How could you tell experimentally if TiO2 is an ionic solid or a network solid?
History of Landscape Architecture The Renaissance in Italy Environment - Paris was the focus of French life and classical landscape - French landscape (around paris is relatively flat wooded areas (hunting) Social History - Charles III invaded Italy in 1495 and experienced the Renaissance - Francis I invited Italian artist including Vignola and Leonardo da Vinci like to his Chateau at Ambois - Under Louis XIII, Cardinal Richelieu was the actual ruler (1624-1642) - Louis XIV created in his palace at Versailles a civilization of pleasure that had no equal - French revolution occurred in 1789 Transition from Medieval to Renaissance in France - The architectural style in medieval France was gothic - 16 century was a transition period from medieval to renaissance - Therefore, the landscape became a blend of indigenous medieval French Gothic style and renaissance style - Gradual influence of the renaissance on the Chateaus landscape architecture Ex. Of High Renaissance: Chateau de Richelieu - He introduced a new concept of comprehensive planning and space design - Chateau de Richelieu was a unified design, carved out of woods, with decorative canals, and inclusive of a town as a subsidiary element Ex. Of French Baroque Landscapes 1. Vaux de Vicomte- completed in 1661 - For Nicolas Fouquet - First major work of Andre le Abtre - Majestic scene of ground architecture carved out of dense woodland - Axes and radial avenues project beyond property lines towards the horizon and disappears into the woods (called a goosefoot) - Architecture is secondary to landscape architecture - Scale expands outwards to become more heroic rather than domestic - Using sunken canal as a element of surprise - Moat (medieval element) 2. Chateau de Chantilly: 1662-82 - Original site is comprised of old triangular castle surrounded by a lake - Landscape did not have any particular design or shape - Le Notre created new axis - Unlike Vaux de Vicomte, he did not feature the house at the center of the axis but at the side - Chateau is secondary to landscape - A canal is at a right angle with the axis - Water becomes the unifying element that embraces Chateau and the gardens - Scale of landscape is vast in comparison to building 3. Versailles: 1661-1687 - Landscape design by Le Notre for Louis XIV - Massive scale - Louis’ bedroom aligned at the center of a goosefoot that joined the town with the Chateau - Contained 50 groups of fountains and many many different elements found around the grounds