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Compare your answer from Exercise 66 to the H value

Chemistry | 8th Edition | ISBN: 9780547125329 | Authors: Steven S. Zumdahl ISBN: 9780547125329 153

Solution for problem 74 Chapter 8

Chemistry | 8th Edition

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Chemistry | 8th Edition | ISBN: 9780547125329 | Authors: Steven S. Zumdahl

Chemistry | 8th Edition

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Problem 74

Compare your answer from Exercise 66 to the H value calculated from standard enthalpies of formation in Appendix 4. Explain any discrepancies.

Step-by-Step Solution:
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Memory • Thesystemthatallowsustoretaininformationandbringittomind • Informationprocessingsystem:thereare3basicprocessesthatmakememorypossible o Encoding:convertinginformationintoaformusableinmemory o Storage:retaininginformationinmemory o Retrieval:bringingtomindinformationstoredinmemory • Memoryretrieval:theprocessofaccessingandbringingintoconsciousnessinformation storedinmemory • Retrievalcues:stimulithathelpgainaccesstomemories • Contextclues:typesofretrievalcuesthatcanaidourretrievalofmemories • Tipofthetonguephenomenon:theinabilitytoretrieveinformationthatfeelsasifit’s justoutofyourreach Memorystages • Sensorymemory⇒shorttermmemory⇒longtermmemory • Sensorymemory:thestoragesystemthatholdsmemoryofsensoryimpressionsfora veryshorttime(3-4secondstops) o Iconicmemory:asensorystoreforholdingamentalrepresentationofavisual imageforafractionofasecond o Eideticimagery:alingeringmentalrepresentationofavisualimage o Echoicmemory:asensorystoreforholdingamentalrepresentationofasound forafewsecondsafteritregistersintheears • Shorttermmemory:thememorysubsystemthatallowsforretentionandprocessingof newlyacquiredinformationforamaximumofabout30seconds(alsocalledworking memory) o Chunking:theprocessofenhancingretentionofalargeamountofinformation bybreakingitdownintosmaller,moreeasilyrecalledchunks o Themagic7:youcanholdupto7bitsofinformationinshorttermmemoryata time o Maintenancerehearsal:theprocessofextendingretentionofinformationheld inshorttermmemorybyconsciouslyrepeatingtheinformation • Longtermmemory:thememorysubsystemresponsibleforlongtermstorageof material o Consolidation:theprocessofconvertingshorttermmemoriesintolongterm memories o Elaborativerehearsal:theprocessoftransferringinformationfromshorttermto longtermmemorybyconsciouslyfocusingonthemeaningoftheinformation • Semanticnetworks:arepresentationoftheorganizationalstructureoflongterm memoryintermsofanetworkofassociatedconcepts • Typesoflongtermmemory o Declarativememory:factualinformation § Type:semanticmemory(memoryforfacts),episodicmemory(personal experiences) § Timeframe:retrospective(memoryofpastexperiencesandacquired information),prospective(memoryoffutureactions) o Proceduralmemory:actions,perceptualmotorskills,conditionedresponses, emotionalmemories(ex:ridingabike) • Flashbulbmemories:enduringmemoriesofemotionallychargedeventsthatseem permanentlyburnedintothebrain Forgetting • Decaytheory:thebeliefthatmemoriesgraduallyfadeanddeteriorateovertime • Massedvsspacedpracticeeffect:thetendencyforretentionoflearnedmaterialtobe greaterwithspacedpracticevsmassedpractice • Forgettingcurve • Interferencetheory:thebeliefthatforgettingistheresultoftheinterferenceof memories o Retroactiveinterference:newinformationimpairspreviouslylearned information o Proactiveinterference:whenoldinformationinterfereswithnewinformation o Serialpositioneffect:thetendencytorecallfirstandlastitemsinalistbetter thanitemsinthemiddle § Primacyeffect:thetendencytorecallitemsbetterwhentheyarelearned first § Recencyeffect:thetendencytorecallitemsbetterwhentheyarelearned last • Retrievaltheory:forgettingistheresultofafailuretoaccessstoredmemories o Howcantheretrievalprocessbreakdown § Encodingfailure:memoriesareneverstoredduetoalackofencoding • Ineffectiveencoding:memoriesareneverstoredduetolackof attention § Lackofretrievalcues § Tipofthetonguephenomenon • Repression:atypeofdefensemechanisminvolvingmotivatedforgettingofanxiety evokingmaterial • Waystomeasureforgetting: o Measuresofretention § Recallmeasure:requiresapersontoreproduceinformationontheirown withoutanycues • Freerecall • Serialrecall • Pairedassociatedrecall § Recognitionmeasure:requiresapersontoidentifyinformation previouslylearned • Amnesia:lossofmemory o Retrogradeamnesia:earlymemoryloss o Anterogradeamnesia:latermemoryloss AnatomyofMemory • Hippocampus:essentialtotheformationofnewmemoriesoffacts,general information,andlifeexperiences • Thalamusdamagecanresultinamnesia • Amygdala:involvedinencodingemotionalinformation • Longtermpotentiation:thelongtermstrengtheningoftheneuralconnectionsasthe resultofrepeatedstimulation o ScientistssuspectthatLTPmaybeneededforlongtermmemory PoweringupMemory • Usingmnemonics o Acronyms o Acrostics o Popularsayingsandrhymes o Visualcuesandimagery o Chunking • Suggestionsforimprovingmemory o Payattention o Practicetooverlearn o Useexternalmemoryaids o Linktimebasedtaskstoexternalcues o Don’tmemorize,justgoogleit o Controlstress o Adopthealthyhabits

Step 2 of 3

Chapter 8, Problem 74 is Solved
Step 3 of 3

Textbook: Chemistry
Edition: 8
Author: Steven S. Zumdahl
ISBN: 9780547125329

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Compare your answer from Exercise 66 to the H value