Assuming that the mechanism for the hydrogenation of C2H4 given in Section 12.7 is correct, would you predict that the product of the reaction of C2H4 with D2 would be CH2DOCH2D or CHD2OCH3? How could the reaction of C2H4 with D2 be used to confirm the mechanism for the hydrogenation of C2H4 given in Section 12.7?
WWI: Course of the War I. Strategies A. Schlieffen Plan: Put together in 1905; a German plan to invade France from the north, where France wouldn’t expect it. Meant crossing through Belgium, violating the official neutral nature of Belgium. Germany would send the bulk of their army through Belgium in a sweeping motion to take over Paris. Tried to use this in fall 1914 in the hopes of knocking France out of the war early so that Germany wouldn’t be fighting a war on two fronts with Russia on their other side. B. First Battle of the Marne (1914): German armies stalled; armies were using 19 century th offense with 20 century defense. France dug in 475 miles of trenches 710 feet deep, and Germany couldn’t get through. The line never moved more than 10 miles. Between the French trench and the German trench was noman’s land. Offense meant jumping out of your trench, running across noman’s land, and using a rifle/bayonet against the defense that was safely in the trench and fighting back with machine guns. a. Became a war of attrition. Goal was to grind and wear the other side down. b. Noman’s land was often fortified with barbed wire, which was originally invented in America to hold cattle. Offense had to climb over or crawl under the barbed wire, making them easy targets for the defense. c. Life in trenches was horrific. Water was often up to the knees, sometimes even up to the armpits. There was a large rat population, drawn by corpses. Flies too. Feel would rot because they were constantly wet. C. Verdun (1916): 700,000 deaths D. Somme River: 60,000 British in one day II. Stalemate and choices A. Obvious solution was o bring in new allies. Germans recruited the Ottoman Empire; Britain and France brought in America in 1917. America originally saw the war as a European conflict and didn’t want to get involved, but was sympathetic to Britain and France. a. Germany used submarine warfare to cripple British in particular. When they attacked a British ship named the Lusitania in 1915, killing over a hundred Americans. America was outraged; Germany backed off submarine warfare, delaying America’s involvement until 1917, when submarine warfare resumed and America went to war. B. New fronts: mostly to distract the allies and spread their forces thin. Gallipoli was a battle in the Ottoman Empire that failed epically, engendering nationalism in New Zealand because New Zealand soldiers were sent to their deaths. a. T.E. Lawrence was a British man that had lived in the Middle East and knew the culture well. Was tasked with engendering nationalism in the Ottoman Empire. C. New weapons: people are working really hard to make new weapons to turn the tide of the war. One was the tank, meant to be able to traverse noman’s land, but was not really successful until World War II. Planes were weaponized, fighting in “dogfights” above the trenches and dropping bombs. The biggest innovation, however, was gas. Tear gas had a temporary blinding effect. Chlorine gas was worse; it killed by asphyxiation. The worst, however, was mustard gas, causing tissues to blister, which could take days or weeks to kill and was excruciating. III. Entrance of U.S.: April 1917, crucial to turning the tide, brought new blood to the fight. IV.Withdrawal of Russia: WWI was a disaster for Russia, led to the Bolshevik revolution; pulled Russia ut of the war in 1917 V. End of War: 1918 VI.Treaty of Versailles: Britain, France, and America win; Britain and France, in particular, are furious; treaties signed in France, where FrancoPrussian treaties were signed. A. “War guilt” clause: blamed it on Germany, led to incredibly harsh conditions dealt out to Germany. Had to pay a huge fine, wasn’t allowed to have army/navy (only 100,000 soldiers). B. Territorial provisions: AlsaceLorraine went back to France; Germany lost all colonial possessions, lost eastern territory to Poland, Ottoman Empire officially broken apart. Yugoslavia created. VII. Effects were huge. Loss of life was unprecedented. Set up decolonization. Women took more jobs (contributed to women’s movements. Soldiers would never be the same. th A. Lost generation: ideals of the 19 century; people turned to the government to fix things. Russian Revolution I. Russia on the Eve of the Revolution A. Rapid social and economic change: industrialization; Russia was late to the game, but when industrialization finally comes, it is sudden and rapid. The middle class, in particular, become bigger and more powerful, and they want political power, but the government was a monarchy and was still run by a tsar. It does have a representative assembly known as the Duma, but its relationship with the tsar is not great. The peasant class hadn’t been emancipated from serfdom until 1861, and all they wanted was their own land. Stolypin passed reforms that allowed some to get land, but the majority worked for the Mir. B. World War I: got involved very early; committed 15 million troops, and lost half of them before the end of the war. The war created economic dislocation and a shortage of food. Russia was literally starving. It was so bad that in 1915, Tsar Nicolas goes to the frontline himself to try to alleviate some of the misery. C. Government: was seen as corrupt and incompetent. Rasputin grew very powerful in the government; he was a con artist, and convinced Alexandra, Tsar Nicolas’s wife, that he could heal her hemophilic son. She allows him to become politically powerful when it seems to be working. II. March Revolution (1917): Moderate in nature, middle class revolution A. Strike in St. Petersburg: March 8, 1917; started by women as food riots. The tsar’s response is to abolish the Duma and send troops to end it. The soldiers take pity on the crowd; they vote to disobey orders and end up becoming part of the revolution. March 12, Nicolas abdicates and the Duma becomes the new government, the Provisional Government, meant to be temporary. They choose Kerensky to be the head of their new government (prime minister) B. Problems of the War: the Provisional Government chooses o continue to be involved in the War a. In Russia, soviets have developed in major cities/towns. Activists for more reforms. b. Marxist inspired political parties helped the soviets form. III. Bolshevik Revolution: much more radical A. Arrival of Lenin: Marxist revolutionary; spent time in prison in Siberia for criticizing tsar’s rule, was exiled from Russia and lived throughout Europe. With all that was happening, he decides to go back to Russia, aided by the Germans, who want him to destabilize Russia and knowing that he will take Russia out o the war if he succeeds. Arrives in April 1917 and begins to campaign. B. Lenin’s Interpretation of Marx: Marx believed that revolutions had to happen on their own at the right time. Lenin said that the time was now; sometimes you have to fast forward things, using intellectuals to indoctrinate people had to encourage the unhappiness of the people. Bolsheviks go through soviets and talk to people, on the slogan “Peace, land, and bread”; would pull Russia out of the war, pass huge land reforms, and make sure that everyone was fed. C. St. Petersburg soviet: like the nerve center of all the soviets; by November 1917, Bolsheviks had acquired control of this soviet and through it, all the others. D. Civil War: breaks out because of Bolshevik influence. Lasted until 1922 between reds (Bolsheviks) and whites (antirevolutionaries). Britain, the US., France, and other countries sent support for the antirevolutionaries out of fear. IV.Lenin’s Russia: In 1922, the reds win the war. A. New Economic Policy (NEP): 1921; meant to be an emergency measure, but evolved and reverted to capitalism. Offered profit incentive. Meant to inspire productivity, and it worked. Stalin was not happy with it as he saw it as encouraging capitalism. B. Constitution and the Communist party: Communists not specifically mentioned in the constitution, but they still controlled everything. Russia becomes totalitarian state. Soviet Union Under Stalin I. Lenin’s successors: Stalin vs. Trotsky: Lenin died in 1924, only two years after the end of the revolution. A. Trotsky’s “Permanent Revolution”: The revolution must continue; for Marxism to succeed, it needed to go beyond Russia and become an international movement. B. Stalin’s “Socialism in one country”: Socialism needed to e built up in Russia first and be successful before it could be exported to other countries. C. Stalin’s victory: by 1928, Stalin was the undisputed leader of Russia. Was not an intellectual like Lenin and Trotsky, but was politically located very strategically and used this to create his own network in the government, a power base that Trotsky didn’t have. Trotsky was exiled in 1929 and took refuge in Mexico until his assassination in 1940. Stalin built a totalitarian state, a nation controlled by a dictator and one political party. Always fighting an enemy (in this case, capitalism). II. Five Year Plans (1928) A. End of NEP: the NEP had worked, but there was evidence that the effects were positive but finite. Stalin despised NEP; saw it as reversion to capitalism, created a class a wealthier peasants called Kulaks and Stalin particularly hated them. Five Year Plans would replace NEP with socialist industrialization B. Goals and economic objectives: goal was to change Russia into an economic superpower. Goals: 1. In five years, triple heavy industry production, 2. Double smaller industries, and 3. Increase by 50% agricultural production to support and sustain industrialization. C. Peasants and land hunger: all the peasants had wanted for centuries was to own their own land, but the five year plans collected peasants and all their land, livestock, and equipment (this was called collectivization) D. Peasants resisted, many of them destroying their equipment and livestock rather than have to turn it over to the government. Made huge damages in agricultural sector. Half of the livestock in the Soviet Union perished, leading to huge famine. Probably 20 million people died in the 1930’s. Kulak disappeared, many of them executed in huge massacres. E. Factories: economic miracle, met objectives. Set staggering objectives on individual workers. Set daily quotas. Stakhanov was a (probably fictitious) Russian who was said to meet the daily quota 16 times over (most likely just propaganda) F. Russia, by the beginning of WWII, was the 3 largest industrial superpower in the world. III. Life in Stalinist Russia A. Terrorism, purges, and show trials: Stalin executed and purged millions for political reasons. Anyone who was perceived as not entirely socialist, or capitalist leaning, was killed. Stalin’s own wife, after admitting where people could hear, that Russia was suffering, committed suicide under questionable circumstances. There were show trials where people were forced to sign confessions and were executed, as young as twelve years old. Many people were shipped off to labor camps, where about 1/3 died within the first year. Ethnic minorities were targeted, like the Jews and the Muslims. 3040 thousand officers were executed because Stalin was paranoid and wasn’t completely assured of their loyalty. B. Housing and necessities: there was a shortage of basic consumer goods. Shortages in housing and food; people did without st C. World’s 1 socialist country: was a beacon of hope internationally to Marxists that socialism could be successful. D. Propaganda: incredible censorship of literature, the media, and intellectuals. a. Lysenko ran biochemistry experiments that were designed to prove Marxist theories. Was trying to prove that acquired characteristics could be genetic, that by changing the environment you could create a better world.