Indigo is the dye used in coloring blue jeans. The term navy blue is derived from the use of indigo to dye British naval uniforms in the eighteenth century. The structure of the indigo molecule is a. How many bonds and bonds exist in the molecule? b. What hybrid orbitals are used by the carbon atoms in the indigo molecule?
Real Estate Investment Economics Wednesday, March 30, 2016 12:53 PM Cash Flow Equation Scheduled receipt -vacancy & collection losses +unscheduled income =Actual receipts -operating expenses =Net operating income -capital reserves -debt service = CASH FLOW Scheduled Receipts Total income you would receive if ALL units were rented at FULL price Vacancy and Collection Losses Money no received as a result of Unit used for employee housing Units used as model Unit vacant: unable to rent Unit discounts, concessions Unit rented but resident not current with rental payment Unscheduled Income Income that is much less dependable, such as that received form Clubhouse rental Vending machines Laundry facilities Carport/garage fees Pet fees Operating Expenses - Cost of doing business… Office Supplies Personnel expenses Utilities Marketing Maintenance Debt service Money used to repay bank, mortgage company, or other lender for money preciously borrowed Capital Reserves Money set aside on a regular basis, which accumulates in order to finance major rehabilitation and construction projects such as: Roof replacement Appliance replacement Flooring replacement Additional physical amenities - pool, clubhouse Cash Flow The amount of money available to return to investors Setting Rent Levels Owner's objectives Positive cash flow Increased value Financing leverage Consideration for income groups Low income o Pay 30% of their income Limited income o Must be careful not to be too much more expensive than the competition or you will lose these people Adequate income o Just be competitive Ample income o Provide a lot of services and amenities Methods for setting rents Comparison to competition What the market will bear Per square foot Per Square Foot Determine the total amount of income needed per month (80,000) Determine the total square footage of rentable space (110,000) Rent per sq ft = 80,000/110,000 ($0.73 per sq ft) 800 sq ft apt = $584; 1200 sq ft apt = $876 Subjective considerations Layout o Certain layouts are more desirable Amenities o More bathrooms, washer and dryer, dishwasher View Level Status o Top floors can be seen as a higher status Demand o If you have less one type of unit you may be able to charge more for it Rent adjustments Downward adjustment o Lowering the rent can lower the value of the property o Methods Coupons Concessions Deficiency discount "bruised" apartments Upward adjustments o Vacancies Physical vacancy Empty units Economic vacancy Units used for model units or employee housing Less than Procee 5% d 5-8% Cautio n More than Wait 8% o Concessions None Procee d 1 month Cautio n 2 months Wait + o Delinquencies Less than Procee 1% d 1-2% Cautio n More than Wait 2% o New construction in the area Little Procee d Some Cautio n Much Wait Tips for raising rent o Once a year o Graduated rents $17 increase for 6 months then $33 o Odd amounts People are more likely to think it is for repairs and costs o Adjust for desirability o Fix up before increase o Charge for improvements o Offer an improvement package o Lead time Let tenants know in advance o Test on vacancies Insurance in the apartment industry Purchased by the owner but administered by the manager Terms Deductible o What you have to pay prior to insurance funds Co-payment Replacement value vs actual cash value o You want to be insured for Replacement value What is covered Fire damage Vandalism or malicious mischief Loss of rental income Mechanical equipment Plate glass Business furnishings Business equipment Natural disasters General liability o Damage Employment practices and liability Errors and omission o Not embezzlement or fraud just honest mistakes Hired auto o Employee was injured in a vehicle doing work Host and liquor liability Fire liability Crime coverage Multi-property coverage o Can save money Workers compensation o Covers medical expenses and salary of employees injured on the job o Obtain certificate of insurance form contractors and subcontractors DOCUMENT EVERYTHING How to handle property losses Protect the residents o Have arrangements ready At a local hotel, red cross Protect the property from further damage Restoration contractors o Have numbers ready before something happens Working with the media Follow company policy o Generally someone from corporate will handle interactions with the media (risk management specialist) Do not volunteer information Do not admit liability Remind residents that they need their own insurance coverage Budgets Types Net operating income (NOI) budget Cash flow budget Monthly budget o Tracks regularly occurring income and expenses Quarterly budget o Tracks seasonal costs Annual budget o Overview of entire operation for investors Major expenditures budget Capital reserves budget Preparing a budget Realistic figures Seasonality Acceptable variances Income categories Apartment income o Regular income Other scheduled income o Parking and pet fees Vending income o Washers and dryers Non-scheduled income o Clubhouse rental Expense categories Utilities Services Supplies Payroll/related expenses Advertising Management Legal Insurance Real estate taxes Repairs/maintenance Age makes maintenance fees increase The first 4 years wont have much Once you get to the 5th year your maintenance budget should increase by 7% each year Managers should have a business plan in addition to a budget Owners objectives Property analysis Resident profile Area assessment Market analysis Financial analysis Internal/external forces Business alternatives