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Solved: For each of the following groups, place the atoms

Chemistry | 8th Edition | ISBN: 9780547125329 | Authors: Steven S. Zumdahl ISBN: 9780547125329 153

Solution for problem 52 Chapter 8

Chemistry | 8th Edition

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Chemistry | 8th Edition | ISBN: 9780547125329 | Authors: Steven S. Zumdahl

Chemistry | 8th Edition

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Problem 52

For each of the following groups, place the atoms and/or ions in order of decreasing size. a. V, V2, V3, V5 b. Na, K, Rb, Cs c. Te2, I, Cs, Ba2 d. P, P, P2, P3 e. O2, S2, Se2, Te2 1047810_ch08_339

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CCJ3024 Lecture 21 (4/5) Corrections • The emphasis of 'time served' as the response to crime is a relatively recent phenomenon • First institutions established about four hundred years ago but the extensive use of them did not emerge until the 1800's • Prior to that time, responses to crime included: ◦ Retaliation ◦ Corporal punishment ◦ Public humiliation ◦ Workhouses ◦ Exile Age of Asylum (late 1700's early 1800's) • Part of general movement to place problem populations in custody • Increasing urbanization led to dangerous classes being in limited geographical areas • Penitentiary ­ place where criminals could do penance (Philadelphia's Walnut Street Jail converted into prison) ◦ Solitary confinement so inmate could reflect on sins ­ bible reading) Mass Prison Era (1825­1876) • Prison built in Auburn, New York ◦ Congregate system although tried to institute silent system ­ worked in small work groups ◦ To test this new idea they experimented with solitary confinement ­ 83 men placed in small solitary cells and released 2 or 3 years later • 5 died, 1 went insane, 1 attempted suicide, and several others became demoralized • Today we have prison industries system ◦ Mass institutions organized around some functional activity to provide for job training skills and other rehabilitative goals U.S. Prisons • State ­ 1325 • Federal ­ 84 • Private Prisons () • Jails () Prison Population • 1,570,861 inmates (only 112,498 are women) • 1 out of every 108 men were sentenced prisoners in state and federal facilities • 6.6% of U.S. residents born in 2001 will go to prison • Half are sentenced for violent offenses while property and drug offenses make up most of the rest Disproportionately Distributes • African American men are 7 times more likely than whites to be incarcerated • Almost 17% of African American males have served time in prisons • African American male has a 32.3% chance of serving time during his lifetime; black female has a 5.6% chance (as compared to the .9% for white females) ◦ In some cities predictions are even more alarming ­ one study estimated that 75% of African American males in Washington D.C. would be incarcerated during their lifetime Comparative Incarceration Rates (per 100,000) U.S. 702 Russia 628 England 139 Spain 128 Canada 116 Germany 91 France 85 Japan 53 Why are U.S. rates so high • Crime rates ­ overall U.S. is in the mid­range of crime rates for industrialized nations • However, U.S. has higher violent crime rate than most industrialized nations and a higher rate of gun­related crime • Even so, violent crime rate does not account for most of higher rate of incarceration • Study by Blumstein and Beck found that only 12% of the increase in incarceration that occurred in the 1980's and continues today in the U.S. is due to the type of crime committed. 88% of the increase is explained by sentencing policy. • Specifically ­ U.S. is more likely than other countries to have longer sentences for property and drug crimes (study by James Lynch). Sentence length for violent crimes similar across countries Problems with Incarceration • Too structured • School for crime • More interested in custody than rehabilitation • Taking away from community • Artificial environment • Labeling Alternatives ­ community based approaches • Probation and parole • Community based rehabilitation programs ◦ Provide for more responsibility ◦ Keep in community (could be good or bad) ◦ Transition to outside ◦ Cheaper Deinstitutionalization ­ Massachusetts Experiments • Scandals regarding the Massachusetts division of youth services causes director to resign in 1969 • Legislature gave new director more authority • Hired Jerome Miller, associate professor of social work as OSU • Miller goal was to humanize and professionalize the system • Began by reducing length of sentences • Attempts to professionalize thwarted by veteran officers ­ resistance to change and losing jobs • Resulted in showdown between Miller and staff • Miller sought to close down some institutions but did not have authority to do so • But he did have authority to transfer children from one place to another • January 1972 ­ transferred most children ot of institutions into community based programs • Set up 'natural experiment' to research • Harvard Research Team led by Lloyd Ohlin found that juveniles who were deinstitutionalized did not have greater recidivism rates than juveniles who had gone to institutions Probation and Parole • Probation ­ judicial determination that does not involve incarceration but does not involve conditions. ◦ Refers to an alternative to incarceration; not what happens after incarceration • 1841 ­ John Augustus; father of probation ­ asked courts to release someone from jail if he promised to be responsible for that person • Massachusetts first state to enact probation statue in 1878. By 1915, 33 states had them and in 1925, The Probation Act established probation in the federal system • Now over 5 million men and women on probation • Emphasis is on maintaining offender in the community with supervision to prove that they can be crime free • Probation rules: ◦ Drug tests ◦ Drug counseling ◦ Job ◦ Education ◦ People who interact with • If conditions are violated, probation can be revoked • Since revocation would mean being incarcerated, a hearing is required if offender wants one • Importance of suspended sentence or diversion as compared to probation Probation Officer • Supervise or monitor case • Intake report (unless there is a separate intake officer) • Diversion or suspended sentence recommendation (sometimes done by prosecutor or separate officer) • Help in setting up rehabilitation Difficulties with probation • Degree of oversight • Availability of treatments (placements in the community) • Community cooperation Success of probation • Cheaper than incarceration • Not any less effective than incarceration even after controlling for seriousness of offense • 60% successfully complete probation; 40% are rearrested, violate probation rules or runaway • 18% are incarcerated Parole ­ the early release of a prisoner from incarceration subject to conditions set by correctional authorities • 500,000 are released on parole each year • Indeterminate sentence and good behavior results in parole • Can be a substantial amount of the total sentence • Conditions just like under probation • Parole board ◦ Select prisoners to place on parole ◦ Aid interaction with community ◦ Determine if parole should be revoked • Parole officer ­ similar functions as probation officer • Intensive Supervision Parole (ISP) ◦ Reduced caseloads ◦ More frequent interaction and participation in programs ◦ Effectiveness varies with type of offender Most parolees fail • Study of 270,000 prisoners released in 15 states ­ 67.5% are rearrested within 3 years of leaving prison for a felony or serious misdemeanor. 52% return to prison • Key to staying out is stable employment and drug or alcohol program intervention Reasons for Failure • Personal deficits ­ substance abuse, mental health problems • Social deficits ­ self control, peer groups • Economic deficits • Marriage and family deficits • Failure of prison programs to effectively address these deficits What should we do with corrections in the future CCJ3024 Lecture 21 (4/5) Corrections • The emphasis of 'time served' as the response to crime is a relatively recent phenomenon • First institutions established about four hundred years ago but the extensive use of them did not emerge until the 1800's • Prior to that time, responses to crime included: ◦ Retaliation ◦ Corporal punishment ◦ Public humiliation ◦ Workhouses ◦ Exile Age of Asylum (late 1700's early 1800's) • Part of general movement to place problem populations in custody • Increasing urbanization led to dangerous classes being in limited geographical areas • Penitentiary ­ place where criminals could do penance (Philadelphia's Walnut Street Jail converted into prison) ◦ Solitary confinement so inmate could reflect on sins ­ bible reading) Mass Prison Era (1825­1876) • Prison built in Auburn, New York ◦ Congregate system although tried to institute silent system ­ worked in small work groups ◦ To test this new idea they experimented with solitary confinement ­ 83 men placed in small solitary cells and released 2 or 3 years later • 5 died, 1 went insane, 1 attempted suicide, and several others became demoralized • Today we have prison industries system ◦ Mass institutions organized around some functional activity to provide for job training skills and other rehabilitative goals U.S. Prisons • State ­ 1325 • Federal ­ 84 • Private Prisons () • Jails () Prison Population • 1,570,861 inmates (only 112,498 are women) • 1 out of every 108 men were sentenced prisoners in state and federal facilities • 6.6% of U.S. residents born in 2001 will go to prison • Half are sentenced for violent offenses while property and drug offenses make up most of the rest Disproportionately Distributes • African American men are 7 times more likely than whites to be incarcerated • Almost 17% of African American males have served time in prisons • African American male has a 32.3% chance of serving time during his lifetime; black female has a 5.6% chance (as compared to the .9% for white females) ◦ In some cities predictions are even more alarming ­ one study estimated that 75% of African American males in Washington D.C. would be incarcerated during their lifetime Comparative Incarceration Rates (per 100,000) U.S. 702 Russia 628 England 139 Spain 128 Canada 116 Germany 91 France 85 Japan 53 Why are U.S. rates so high • Crime rates ­ overall U.S. is in the mid­range of crime rates for industrialized nations • However, U.S. has higher violent crime rate than most industrialized nations and a higher rate of gun­related crime • Even so, violent crime rate does not account for most of higher rate of incarceration • Study by Blumstein and Beck found that only 12% of the increase in incarceration that occurred in the 1980's and continues today in the U.S. is due to the type of crime committed. 88% of the increase is explained by sentencing policy. • Specifically ­ U.S. is more likely than other countries to have longer sentences for property and drug crimes (study by James Lynch). Sentence length for violent crimes similar across countries Problems with Incarceration • Too structured • School for crime • More interested in custody than rehabilitation • Taking away from community • Artificial environment • Labeling Alternatives ­ community based approaches • Probation and parole • Community based rehabilitation programs ◦ Provide for more responsibility ◦ Keep in community (could be good or bad) ◦ Transition to outside ◦ Cheaper Deinstitutionalization ­ Massachusetts Experiments • Scandals regarding the Massachusetts division of youth services causes director to resign in 1969 • Legislature gave new director more authority • Hired Jerome Miller, associate professor of social work as OSU • Miller goal was to humanize and professionalize the system • Began by reducing length of sentences • Attempts to professionalize thwarted by veteran officers ­ resistance to change and losing jobs • Resulted in showdown between Miller and staff • Miller sought to close down some institutions but did not have authority to do so • But he did have authority to transfer children from one place to another • January 1972 ­ transferred most children ot of institutions into community based programs • Set up 'natural experiment' to research • Harvard Research Team led by Lloyd Ohlin found that juveniles who were deinstitutionalized did not have greater recidivism rates than juveniles who had gone to institutions Probation and Parole • Probation ­ judicial determination that does not involve incarceration but does not involve conditions. ◦ Refers to an alternative to incarceration; not what happens after incarceration • 1841 ­ John Augustus; father of probation ­ asked courts to release someone from jail if he promised to be responsible for that person • Massachusetts first state to enact probation statue in 1878. By 1915, 33 states had them and in 1925, The Probation Act established probation in the federal system • Now over 5 million men and women on probation • Emphasis is on maintaining offender in the community with supervision to prove that they can be crime free • Probation rules: ◦ Drug tests ◦ Drug counseling ◦ Job ◦ Education ◦ People who interact with • If conditions are violated, probation can be revoked • Since revocation would mean being incarcerated, a hearing is required if offender wants one • Importance of suspended sentence or diversion as compared to probation Probation Officer • Supervise or monitor case • Intake report (unless there is a separate intake officer) • Diversion or suspended sentence recommendation (sometimes done by prosecutor or separate officer) • Help in setting up rehabilitation Difficulties with probation • Degree of oversight • Availability of treatments (placements in the community) • Community cooperation Success of probation • Cheaper than incarceration • Not any less effective than incarceration even after controlling for seriousness of offense • 60% successfully complete probation; 40% are rearrested, violate probation rules or runaway • 18% are incarcerated Parole ­ the early release of a prisoner from incarceration subject to conditions set by correctional authorities • 500,000 are released on parole each year • Indeterminate sentence and good behavior results in parole • Can be a substantial amount of the total sentence • Conditions just like under probation • Parole board ◦ Select prisoners to place on parole ◦ Aid interaction with community ◦ Determine if parole should be revoked • Parole officer ­ similar functions as probation officer • Intensive Supervision Parole (ISP) ◦ Reduced caseloads ◦ More frequent interaction and participation in programs ◦ Effectiveness varies with type of offender Most parolees fail • Study of 270,000 prisoners released in 15 states ­ 67.5% are rearrested within 3 years of leaving prison for a felony or serious misdemeanor. 52% return to prison • Key to staying out is stable employment and drug or alcohol program intervention Reasons for Failure • Personal deficits ­ substance abuse, mental health problems • Social deficits ­ self control, peer groups • Economic deficits • Marriage and family deficits • Failure of prison programs to effectively address these deficits What should we do with corrections in the future

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Chapter 8, Problem 52 is Solved
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Textbook: Chemistry
Edition: 8
Author: Steven S. Zumdahl
ISBN: 9780547125329

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Solved: For each of the following groups, place the atoms