Consider the following generic reaction: Some molecules of A2B are placed in a 1.0-L container. As time passes, several snapshots of the reaction mixture are taken as illustrated below. 2A2B1g2 2A21g2 B21g2 Which illustration is the first to represent an equilibrium mixture? Explain. How many molecules of A2B reacted initially?
PY 372 EXAM 2 STUDY GUIDE STEREOTYPES, PREJUDICE, & DISCRIMINATION Beliefs that people have about individuals based on their membership in a social group are called Stereotypes In Gordon & Postman’s classic 1947 experiment, participants were shown a subway scene w/a black man dressed in a suit & a white man brandishing a razor. After the sixth re-telling of the scene, in the majority of cases, the Razor changed hands from the white man to the black man The outgroup homogeneity effect occurs when we perceive everyone in our group to be _____ & everyone in their group to be _______. Different; the same A person who holds to the stereotypes that ex-mental patients are dangerous is more likely to notice & remember when an ex-mental patient commits a serious crime. This is an example of ______. The illusory correlation Sagar & Schofield found that when black & white sixth-grade boys saw ambiguous pictures of black & white boys bumping into each other All the participants judged the behaviors to be meaner & more threatening when they were performed by black boys In Sherif’s classic Robber’s Cave study, what was finally effective in promoting peace between the ‘rattlers’ & ‘eagles; The introduction of a goal that required cooperation The formation of stereotypes involves 2 processes: ___________ & perceiving one’s ingroup as being different from out-groups Categorization Realistic conflict theory views all hostility between groups as emanating from Competition for limited resources When Rubin asked new parents of boys & girls to describe their babies Girls were described as softer/smaller, boy as larger/stronger When a woman behaves as aggressively as men do, she is likely to be seen as more aggressive than the men because of Contrast effect A negative feeling toward persons based on their membership in certain group is called Prejudice In Steele & Aronson’s study of stereotype threat & academic performance, black students did significantly worse on a test when the test was described as an IQ test Just because he’s black, Quincy was invited to try out for the school’s basketball team, & just because he’s black, his father was refused membership in the local country club. The 1 event reflects _______, whereas the 2 nd event reflects ______. Stereotyping; discrimination In meeting the conditions for the contact hypothesis, the Brooklyn Dodgers provided for equal status among team members, personal interactions, dedication to the common goal of winning games, & Support from the owner, managers, & coaches The best strategy for avoiding the influence of stereotypes is to Activate thoughts about individual members Face-ism is a term coined by Archer to denote that newspapers & magazines tend to show A greater portion of the face in pictures of men as compared to pictures of women We tend to see our ingroup as homogeneous When we perceive a threat to our group or its identity Which of the following conditions fosters ingroup loyalty & outgroup prejudice Having one’s self-esteem highly invested in the group 3 factors enable us to disregard stereotypes & judge others on an individual basis. These are personal info, cognitive ability, & motivation What is the status of racism in contemporary America Blatant racism hardly exists, but a subtler form of racism has surfaced. The idea that small gender differences are magnified in perception by the contrasting positions occupied by men & women in groups is most consistent w/ Social role theory Which of the following best defines a stereotype A set of beliefs held about individuals because they belong to a certain social group Tony is ultraconservative. Upon hearing the views of someone who is politically moderate, Tony perceives that person to be ultraliberal. His reaction is best illustrates A contrast effect Jennifer is a 3 grade teacher who often has her class work on activities that can be accomplished only when each student makes an important contribution. The learning method she has applied is called the Jigsaw classroom One explanation for the outgroup homogeneity effect is that Those outgroup members w/whom people do have interactions often constitute a biased sample Research by Leinbach & Fagot (1993) suggests that children can distinguish people based on sex as early as 9 months’ old To bring about the greatest change in a person’s stereotype of a particular group, it would be best if the person witnessed Many individuals from that group who are perceived as representative of the group behaving in a manner somewhat inconsistent w/the stereotype The residents of Swampland struggle hard to make a living. In contrast, the residents of Fertile Ground find it easy to make a living. The residents of Swampland don’t like the residents of Fertile Ground, believing that the Fertile Ground residents are doing much better economically. The Swampland residents’ prejudice stems from Perceptions of relative deprivation The effect of stereotype threat on intellectual tasks Can be produced by using simple techniques such as having a person indicate his or her ethnicity in advance Steven thinks athletes are not the brightest group of students. He interviews an athlete at his school & elects to ask the athlete very basic questions that can only be answered simplistically. After the interview, Steven reviews the athlete’s answers &, b/c they are rather simplistic, assumes that his predictions of athletes are accurate. Of the following, this example best illustrates Confirmation bias It has been shown that if people suppress a stereotype, they may use stereotypes more in subsequent judgments compared w/people who did not initially suppress a stereotype. However, this rebound effect has been shown to be less likely when The stereotype is one that people strongly reject The idea that people favor ingroups over outgroups in order to enhance their self-esteem is most consistent w/ Social identity theory Which of the following will reduce the use of stereotypes in judgments of an individual Personal info about the target individual Among the following, which statement about gender differences is most accurate Men & women differ in some ways, but people exaggerate these differences Svetlana has negative feelings about Americans. Her Feelings toward Americans constitute Prejudice In modern racism, people are more likely to display prejudice in all of the following circumstances except when they Perceive the situation to be unambiguous A display of outgroup prejudice by an individual whose ingroup esteem has been threatened will be most likely if the individual’s ingroup is Small, the individual’s status in the ingroup esteem is NOT secure, & the individual identifies strongly w/the ingroup. Andrea believes that racial conflict between gangs in her city can be reduced if they meet on neutral territory under peaceful conditions. Andrea’s thinking exemplifies The contact hypothesis Illusory correlations perceived between a trait & membership in a group are more likely when the trait is _______ & the group is _______. Distinctive; small. In the study by Crocker & others (1991), the self-esteem of African-American participants changed the least when they received Negative feedback from a white student who could see them Looking @ oneself in a mirror is likely to decrease the correspondence between one’s attitudes & behaviors False Attitudes can be influenced by cues from the body, such as nodding one’s head or flexing one’s arm True If you do a favor for someone whom you don’t particularly like, it will make you like that person False Social Psychologists can now measure that people are not even aware they have True Subliminal self-help tapes are highly effective as long as consumers believe that the tape will work False Putting people into groups on the basis of gender, race, & other common attributes is not necessarily negative or bad True People tend to assume that there is greater similarity among members of outgroups (consisting of people of other religions, political parties, sex, etc. than their own) than there is among members of their ingroup (people who share their religion, political party affiliation, sex, etc.) True Hatred is an innate behavior False Stereotypes are usually accurate False People intentionally use negative stereotypes of others to make them feel better about themselves False Exposing people to members of a group about whom they have negative stereotypes will lessen prejudice & discrimination False Children do not engage in gender-based judgments until they are in grade school False Women who display more masculine-like traits are more likely to succeed in male-dominated jobs False Brown v Board of Education of Topeka (1954) succeeded in virtually eliminating prejudice in the public schools that were desegregated False Stereotypes are not harmful to people unless they result in prejudicial behavior False GROUPS When Dodd 1985 asked students what they would do if they were invisible for 24 hours, the most common response was Rob a bank Kevin & 10 other sophomores just formed a new college fraternity. According to Tuckman, the initial mode of behavior of Kevin & other fraternity members is most likely to be Polite Which of the following comments would you be most likely to overhear in a group characterized by groupthink The presence of others enhances performance for dominant responses Group polarization occurs when the initial tendencies of the group are Intensified The escalation of the war in Vietnam despite mounting evidence that this strategy was failing is an example of Entrapment Mrs. Lang is going to have her 7 grade social studies class so group projects. In order to minimize the effects of social loafing, she might Grade individual as well as group efforts During which process of group development do members try to shape the group in accordance w/their own inclinations Storming Which of the following is a conjunctive task A relay race Sal finds himself in the prisoner’s dilemma. After a bank robbery, he & his partner, Eddie, are picked up on a minor charger of illegal gun possession. Sal has 2 choices: He can cooperate w/his partner & not say a word about the robbery, or he can compete w/his partner & confess. Sal would get the most personal benefits if he ________, while his partner, Eddie, ______. Compete; cooperates Compared to individual who are using brainstorming techniques on their own, brainstorming groups are Less effective One of the differences between a collective & real group is that Only group members interact meaningfully w/each other Nate is on his school’s basketball team. This week he had his first tennis lesson. His best subject in school is history, his worst is math. Based on social facilitation theory, one can predict that the presence of an audience would improve his performance in ______ & hurt his performance in _______ History; math Lenny & Gabrielle are newlyweds who have just had their 1 serious fight. If Gabrielle uses GRIT strategy, she will meet Lenny’s conciliatory gestures w/______ & his verbal attacks w/_______ Conciliatory gestures; verbal attacks Which of the following is an example of deindividuation When the armored truck flipped over & spilled its contents, everyone in the neighborhood rushed over to take some money A community service club has formed to organize volunteers who want to help the needy. The goal of the club is to encourage its members to donate their time, interdependently, wherever there is a need. One thing that can enhance the performance of the club’s members is Cohesiveness An excessive tendency among group members to seek consensus is called Groupthink Social loafing is most likely to occur in which of the following groups Summer camps who are asked to clean the campgrounds of litter in prep for visiting day The more groups focus on ______, the more likely that they will be characterized by groupthink Reaching agreement Which of the following might be characterized as public goods dilemma Shortages of contributions causes a public TV station to cancel programs Darryl is asked to play a challenging song on the piano. Which of the following outcomes is consistent w/social facilitation If he is an accomplished pianist, he will play better in front of audience than by himself The loss of a person’s sense of individuality, resulting in a loosening of normal restraints against deviant behavior, is known as Deindividuation Info shared by group members is more likely to enter a discussion than is info not shared by group members, owning to the effect of Biased sampling Country X views its own spying activity as a prudent measure of self-defense, but, when being spied on by Country Y, considers the latter spying as unacceptable intrusion. Country X’s evaluation of spying activities exemplifies A double standard in evaluation Consider Tuckerman & Jensen’s (1977), as compared w/Gersick’s (1994), view of group development. Which of the following statements best reflects their work Tuckerman & Jensen (1977) suggest that groups gradually progress through a set of stages, whereas Gersick (1994) suggests that group progress is less smooth, going through starts & stops When groups make a decision, the decision tends to Be more extreme than the initial inclinations of the group members Jason is president of his dormitory & hopes to avoid groupthink among the members of his executive committee. Research suggests that he should Invite executive committee members from other residence halls to participate in committee discussion The idea that the simple physical immediacy of others is sufficient to produce social facilitation effects is the most consistent w/ Mere presence theory Research on groups suggests that gender differences in the roles people play w/in group contexts can be reduced by Making men & women feel similarity competent Nathan laments that too few citizens donate money to the local police force. In effect, he is complaining about the result of a Public good dilemma Group polarization is thought to result from all of the following except Deindiciduation of group members Research by Johnson & Downing (1979) suggests that a sense of deindividuation Can lead to positive, as well as destructive, behavior The group is as strong as its “weakest link” when the task is Conjunctive People who respond to mixed-motive situations by seeking to maximize their own gain relative to the gain of others have a(n) Competitive orientation Which of the following best represents Zajonc’s explanation of the effects of social facilitation The presence of others increases arousal, which increases the strength of the dominant response. As a result, we perform well on easy tasks. Diana is trying to figure out whether having group cohesiveness will help or hurt her work group. Under which of the following conditions will cohesiveness be most likely to help the group’s performance To successfully complete the task they are doing, the group members must depend on each other A baseball player & the team owner can’t agree on a contract. They ask Harold to listen to their positions, agreeing to abide by his decision. Harold is being asked to act as a(n) Arbitrator When the need for a group to reach an agreement takes precedence over its motivation to obtain accurate info & when there is an excessive tendency to seek agreement among group members, _______ is likely to occur. Groupthink Group brainstorming may be ineffective if all members of a group adjust their performance downward to meet the lower standards of other members, This is known as Performance matching Several friends are working together in an effort to pull a car from a ditch. However, each of them is not pulling as hard as possible. This is probably a result of Social loafing In the long term, physically attractive people tend to be more satisfied w/their lived False Cross-cultural differences have been observed in the types of behaviors that elicit jealousy True One of the single best predictors of whether 2 people will form a relationship is physical proximity True Highly interdependent couples are likely to break up sooner than couples whose relationships are not characterized by a high degree of interdependence False Toddlers who are shy are more likely than their uninhibited counterparts to become shy adults True PERSUASION To be effective, a speaker needs to have Credibility & likability Are high dosages of fear effective in persuasion Yes, but only if the message contains strong arguments & advice on avoiding risks You are writing an ad campaign for a sport car. A survey tells you that the target audience is men who are low in need for cognition & high in self-monitoring. What should you put in the ad Little or no technical info & a picture of a man w/a pretty girl by his side The _______ is the leading psychometric tool used to assess attitudes Likert Scale A review of magazine ads in the US & Korea has shown that ads in Kora focus more on ____, while ads in the US focus more on _______. Integrity; competition Owen behaved until the new baby sitter ordered him to go to bed. Even though he was exhausted, he ran around the house screaming that his parents let him stay up for as long as he wants. W/his refusal to give up his usual freedom, Owen is displaying Psychological reactance LaPiere’s 1934 study, during which he accompanied a young Chinese couple to 250 restaurants, hotels, & campgrounds, revealed that People’s professed attitudes do not always determine their behavior Ira is hired to market a product that he considers inferior. Unable to stand feeling like a hypocrite, he repairs his damaged self-concept by convincing himself that the product is good. Ira’s attitude change is explained by Self-affirmation theory A computer company wants people to buy its new word processor. For the central route to persuasion, what length & degree of discrepancy should the ads have Long, but w/out repetition & w/moderate discrepancy Gloria has to decide between 2 equally attractive apartments immediately. Brehm’s classic (1956) study predicts that right after she picks one of the apartments, she will Proceed to convince herself that she picked the better if the 2 16-year-old Carmen wants to persuade her parents to allow her to go on an overnight skiing trip w/a group of older friends. Which of the following tactics would help her weak argument Catching them in a good mood Petty had students listen to a speaker who proposed that seniors should be required to take comprehensive exams in order to graduate. Some of the students believed that the speaker was a professor @ Princeton, while others believed that he was a high school student. Additionally, some thought the exams would not affect them, while others thought that they would. Which of the students were most likely to take the central route to persuasion as opposed to the opposed peripheral route Those who believed that the proposed exams would affect them In Festinger’s classical study of cognitive dissonance, how did the participants evaluate the activity Those who were paid $1 found it enjoyable. Everyone else was bored When people critically evaluate a message, they take the ____ route to persuasion. When they do not consider the message but focus on other cues, they are taking the ______ route to persuasion. Central; peripheral What is the inoculation hypothesis Exposure to weak versions of strong arguments helps one resist when faced w/the strong message On the internet, Felicia found 2 sites about the planet Venus. One said that there is proof of life on the planet while the other reported that scientists say the planet cannot support any form of life. After reading the info, she noted that the 1 site belonged to 15-year-old Paul C. Smith while the 2 ndbelonged to the New York Times. According to the sleeper effect, it is likely that after a period of time, Felicia will Give more credence to the message on the Smith site & less to the one on the times site Research on subliminal messages shows that they Do not work at all Gavin wants to lose 50 pounds. According to the theory of planned behavior, the fact that he actually has a specific amount in mind, has been told by his friends that he needs to lose some weight, & feels that he can control what he eats, will most likely lead to his Having the intention to go on a diet, which may or may not happen Aronson & Mills found that coeds who underwent severe initiation were more likely to say that the discussion of sexual behavior of animals was Interesting Lola is high in need for evaluation, & Barry is low in need for evaluation. Which of the following is probably true Lola is more opinionated than is Barry According to Fazio et al. (1977), when someone behaves in a way that is only mildly discrepant w/his or her attitude, any subsequent attitude changes is best attributed to Self-perception Which of the following is unlikely to increase source credibility Arguing strongly for one’s own interests Christie wants her children to grow up believing that drug use is unwise. According to the inoculation hypothesis, if Christie wants to be sure that her children adhere to this belief even when she can’t monitor them, she should make sure that they Are exposed to weak prodrug arguments The bogus pipeline has what advantage over the Likert scale in measuring attitudes It is less susceptible to socially desirable answers Henry has agreed to help his mother-in-law paint her house even though he doesn’t like his mother-in-law, doesn’t enjoy painting, & is being paid almost nothing for the work. After painting the house, Henry decides that painting isn’t so bad after all. This outcome seems to be the result of Insufficient justification As Norma listens to a speech advocating limits on campaign spending, she thinks about & scrutinizes the arguments carefully. Her approach reflects Elaboration We are most inclined to perceive as likable those communicators who are Similar to us & physically attractive Research on the use of subliminal persuasion in self-help tapes shows that such tapes Do no improve self-esteem but that users believe the tapes have worked Fitz is trying to quit smoking. For Fitz to quit successfully, the theory of planned behavior demands all of the following except that he Acknowledge the costs of smoking The theory that people desire to appear consistent rather than to actually be consistent is called Impression management theory According to research by Snyder & DeBono (1985), people who are readily influenced by image-oriented ads are likely to be High self-monitors An attitude is stronger & more predictive of behavior when it is based on Personal experience Once we have made a tough decision, we try to reduce the dissonance that accompanies it by Glamorizing our choice Whether the communicator or the messages has more impact on an audience depends most strongly on the audience’s Involvement The peripheral route to persuasion is more likely to be chose than the central route when the Audience is distracted When faced w/a counterattitudinal message, people in a positive mood are likely to Use the peripheral route to persuasion Research on role playing indicates that Behavior can determine attitudes Jack & Susan give consecutive speeches about why they should be elected class president, Jack goes 1 , followed immediately by Susan, & then the class votes w/out delay. How should the order of the speeches affect the class vote It should not have any effect When new taxes were proposed, Taylor rejected the idea because it had come from an unpopular governor. After forgetting who made the proposal, however, Taylor stated that new taxes were a good idea. This scenario illustrates The sleeper effect Majority, as compared w/minority, viewpoints exert impact on public measures of conformity True Only participants w/authoritarian personalities were willing to obey the researcher’s commands in Milgram’s studies of obedience False Woman are much easier to influence than are men False We tend to like other people who mimic our mannerisms more than those who do not True The muscles in your face may give away your true attitude True It is possible that you have an attitude that you don’t know you have True Attitudes are one thing that your genes don’t control False Info from sources that the listener does not regard as credible has little persuasive value False People are more influenced by an advertisement that has more info than one that has less info False When people hear 2 conflicting arguments or viewpoints, they are more likely to remember the one they heard first False If you are trying to convert your politically conservative friend into a liberal, you will be more successful if you make a radical rather than a moderate argument False Public interest announcements that try to frighten people into a course of action are very persuasive False Persuading someone to do something he or she doesn’t want to do is more likely to be successful if the person is in a good mood behavior True AGGRESSION Freud considered aggression toward others to be a momentary victory for Our life instinct After a bad day in school, Sammy comes homes & hits his younger brother w/out any apparent reason. According to Dollard & Miller, Sammy’s aggressive behavior is an example of Displacement In Zilmann & Bryant’s study, after repeated exposure to pornography, participants showed a decrease in ______ & and increase in _______. Aggression against same-sex confederates; negative attitudes towards women Instrumental aggression refers to Inflicting harm into order to gain something of value After students viewed 2 movies that depicted women who became sexually aroused by a sexual assault & romantically attracted to their rapists, ______ reported a greater acceptance of the rape myth. Women reported a decline in their acceptance of the rape myth, while men The Rip Van Winkle study showed that exposure to TV violence among 8-year- olds was Related to adult aggression, but only for boys One factor that appears common to almost all of the least violent societies that have been identified is that they are Cooperative as opposed to competitive Which of the following typifies what Gerbner called ‘cultivation’ A TV police drama that depicts 4 homicides in 1 precinct w/in 1 hour In his classic study of aggression, Bandura found that frustrated children who had observed an adult’s aggressive behavior w/an inflatable doll were later likely to Duplicate the behavior of the adult _______ are more likely to physically abuse their children, & the victims of physical abuse are more often _____ mothers; sons Some criminologists predict that the rate of violence in the US is going to rise again soon because The teen population is about to increase markedly According to Dollard & Miller’s frustration-aggression hypothesis Frustration always elicits the motive to aggress Which of the following would qualify as an act of aggression Although his teammates intended to humiliate him by hiding his pants, Ed was able to borrow the extra pair of jeans All of the following have been shown to be subject to excitation transfer to aggression except Food The effect of violent porn is gender specific in the sense that markedly increases ________ aggression Male to female Evolutionary theories explain aggression as means to Ensure genetic survival The 2 most important factors associated w/sexual aggression among college students are Gender & alcohol The culture of honor is more prevalent In the American South The higher levels, in recent times, a wife to husband abused as compared to husband to wife abuse, can be explained in terms of Women acting in self defense One reason alcohol increases aggression is that it Induces alcohol myopia Which of the following appears to be false regarding violence between intimate partners Partner abuse seems to be limited to western countries Lyle hits his sister because she hit him. Erik hits his sister because he knows it will get her out of his way. It is fair to say that Lyle’s actions represent ____ aggression, & Erik’s represent______ aggression Emotional; instrumental The belief that engaging in aggressive sports, such as ice hockey & boxing, can safely reduce subsequent aggression is most consistent w/the concept of Catharsis Someone subscribing to Berkowitz’s (1993) cognitive neoassociation analysis would probably agree that Whether people become fearful/ angry after provocation depends on how they interpret the situation When Meg 1 saw a violent movie, she was scared & disgusted. But now that she has seen several, she is barely affected by them. Meg has experienced Habituation After examining the research on porn, aggression, & related issues, Neil Malamuth developed what he called the ‘rapist profile’. Men who fot the profile Experience relatively high levels of sexual arousal in response to violent porn Violent crime in America has fallen. One explanation for the drop is Aging in the population Research on social learning has demonstrated the aggressive behaviors Can be encouraged by viewing models who are rewarded for aggressive behavior Todd is most likely to behave aggressively if he is in a ____ mood & his physiological arousal is ____ Bad; high Mary & Anthony are born into an abusive family. Stats on child abuse the likelihood that Anthony will suffer more physical abuse than Mary Alcohol myopia Reduces the individual’s ability to attend to mitigating info Berkowitz’s (1989) revision of frustration-aggression theory states that It is negative emotion associated w/frustration, not frustration itself, that can encourage aggression The association between exposure to media depictions of violence & observers’ aggressive behavior can be found in Lab experiments, field experiments, longitudinal studies, & correlational research Gender differences in aggression are reduced when The aggression was clearly provoked Luigi ardently supports the belief that aggressive behavior is acceptable to protect his honor & the honor of his family. Luigi Most likely lives in the south The idea that negative emotional states increase aggression only up to a point, beyond which individuals become passive, collapse, or try to remove themselves from the situation, is most consistent w/the Negative affect escape model Which of the following has been associated w/high levels of aggression Low levels of serotonin Multisystematic therapy seems to Consider the wide situational context in which aggression is displayed Which of the following acts of aggression is most consistent w/Lorenz’s theory concerning the origin of aggression An individual aggressing against another in order to gain access to a dwindling supply of food If Janet wants to make her staff interact in a more friendly & less aggressive fashion @ her next executive board meeting, which of the following should she do Turn the thermostat down a few degrees Judges & lawyers are well aware of all the factors that influence eyewitness performance False Judges are more likely to view incarceration as a way to deter future offenses, whereas citizens are more likely to view incarceration as punishment for misdeeds False Compared w/people who oppose the death penalty, those who support it tend to be more prosecution-minded True All other factors being equal, jurors are less likely to vote guilty on their own than in a group False When people are aware that a confession was coerced, they will discount it, & the confession will have no impact on their verdict False Future generations will remember the 20 century for its violence, as well as for its technological developments True Referring to a behavior as ‘assertive’ is the same thing as saying that it is aggressive false Every society in the world today has elements of violence False Boys are more aggressive than girls False Human aggression is innate & instinctual & ensures that survival of the human species False The hormone testosterone is responsible for the fact that men commit most violence False How boys are raised has a lot to do w/the gender difference in aggression True The south has higher rates of violence than other regions in the country because of the warmer climate False Engaging in an aggressive behavior-such as punching a hole in the wall or yelling @ your roommate-can reduce the tendency to engage in more acts of aggression False The availability & easy accessibility of guns in the US is not related to the high rate of firearm violence False