place a high value on emotional satisfaction so older adults spend more time with familiar individuals with whom they have had rewarding relationships. The theory also suggests that older adults purposely stop social contact with outsiders and strengthen the existing close relationships that maximizes positive emotional experiences and minimizes emotional risks. Do you understand the connection between the health statuses of unwed older adults whose social interactions include a friendfocused network versus unwed older adults whose social interactions were limited to just their family members and little friend contact Unwed adults who have a friendfocused network are healthier than unwed adults who have familyfocused interactions with little friend contact. Can you differentiate between actions from parents/caregivers that represent emotioncoaching versus those that represent emotiondismissing Emotion Coaching parents will acknowledge the child’s feelings and use it as a teaching moment to help them learn a better way of handling their emotions. Emotion Dismissing parents literally dismiss, minimize or blow off the child’s emotions. Are you aware of what are considered primary emotions, what are considered selfconscious emotions When these develop Primary emotions are present in humans and other animals. They appear in the first six months of the human infant’s development. They are surprise, interest, joy, anger, sadness, fear and disgust. Selfconscious emotions require selfawareness that involves consciousness and a sense of “me”. They are envy, empathy, embarrassment, pride, shame and guilt most occur for the first time at some point in the second half of the first year through the second year. These are formed by experiences and develop over time. Do you understand how Larson and Richards (1994) and Rosenblum and Lewis (2003) – as cited in Santrock demonstrated extreme emotional states may occur for adolescents compared to those experienced by children, adultsHow shift of emotional states are more likely to occur in adolescence than during childhood, adulthood Rosenblum and Lewis say that adolescents are not constantly in a state of storm and stress but emotional highs and lows do increase during early adolescence. Larson and Richards reported that adolescents are more likely to feel extreme and fleeting emotions and that they are more likely to say that they are very happy or very sad.