The equilibrium constant is 0.0900 at 25C for the reaction For which of the following sets of conditions is the system at equilibrium? For those which are not at equilibrium, in which direction will the system shift? a. A 1.0-L flask contains 1.0 mol HOCl, 0.10 mol Cl2O, and 0.10 mol H2O. b. A 2.0-L flask contains 0.084 mol HOCl, 0.080 mol Cl2O, and 0.98 mol H2O. c. A 3.0-L flask contains 0.25 mol HOCl, 0.0010 mol Cl2O, and 0.56 mol H2O.
CHAPTER 14 PUBLIC RELATIONS: Defining public relations: Advertising and PR are attempts at persuasions and use mass media. PR is management functions but advertisement is marketing function. PR is not involved in interpersonal communications. Advertisement is sponsored but PR messages appear as features, news stories or editorials and space and time isn’t paid for. Publicity- (different than PR!)- the placing of stories in the mass media. A firm can have extensive publicity but bad public relations. Publicity is one way and PR is two-way communication. PUBLIC RELATIONS: Evolves working with public opinion. They attempt to influence public opinion in a way that is positive to the client. Is concerned with communication. The PR professional has to explain the organizations actions to various publics involved with the organization. (Two-way is communication between organizations and its publics). Internal publics (employees, managers, labor unions, stockholders). External publics (consumers, government, dealers, suppliers, mass media.) Is a management function. Help company set goals and adapt to changing environment. History: Military reports and commentaries by Julius Caesar can be considered PR. OR during medieval times. During American Revolution, patriots were struggling with England and they knew public opinion as significant. So they staged Boston Tea Party to gain attention. People who used PR were writers like, Samuel Adams, Thomas Paine, Abigail Adams, and Benjamin Franklin where they used propaganda. Boston Massacre later occurred. Industrial evolution: more monopolies were formed and the companies didn’t want the public to know but muckrakers exposed industrial corruption and the ruthless business tactics. These were negative publicity and were the prototypes which we call press agents or publicist. Ivy Lee- first PR pioneer. Lee and George Parker opened a publicity office. Lee issues “Declaration of Principles” which were concepts of openness and honesty when dealing with the public. Lee credited with demonstrating PR is most effective when it affects employees, customers, and community members. George Creel demonstrated a powerful PR campaign for President Woodrow Wilson by publicizing Wilsons war goals for WW1 “to make the world safe for democracy” Carl Byoir (organized biggest PR firm) and Edward Bernays (wrote first books on PR Crystallizing Public Opinion) Corporations established own PR Departments after Depression. Pres. Franklin Roosevelt- New Deal and did radio-broadcasted fireside chats. Corporations realized they had social responsibility to serve public through PR department. Important concept to remember: Increasing importance of PR during a crisis, PR firms adopted social medias as new channel for clients to build relationship with publics, tablets and mobile computers so important. Public Relations in digital age: PR firms want to build on their websites. They want interactive features and videos on sites. Companies and organizations are turning to social media rather than websites and blogs to get message across. Responsibility for planning and executing social media strategies has largely fallen to PR dept. or agency rather than marketing dept. making PR more important. Social media in PR: serves as an early warning system like giving company info about potential problems, provides info about launch of new products and services, helps deal with complains, and provides new connections between a company and its customers. Advantages and disadvantages to using social media in PR: PR firms devote a lot of time to maintains social media accounts Easy to overestimate the impact of social media because more followers doesn’t mean more sales New polices for social media accounts like identifying who they work for when responding to comments Finally a bad corporation mistake can explode quickly. Organization of the PR Industry: In house department- can be at work on short notice and has in-depth knowledge about the company and its operations tend to be less costly Interal PR deptaremtns- have trouble coming up with fresh ideas unless new personnel are added frequently. Outside agencies- offer more services to its clients than internal dept. They have advantage of being objective observers. PR professionals- counseling management, preparing annual reports, handling news releases and other forms of media coverage, supervising employee and other internal communications, managing promotions and special events, fundraising, creating websites and writing speeches. PR settings: Business- instill customers a positive attitude towards company. Connection between firm and government regulators. Government: Government agencies hire PR specialist to help explain their activities to citizens. These specialists also communicate opinions of the public back to agency. Education: PP personnel work in elementary or higher education. Communication between educators and parents. In schools PR handles relations with school board, local and state legislative bodies and news media. College PR focus on fundraising and relations with faculty and students. Hospitals: Publics of the hospitals PR staff deal with are patients, patients’ families, state insurance commissions, nurses and physicians. Many hospitals don’t have full time PR staff. Nonprofit organizations: American Red Cross or Salvation Army are examples. PR focus on fundraising or volunteer participation. Professional associations: American Medical Association is an example. PR recruit members and influence government decisions. Entertainment and sports: PR work for established and would-be celebrities and get the client favorable media coverage and protect them from bad publicity. International PR: CNN. PR help businesses operating in other countries with local customs, language problems and legal dilemmas. Investor relations: also known as IR. PR builds favorable image for company and keep shareholders happy. PR must know the workings of the financial press and channels to communicate with shareholders like annual reports or meetings. Politics: PR helps build right image, respond to the charges of other candidates. Environment: PR represent advocacy groups and industries like global warming and recycling. Crisis management: PR counsel their clients to accomplish goals like terminating the crisis, limit damage, and restore credibility. Digital public relations: PR manage digital presence of their client like preparing email newsletters, writing blogs and creating podcasts. PR Departments and staff: PR dept. divided into parts: 1. Corporate communications- handles communication with internal publics (workers, shareholders, unions) 2. Community relations- handles communication with external publics (community residents, costumers and gov.) 3. Press relations- deals with news media. An example of possible arrangement for External PR agency. Creative services, research, publicity and marketing, accounts, administration. Public Relations Program: To develop a PR campaign: 1. Information gathering- get data from organizational records, trade journals, public records, mail to the company, advisory meeting and personnel reports. 2. Planning- Strategic plans- long-range, general goals that the organizations wishes to achieve. Tactical plans- more specific and detail tasks that must be accomplished by each dept. to achieve the strategic goals. Management by objectives (MBO)- the organization sets observable and measurable goals for itself and allocates its resources to meet those objectives. 25% increase in sale after 2 ears you want so then when time has elapsed its easier to see. 3. Communication- PR has thorough knowledge of the media and their strengths and weaknesses. Also know the production techniques for the print and broadcast media. To send message through mass media by videos news releases, photographs and paid ads. PS get messages to public also through brochures, letter, posters, blogs, websites and email. 4. Evaluation- PR can count number of PR’s sent out, letters mailed and speeches made. They also send questionnaires to audience through telephone and web.