Benzene (C6H6) consists of a six-membered ring of carbon atoms with one hydrogen bonded to each carbon. Write Lewis structures for benzene, including resonance structures.
Sociology 3315 – Final Review Guide 1.) Major difference between Social Movement (SM) and Social Movement Organizations (SMO’s): SM Typically under the radar and don’t openly publicize as we would expect. Like an iceberg. SMO’s Are the public face and voice of SM’s. Typically the SM’s will remain after the SMO’s end, but every once and awhile the SMO’s last longer (March of Dimes). SMO’s cannot be created in autocracies. The people have no say and are not allowed to form organized groups. ** Terrorists are SMO’s. ** Terrorism is something you resort to when you’re small and relatively powerless. *There is not a lot of difference between Terrorism and SM’s. Though it is not their goals to focus on. It is their tactics! Early social movements gained supporters due to grievances. They society requires a grievance to be motivated to join a certain SM **Most important things: Do they have an area to mobilize on How bad was the triggering Events (4) And how far will the social control go (6) The grievance theory has been placed aside and replaced with three other theories (slide 1) Mass society theory doesn’t accurately fit the SMO’s, but can really apply to terrorism. Theory has been mostly rejected, but should be reevaluated in this light. ** Why grievances aren’t enough Movement of Crisis: Not typically socially wide as a whole. These aren’t lifethreatening movements, these are issues people feel passionate about. These movements typically define a person’s identity. 2.) Framing If you have an opinion about anything in the free world, it is more than likely a frame. Frames are the currency of SMO’s. If you change the mind, you can change the world. Which is from the Idealist school. Bridging Allows a common cause with a common enemy. Though they probably will never be Able to coexist 100% peacefully. They come together on one issue to fight the common enemy. Extension Extends the SMO’s original goal to another. Sometimes this is required to keep the SMO alive. Amplification Used to reinforce the meaning of the SMO’s. Ex: The 911 hijackers went to strip bars and / or watched porn before the actual crime. Could (1) reinforce their detest for the “seediness” of the west or (2) could reinforce their desire of the reward in the afterlife (sex). Transformation Like an organism, they rarely die, Typically change to keep the SMO group alive. Ex: The March of Dimes was originally created for the cure for Polio. We’ve cured it since then, so they MoD has jumped to the next big thing to be conquered. 3.) Muslim brotherhood probably singlehandedly the most successful group. MBH in every location gave birth to Hamas, ect. Palestinians have become somewhat modernized; Israelis wanted to counter this in the early 90’s. Killings at the Mosque Massacre (1994) is used as justification as what is to come. Implied suicide bombings came after the massacre, but that is not true. The “Middle East Peace Process” does not exist. ** Sharon Military / Spec Ops back ground and wants to stir the pot. Temple Mound: on top of the Dome of the Rock extremely prevelent mosque. The Dome needs to be destroyed so the Temple Mount can be rebuilt according to the prophet. Between 20002005 is when the wall was beginning to be thought of. The aid was cut off to Hamas because it had been blacklisted as Terrorists. Bombed indiscriminately because they don’t truly care who they kill. They get the rockets from the black market which decreases the accuracy, though they do not really care. ** The lack of numerous casualties was not from the lack of trying. They shot thousands Of rockets, but the quality of the weapons decreased the casualty rate. 4.) Hezbollah: Shia has been the majority Muslim population from Lebanon and on. Why do we believe Hezbollah = Jihad Very organized and funded. This was not some radical working from his basement. Doesn’t have the signature of Hamas. Both groups will interact in transnational terrorism. ** Modern Islam Census is very old!! Shia still dominating, unknown of how much. Christianity has shrank dramatically. Maronites, coastal population and heavy in trade. Druze considered infidels by other Muslims. Gran has heavy Hezbollah domination. ** The Middle East Peace Process is really a graveyard for US presidents. ** Will never work, MEPP, after 9/11. ** Segregation will keep a sliver of peace. Which is why the UN owns these specific lands. One of the few places where the UN peacekeeping seems to work. Due to strong backing of the US and Afghanistan government. 5.) Islam last of 1 of 3 great theisms (monotheism). Muhammad had the “audacity” to question if these idols within the great Mosque even existed. People payed to pray to these idols and the “owning” family was not pleased. Muslim armies take these areas in Muhammad's name. Prime example of zealotism. Initial conquest of Islam incorporates 70% of its reigning land. Important to notate that Spain was involved. The slaying of Muhammad’s descendent led to the Persian regime. Persia becomes very powerful. Iraq = Doom. Because of the Suni, Shia and the Curds all oppose one another. 6.) **Wahhab was a fundamentalist. Wahhab Islam is an internal movement and he never Emphasized the term “jihad” as a means to spread the faith. ** Saying Wahhaby terrorism is a thing would be like saying Jesus endorsed the Crusades. This has become a bastardization of Wahhab’s true belief and teaching. ** Salafism predates Wahhabism. Unlike Wahhabism, Salafism focuses on the lesser Jihad as the “near” enemy as well as the “far” (West) enemy. Wahhabism should not be used with such general and negative connotations; The sects out of Egypt are the terrorism sects (Salafy). Almost NO Wahhabies are terrorists and only sects of Salafies are terrorists, but not all. 7.) The lesser Jihad should become the sixth pillar and the greater should be destroyed. i.e. No more individualization. Take Islam out of religion and make it a political necessity. **You need to take on the far enemy (West) because they are the ones funding these tyrannical dictators. This is welcomed because it takes focus away from Arab, Turkish, Islam, ect and focuses on the West. Which falls back to the age old Muslim v Christianity conflict. ** When the lose they have radical thoughts, but this is normal for anyone who believes they’re Going to win. Muslims are NOT unique in this mindset and reaction base. 8.) Theory that oil states are destined to be ruled under a dictatroship with little to no interest in the people. ** When the price of oil (gas) stabilizes, so does the economy. With a spike of oil comes a dip, or tank, in the economy (in the 20th century). ** “No blood for oil” is a bullshit statement. We run on oil, all countries MUST protect our economy! This is why presidents cannot ignore the middle east and our oil supply. We may become less and less (slowly) dependent on oil. But the surplus has become incredibly tight. **This is NOT “supply and demand.” This is “surplus” and lack thereof. 9.) Human Ecology theory applies your basic biological energy/food chain to social systems. Key Function What links this location to the greater population as well as providing means for us and the “environment.” Which is Money. This will regulate the area, and what the environment looks like. ** If you know the KF of an industry in an area, you can figure out how the people live their life in that area. ** Build an economy through differentiation and specialization. Specialization becomes interdependent. You can do less for yourself because of this. Creates a web of dependencies. You cannot change one thing in an economy without affecting other. Isomorphism When a niche is similar, the creatures will look alike. It will provide these models because this type works well for this niche. ** By combining all of these factors constantly, you get a very complex social system. K Key Function I Interdependence I Isomorphism D Differentiation D Dominance ** Problem of oil industry Under very hostile regimes and 3rd world countries. Capital Intensive You have to have a ton of money to start. Fixed You simply cannot move a tapped well. Global Market Actually is global. Few Multipliers Once tapped takes a small work force which means most profit goes to the government. 10.) Dualistic People who are with the oil company (very well off) and those who aren’t. Authoritarian Does not have to listen to the people because the government owns the money. Inequalities Morals can go unchecked. Urbanization Unhealthy: government loves urban locations because that is where the money is. Corruption Now have to pay off the government if you want anything. War Machine Creates a military to make sure they stay in control. Rational over spending on People. “You” don’t need money or support from people to succeed you have oil. Now you need to create a safe guard against your opposition. *** Solution Privatize the oil fields away from these governments and dictators. Spread the money around. *** 11.) Intelligence Community CIA is the only stand alone agency. They only have to answer to the National Security Council. The Reconnaissance office was lost, predominantly, in the post and have been replaced with satellites. Army, Navy, AF, and Marine are all separate departments because they are focusing on different issues. This division is the “wall of separation.” DHS is the umbrella agency. This is designed to deal with all homeland security, it is the catch all for everything inland. Up to 911, the FBI did not have an Intelligence unit. Since then, they have expanded and are now heavily reliant on intelligence. Dept. of State, this department makes sure that officials are well informed on aspects they will be facing in field and with other agency. Dept. Energy, Nukes. Simple as that. Dept. of Treasury * This department has been the most successful regarding terrorism. It goes where the money goes, which feeds the terroristic movements. By tracking the money we can track movements, progress and depletions in radical groups. 12.) Types of Intelligence 1. Human CIA: Seen as the cadillac of intelligence. This type of Intelligence is the type that been dying. 2. Signals NSA: Any type of information that is sent electronically, is the province of NSA. Tons of linguists work in this departments. NSA hires all kinds of different people. 3. Imagery Geospatial: Satellites. This intelligence has skyrocketed over the past few decades. There are some limits because it requires public actions but it is still growing rapidly. 4. Measurement Military: This is essentially all of the other senses aside of from seeing. They use this for “sniffing” out nukes. 5. Open Source Entire Community: Scholars are going through public domain information, looking for clues to help aid in progress. ** The two most prevalent intelligence that has helped the most in the past few years are Signals and Open Source. 13.) Organizational Structure of DHS Secret Service used to its own agency, but now it is a part of DHS. National Guard is still not here because they are still tied to the military. Which is good because the sheer military power is useful to fight overseas. ** This is a TON of information, power and networking to be coming out of one department. Argument that it has created another level layer of bureaucracy that doesn’t really even help the intelligence that is actually helpful. This is not really the answer. But this is how federal government always acts in response to an attack.