Give the expected hybridization of the central atom for the molecules or ions in Exercises 81 and 87 from Chapter 8.
Biology 111: Concepts of Biology Study Guide Chapters 14-16 Chapter 14 14.1 A) Summarize the contributions of various scientists to evolutionary theory 14.2 B) What are the pieces of evidence for evolution a. Fossil record, biogeography, comparative anatomy, comparative embryology, and molecular biology C) Describe the steps in the theory of natural selection a. Overproduction of offspring occurs, variation within those offspring lead to competition, and the best suited variations experience higher reproductive success, so the next generation looks more like those successful variations D) Distinguish between natural and artificial selection a. Artificial selection is when humans pick favorable traits i. Ex: breeding fat cows together to make more beef. b. Natural Selection is when nature selects for or against certain traits. i. Ex: there are giraffes with short necks and giraffes with long necks. But natural selection favors the long-necked ones because they can reach leaves on higher trees, making them more likely to survive, reproduce, and pass on their traits. There are still short- necked giraffes, but much less of them. E) Explain how the fossil record, biogeography, comparative anatomy, embryology development, and biochemistry all support the hypothesis of common descent a. They all provide evidence that backs the others up. It is like a big puzzle and with all of these you can see that they work together Chapter 15 15.1 A) Describe directional, stabilizing, and disruptive selection a. Directional selection occurs when one extreme is more successful. Stabilizing selection occurs when the average is more successful, and disruptive selection occurs when both extremes are more successful. B) Explain how heterozygotes maintain variation in a population and summarize the concept of heterozygote advantage a. Only phenotypes that are displayed can be selected for or against, so a recessive allele may not experience selection in a parent. In a case where stabilizing selection occurs, heterozygotes showing intermediate phenotypes may be more successful. Likewise, if the environment changes and the recessive allele becomes better suited as a result of that change, than more homozygous recessive individuals may be able to survive and reproduce. 15.2 C) Explain how microevolution occurs when allele frequencies change from one generation to the next a. Genetic mutation, gene flow, nonrandom mating, genetic drift, or natural selection is occurring D) Demonstrate the Hardy-Weinberg principle a. Three worked out problems available on study soup. E) Describe how mutations, gene flow nonrandom mating, genetic drift, and natural selection can cause allele frequencies to change in a population a. Gene flow allows certain individuals to enter and leave with their genes b. Genetic drift is the random change in gene frequencies making some genes and alleles more frequent c. Mutations chance alleles, genes, and chromosomes d. Nonrandom mating can affect the allele frequency if some organisms in a population do not mate due to their ability to find/attract one e. Natural selection increases or decreases the contributions of some individuals Chapter 16 16.1 A) Define a biological species a. A group of organisms who can reproduce and make viable offspring B) Describe limitations of the biological species definition and what it applies to. a. It only applies to species who reproduce sexually. b. Challenges arise when trying to apply it to species like bacteria who reproduce asexually, or plants who can do either. It can be further complicated by examples that are globally distributed (again like bacteria), or isolated based on recent events (like tigers in India and tigers in Russia). C) Distinguish between pre- and post-zygotic barriers and identify examples of each a. Prezygotic barriers are anything that prevent formation of a zygote (fusion of male and female gametes). Like any form of isolation. b. Postzygotic barriers are anything that prevent that zygote from developing and being able to reproduce. Like reduced fertility D) Compare and contrast allopatric and sympatric speciation, and describe how each can result in new species a. Similar in that they both result in new species, but allopatric involves geographic isolation, sympatric does not. b. Allopatric results in speciation as the isolated populations adapt to changes in new local environments or different selective pressures, or through things like bottle necking and genetic drift. Sympatric often involves genetic changes such as chromosomal mutations, and is more common in plants. E) Explain how new species can arise through adaptive radiation a. A population of given species, which we'll imaginatively name species 1, moves into a new habitat and establishes itself in a niche, or role, in the habitat. In so doing, it adapts to its new environment and becomes different from the parent species. If a new population of the parent species, 2, moves into the area, it too will try to occupy the same niche as 1. However, the niche rule states that only one of a group of closely related species may occupy the same niche in a given habitat. Competition between species 1 and 2 ensues, placing pressure on both groups to adapt to separate niches, further distinguishing them from each other and the parent species. As this happens many times in a given habitat, several new species may be formed from a single parent species in a relatively short period of time. Darwin's finches are an excellent example of adaptive radiation. i. http://www.sparknotes.com/biology/evolution/speciation/section3.rhtml 16.2 F) Contrast the gradualistic and punctuated equilibrium models of evolution a. Graduated equilibrium proposes slow and steady accumulation of changes that leads to speciation over time. b. Punctuated equilibrium proposes long periods of relative steadiness, separated by sudden drastic or rapid changes. G) Explain some of the ways mass extinctions have occurred, and how this opened the door for new species a. Shift in tectonic plates, major volcanic eruptions, meteor impacts, and climate change coupled with rising and falling sea level have all contributed. As these cause the environment to change major shifts in survival strategies may occur 16.3 H) Identify levels of Linnaean classification from broadest to most specific a. Domain, kingdom phylum, class, order, family, genus, species b. Ways to remember it: i. Dumb Kids Playing Cards On Freeway Get Smashed ii. Did King Phillip Come Over From Great Spain I) Be able to explain and interpret information from phylogenetic trees when presented with it. He will specifically look for you to be able to address ideas such as in groups and out groups, genetic relatedness, and time. Also, be prepared to address how convergent evolution can make cladistics challenging, and why other pieces of evidence for evolution can be so important. J) Contrast homologous and analogous structures a. Homologous structures are anatomically and embryonically similar in origin, but dissimilar in function. For example, the arm of human and the foreleg of horse, whale, and bat. b. Analogous structures are anatomically and embryonically dissimilar, but perform similar function. Examples: the wings of insects, birds and bats. K) Define cladistics and how this method can be used study evolutionary relationships a. A method of classification according to the proportion of measurable characteristics that they have in common. It is assumed that the higher the proportion of characteristics that two organisms share, the more recently they diverged from a common ancestor. L) Describe the characteristics of the three Domains of living organisms a. Archaea and Eubacteria are prokaryotes. b. Archaea favor extreme environments, eubacteria favor non-extreme environments, but both lack membrane-bound organelles. c. Eukaryotes have membrane bound organelles Extra: There are 4 common misconceptions about evolution o Organisms evolve o Poorly adapted organisms sacrifice themselves for the good of the species o Adaptations occur because organisms want or need them o Evolution perfects organisms What are the two definitions of evolution o Descent with modification o Change in allele frequency over time What are the types of mutations discussed in class o Point – changes one base Silent Codes for same amino acid Missense Codes for different amino acid Nonsense Codes for a stop codon o Frameshift Insertion Inserts a base Deletion Deletes a base Compare and contrast punctuated and gradual equilibrium. How do these relate to branching and non-branching evolution o Punctuated equilibrium is when change comes in spurts. There will be a time where there is very little change and then there will be times with one or more huge changes o Gradual equilibrium is when change happens more gradually. Small variations over a long period of time o It is harder to tell when speciation has taken place with gradual equilibrium so it is more likely to be non-branching evolution, whereas with punctuated equilibrium there is a big change that is easier to identify speciation and is branched evolution