Write the Lewis structure for O2F2 (O2F2 exists as FOOF). Assign oxidation states and formal charges to the atoms in O2F2. This compound is a vigorous and potent oxidizing and fluorinating agent. Are oxidation states or formal charges more useful in accounting for these properties of O2F2?
M 4/11/2016 WEEK 3 Lecture #5 Part 1: The Politics of Establishing a Military; Reconciling Liberty with Military Effectiveness Key Terms • Republicans vs Federalists • Coastal Defense • St. Clair’s Defeat • Frontier constabulary • 2 and 3 Amendments • Quasi war with France • Uniform Militia Act • Calling Forth Act • Newburgh Conspiracy • Continental Army pensions • American anti-‐war tradition • Professionalization Key Places • Tripoli • Veracruz Key Concepts • Military as a political/ Constitutional issue • Origins of a US military and transformation of dual-‐army tradition Uniform Militia Act (1792)-‐ Not what Washington Wanted • Washington’s Idea was that the militia needed to have common uniforms and weapons, and such • New England militias had always been stronger o Better organized, better supplied o Puritan society • Southern militias were hit and miss (true until civil war) • The act ended up doing very little o Not a set of strong standards o Laid out strong standards, but left it up to the state if they wanted to adopt or not The Legion of the United States • Dual Policy: Treaties and a new army (depended on treaties but used army as back up) o One hand: there is a Legion of US, other hand: each state has own militia § Legion of the United States • Anthony Wane was first Leader • 5280 men and officers • Battle of Fallen Timbers (1794) o Lots of trees down from a storm o LOUS was victorious; finally shines; able to execute dominance in the West o Faced about 500 Native Americans o Important for Indians: when they left the battle they went to find safe haven in the British Forts and they turned them down o Made treaties with Native Americans as if they were foreign nations o Congress has some powers, President has some powers The Politics of Forming a Military: Frontier Constabulary • Out on Western Frontier • Established to keep the peace • LOUS was part of this • Most people did not want to serve here o Bad food o Bad medicine o Awful discipline; poorly trained; recent immigrants-‐ needed something to do o Necessary for Republicans and Federalists, but not a desirable duty Whiskey Rebellion (1791: Western PA) • Imagine this being mirrored in several other states, about the same time period • Congress started raising taxes and the farmers in that area don’t like it; largely a federalist government and a republican controlled area • Congress can’t use LOUS because out in the west, so Calling Forth Act • For the first time, President calls several different militias • The civilians backed down when the militiamen came Calling Forth Act (1792) • Allows president to call up the militia o Congress delegated that authority to the President • They all responded and they sent thousands of militiamen 1794 Navy • Republican vs Federalists • New coastal forts, arsenals • Six frigates (Federalists) o Big ships to deal with other Navies o Republicans didn’t want to pay for it § Thought it was inviting a war 1798-‐1800 Federalists and the Quasi Wat with France: Marine Corps, Six 74-‐gun ships, Larger “New Army” • Makes an Anglo-‐ American Treaty o Gives English most favored nation trading status o Upsets the French: Americans are growing closely with British § Seize American ships § French demand a huge bribe when they talked about diplomacy and that upset the Americans, and started the Quasi War with France • Scared a lot of Americans o Started to get behind idea of a big, robust military o Congress created the Marine Corps § Within Department of Navy § Allowed for the building of the 74-‐gun ships and a bigger army o Federalist stronghold is NE, NE is aligned with Britain Passive Military Approach (C. 1800) • Jefferson o Republicans looked west for Trade, Land, Diplomacy o Federalists looked at East o Reduce national debt; spend less money § If you were in debt, you were not free o Non-‐involvement, defensive § Reduced military § A few frigates, small army, militia, forts § Gunboats • Military Peace Establishment Act (1802) o Tried to create peace b/w federalists and republicans about the future of the military § Corps of Engineers § West Point 1801-‐1805 Tripoli: Pirates and Gunboats • Pirates in Tripoli effectively used gunboats o Shallow draft; fast; armored up to medium army; good at patrolling waterway § Jefferson liked this idea and brought the idea of gunboats to the US • War with Tripoli o Americans had already been paying bribes to the pirates/ privateers of Tripoli; raiding US shipsà US navy was sent to deal with it West Point 1802 • Comes on the heels of the changes to the military • In New York 1803-‐1815 Napoleonic Wars • In Europe: what happens in Europe affects the US for the next several decades-‐ Eruption of the Napoleonic Wars • Let loose the Tyrant, Napoleon, who went to conquer Europe • His tactics shape US tactics at least through the end of the civil war C. 1805 British Pressing US Sailors into Service • One of the first things that come out of the Napoleonic Wars, is another battle in the Atlantic • British and French navies battling each other on big ships o In order to fill the ships, British press US sailors into their service to serve on British ships • HMS Leopard stopped the USS Chesapeake, boarded the ship, said that it was looking for British deservers, but also took some US sailors and pressed them into service, even though the US and Britain had a treatyà begins the animosities that lead to the War of 1812 War of 1812 • US Navy o US had small navy: 16 total warships; 7 frigates (big ships)à 3 heavy: the US, Constitution, President § 1300 privateers by 1815 o Royal Navy: 600 warships (globally) o Madison’s reluctanceà Madison didn’t want to fight this war, unpopular war o Against republican values: means a bigger navy, more ships, more taxes o Rarely have countries go to war so reluctantly o War about trade; US government hasn’t solidified ideas about foreign policy; lots of ambiguous causes USS Constitution • Big ships had a lot of successes early on In the Atlantic: USS United States V HMS Macedonian • Congress said no more one on one ship battles early in the war The West • British forts out there • Tecumseh o Native man who was a political leader o His brother was called the prophet; moved around to native groups talking about importance of Indian Confederacy § Seeing the racial division: Indians Vs. Whites • Native alliance, supplied by Britain • Wm. Henry Harrison and the Battle of Tippecanoe (1811) o Finally, the US is successful at defeating the Indian Alliance o Tecumseh is killed and alliance breaks down War of 1812 • Four uncontrolled theaters • Perry on Lake Erie o “Met the enemy and they are ours” à turned around in 1960s “we met the enemy and they are us” • US suffers series of losses o Massacred by Indians at ft. Deerford • Battle of Thames • Naval engagements • Andrew Jackson in the South o Fighting the Creeks Indians in New Orleans § Internal civil war among Creek Nation and Jackson exploited that civil war using some Creeks as allies o Hates Indians • Toward end of war 185 (wen Nap is finally defeated in Europe) it looks bad for America because since England is done with France, they can turn all their attention to America Treaty of Ghent • Americans Embraced myth of defeating Britain o Stood toe to toe with Britishà but in reality, they lost as many battles as they won • Last European-‐ American War for a century • US looked inward Summary 1785-‐1815 • Military, a political battlefield o Early parts of developing military for constitution is highly political • Money and region o Very divided over money, debt and, taxes: linkage to freedom and liberty • War of 1812 ended American-‐ European Conflicts Part 2: Professionalization: Theory and Practice Context: 1815-‐1845 • The market and Industrial revolutions • Professionalization of the military • Military acquiring territory and aiding capitalist development • Sense of capitalismà new technology • Manifest Destiny: Racism, Providence, and Territorial Expansion o 1830s-‐40s o Hardening ideas about race/racism o Further belief that God is directly involved and interested in seeing America succeed Post 1815 Nationalism • 12,000-‐man peacetime army • Professionalization o Classes going into West Point • West Point and Annapolis (US Naval Academy) • General Staff o Officers in the US Military: Quartermaster, inspector, adjutant, etc. o Who is in command § Generals in the field President Who Napoleon’s Influence • Schools and Philosophies o Prussian Kriegsakademie o Clausewitz, On War (1831) § Stressed need for decisive battle § Getting your enemy to come fight you o Jomini, The Art of War (1838) § Stressed need for logistics and intelligence Napoleonic Tactics • Massed troops and massed fire o Moved troops quickly and massed fireà drove other army before them • Decisive battle o Not hardships on civilians, or destroying their crops, but decisive battle • Mobility o Ability to move army quickly and get good positions à on the high ground • Infantry, cavalry, artillery • Bayonet Charges • High-‐Intensity warfare and the American Context 1820-‐40 USS Navy: USS Dale • Move away from big ships (Frigates) and relied more on small, maneuverable, faster, cheaper to build ships o Wanted to keep up with and defend merchant fleets Annapolis (1845) • Navy officers are trained here (naval academy) Industrial Revolution • Technical changes with professional changes • Lots of new things being developed o Percussion caps, mercury fulminate (instead of using powder in the rifles) o Cylindro-‐conoidal bullets (Claude E. Minie) o Rifled Bore muskets o Breech loading and repeating rifles (by end of civil war) (don’t have to reload each time) US Military Looking West • Railroads, canals, telegraph lines, etc. being build to get people out to the west and exploit the resources of the West • Miners, Cow herders, timbermen, farmers are all out there to turn the west into capitalist enterpriseà getting into conflicts with Indians • Soldiers’ experiences o No glory, manual labor § Dig your own fort and ditches à Lots of construction o Lots of Suicide o Little chance for promotion o Poor conditions o Low Morale W 4/13/2016 Week 3 Lecture #6 Part 3 (continued from last lecture): National Expansion and Manifest Destiny Key Terms • Manifest Destiny • Indian Removal • Second Seminole War • War with Mexico • Filibusters • Napoleonic Tactics Key Places • Veracruz • Nicaragua Monroe Doctrine (1823) 3 Principles • 1. The US will oppose any new colonial interventions in the Americas (esp. France and Russia) • 2. US will abstain from European wars • 3. To S/B/F/P: Do not interfere with development of Latin American nations! • Independence: people should be able to determine their own force National Expansion • Implications for the Western Hemisphere • Attitudes toward Europe o They need to stay on their side • What about continental N America o Protectorate of the West o A lot of native territory o Largely Mexico o Indians Manifest Destiny • "…our manifest destiny to overspread the continent allotted by Providence for the free development of our yearly multiplying millions.” – 1845 John O’Sullivan or Jane Cazneau • God has ordained us for Americans to fill up the continent Territorial Expansion • Army to fight Indians, chart territory, build roads • Navy to map coastlines o Wilkes Expedition 1841 § Map out the borders of the Puget Sound Indian Removal • Indian Removal Act 1830 o Andrew Jackson (first 2 term president in a long time) à famous Indian Hater from the South o 5 civilized tribes: creeks, Choctaw, Chickasaws, Cherokee and Seminoles were being moved to the newly established territories (reservations) § Trail of tears 1838-‐39 Cherokee moving to Indian Territory in a harsh winter; many people died on the way § The Seminoles in FL decided to stay and fight § US Army had to deal with the native people (escort them), and they were not happy with it and didn’t want to do it o There was land that whites couldn’t take because of the treaties with the Native Americans but during Jackson’s presidency, congress worked on the Indian removal act which allowed the fed government to renegotiate with Indians over lands that had previously been held with Treaties § In Georgia, settlers went onto land and squatted there on Cherokee lands and the Cherokee asked the state of Georgia to do something about it, but they wouldn’t, so the case went to Federal Supreme Court… • Worcester v. Georgia 1832 o Georgia Citizens laws did not extend onto Native Lands o Federal government was responsible to move the settlers off of the native land, BUT Jackson was in charge so he didn’t enforce what the supreme court had said o John Ross (Cherokee Leader) said they had had enough Seminole Wars/ US Annexation of FL (1835-‐42) • Terrain of FL made the resistance possible • Seminoles put up successful fight against the armies for many years Second Seminole War • Incredibly unpopular in the US because it sucked a lot of money and materials • Resisted the US army for about 7 years • 10,000 US troops engaged • 30,000 militiamen • Millions of dollars spent • Low-‐Intensity guerilla war • Seminoles had the defensive • Because of the expense and number of men being used, US army gave up and the Seminoles remained Mexico and the US 1823 • Mexico got independence from Spain in 1821 • Mexico was trying to get more people to settle because they saw the US looking at it US citizen’s right to land 1830s • Gente de razon (People of reason), gente sin razon (people without reason) US Immigration to Texas • 3,000 illegal immigrants by 1830 • Mexican response: assimilation program and cheap land • 30,000 non-‐assimilated Americans by 1835 • Political unrest among Tejanos and Texans (US citizens) as Mexican politics shift • Land owners wanted to bring their slaves, but Mexico had already outlawed slavery • Texas was part of Mexico for a long time, but US wanted to annex Texas Race and Expansion • “The Anglo-‐ Saxon race” (The better race) o People living in CA/TX has to define themselves in clear ways as the people who they see as ‘not them’ o Defined in opposition to: Blacks, Indians, Hispanics, Catholics Election of 1844 • Whigs put Henry Clay as their presidential candidates • Democrats appear to be running Martin Van Buren • The two decided they would leave slavery out of the election, but the democrats found that wasn’t what they wanted, so they changed their candidate to Polk because he would talk about slavery (wanted to expand) and he wanted to annex TX • Polk “54-‐40 or fight!” American Anti War Tradition • Loyalists in the Revolution • Republicans during the Quasi War • Federalists during the War of 1812 • Abolitionists, Pacifists, Whigs during the 1840s US War with Mexico 1846-‐1848 • In TX there is a series of rivers running to the gulf • US claimed their border as the Rio Grand but Mexico saw a different border, so there was a dispute • President Polk Sent troops across Nueces River in TX o Mexico now saw that they were being invaded o US Thought they were being invaded when Mexico tried to fight back § Polk to congress: Mexico “invaded our territory and shed American blood on American soil” Northern Mexico • Mobility o “flying artillery” dragoons • Gen. Taylor “old rough and ready” • Infantry, artillery, cavalry o Artillery were incredibly important: they didn’t have many, but the direction, rate of fire, placement was decisive o Mexican army still using smooth bore muskets that couldn’t fire very far nd 2 engagement: Battle of Resaca de La Palma • Cavalry Charges back and forth • Occasional infantry charges Southern Mexico • Reduced army, but good officers from West Point (Lee and Grant) o Training, discipline • Winfield Scott “Old Fuss and Feathers” o In charge of expedition to land in Vera Crus and land in Mexico City § Biggest amphibious landing in history at this point § Bombardment of Vera Cruz § Successful taking of the city; but, now they are stuck at Vera Cruz, and the seasons are training, and it is about to become Yellow Fever season; Mexico knows this too, so they put up a defense at Cerro Gordo to trap the Americans (where in a few weeks, they could all die of yellow fever) § But, Lee was really good at flanking maneuvers, so they went up the cliffs with all of the cannons and were able to capture the high ground § The next day, the commanding officer, Twigs, sent two different units to attack the Mexican units and send them running § Scott continued to push the Mexicans back; he had to move quickly because a third of his soldier's time in the army is almost up and they want to go home § When the got to Puebla, Scott let go of his supply train and decided his army was going to live off of the land because guerillas of Mexicans kept attacking the supply train § He eventually won and took Mexico City and bring an end to the war Treaty of Guadeloupe Hidalgo (1848) • Expanded the US into the continental nation that it is today: AZ, NM, CA o Few weeks later, gold was found in CA Moving West • Nicaragua and the California Gold Fields o Most people who went to the CA gold fields went through Nicaragua (there was no Panama Canal yet) § Faster and safer Filibusters (1850s); Linking Domestic and Foreign Policy • William Walker put together an Army, went to Nicaragua, exploited an ongoing civil strike and he and his Nicaraguan allies won the conflict and he declared himself president • Then he went to Honduras to do the same thing, and they killed him Sum Up • War with Mexico was a war of territorial gains • Expansionist notions tied to racism, slavery, capitalist expansion, territorial incorporation • US Military at the vanguard of change • Military had benefitted from professionalization, training