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Sketch two graphs: (a) percent dissociation for weak acid

Chemistry | 8th Edition | ISBN: 9780547125329 | Authors: Steven S. Zumdahl ISBN: 9780547125329 153

Solution for problem 3 Chapter 14

Chemistry | 8th Edition

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Chemistry | 8th Edition | ISBN: 9780547125329 | Authors: Steven S. Zumdahl

Chemistry | 8th Edition

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Problem 3

Sketch two graphs: (a) percent dissociation for weak acid HA versus the initial concentration of HA ([HA]0) and (b) H concentration versus [HA]0. Explain both.

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• Kingdom Fungi= Zygotic Meiosis ◦ Heterosomes ◦ exoenzymes ◦ absorptive ◦ almost no movement ◦ cell walls with chitin ◦ nonseptate/septate hyphae ◦ mycelium and single celled yeast ◦ a great variety of spores ‣ primary for dispersal ‣ while dispersing they are dormant and very adaptive against human conditions ◦ Phylum Chytridiomycota ‣ aquatic fungi with flagellated zoospores,including parasites of amphibian skin ‣ only fungi with flagellated cells- zoospores • flagella is an ancient characteristic ◦ Phylum Zygomycota ‣ bread molds,sugar molds,and pin fungi ‣ thick walled,dormant zygospores ◦ PhylumAscomycota ‣ True sac fungi (ascus) ‣ asexual spores (conidia) ‣ sexual spores (ascospores) ◦ Phylum Giomeromycota ‣ arbuscular mycorrhizae ‣ arbuscular- microscopic tree,arms are inside of cell of higher plant ‣ grow in association with plant ◦ Phylum Basidiomycota ‣ mushrooms-edible and toadstools- poisonous ‣ no asexual spores,no gametangia ‣ sexual spores= basidiospore ‣ zygotic meiosis- plasmogamy first- grow the karyotype ◦ Lichens ‣ composite organisms ‣ photobiont= alga cyanobacteria,photosynthesis ‣ mycobiont= fungi,lichen ‣ cructoise,foliose,fructose- branches ◦ Imperfect Fungi ‣ no sexual spores stages known ‣ penicillin- on oranges ‣ black mold,athletes foot • KingdomAnimalia ◦ no cell walls,multicellular ◦ oviparous= egg laying or ovoviviparous=lay eggs after hatching or viviparous= live birth ◦ heterotrophic- process of eating food starts with ingestion and is followed by digestion,which is then follow by eegstion (getting rid of extra) ◦ all animals have risen from a single common ancestor= monophyletic ◦ sexual/asexual reproduction= all GAMETIC MEIOSIS ◦ movement use locomotory structures (appendages:arms,legs,flippers,wings) ◦ sessile animals= no movement;maybe some movement in earlier stages of life ◦ diverse= 40 different phyla ◦ 99% are invertebrate ◦ evolutionary trends ‣ level of organization= all multicellular animals • earliest stages= cellular level of organization;specialized cells don't function as a unit • tissue= cells function at a unit;see division of labor • organ system= tissues are combined ‣ symmetry • in the begining animals lacked symmetry • as animals became more locomotory they became more symmetrical • asymmetrical= no symmetry • radial= can choose any plane to bisect the animal and have equal halves ◦ suited for sessile or weak powers of locomotion • bilateral= high levels of locomotory,one plane that we can bisect the animal and get equal halves ◦ cephalization= the development of a head ◦ Secondary radial symmetry= second time to be radial in a species evolutionary history ‣ radial--->bilateral--->radial again ‣ Body Cavity • acoelomate= lack a body cavity all together • cavity that surrounds the gut or any other internal organs • psuedocoelomate= not solid tissue but fluid filling the space between the body wall and the gut ◦ seen in very small animals because they don't have room for a body cavity anymore ◦ polyphyletic= multiple ancestors • exocoelomate= space is lined with a membrane and allows for greater complexity ◦ membrane that lines body cavity is called= peritoneum ‣ embryological development • separate phyla • starts as zygote • simple gut- only mouth no anus • complete gut- 2 openings • protostome= first mouth • duderosome= second mouth,mouth comes from anus • triploblastic= 3 germ layers • diploblastic= 2 germ layers ‣ Segmentation= metamerism • body segments are fused to produce a body region ( head,thorax,abdomen) • Tagmosis= body regions ‣ Other • feeding structures ◦ lophophore= one developed once in evolutionary history • larval stages ◦ trochophore ◦ FamilyTree: ‣ Metazoa (as opposed to protozoa) • Parazoa-sponges • Eumetazoa-animals with true tissues ◦ Radiata ◦ Bilateria ‣ Protosomia • Lophotrochozoa • Ecdysozoa ‣ Deuterostomia- including phylum chordata ◦ Basal Metazoa- a current controversy between phylum Porifera and phylum Ctenophora ‣ Ctenophora sister vs.Porifera- sister hypothesis ‣ sponges are basal vs.ctenophores are basal • evidence shows that ctenophores are the most basal metazoans ‣ Phylum Porifera- sponges • only animals to have cellular level of organization • lack of symmetry • sessile adults • matrix- mesophyll- middle,found between cells and skeletons (with cells and skeleton imbedded) • Mesophyll Cell types: ◦ choanocytes=most important cell type,unique to sponges ‣ often called collar cells- color is not a solid membrane but a folded membrane with microvilli ‣ flagellum that moves water towards the inside of the sponge ‣ filter feeding happens by choanocytes ‣ water flow helps eliminate waste,distribution of gametes,respiratory gases are exchanged (oxygen supply from water come in and carbon dixode with water going out) ◦ archaeocytes ‣ are ameboid in their overall shape ‣ have pseudopods ‣ capable of moving around inside the body of a sponge ‣ picks up food from a choanocyte and takes it to the sponge ‣ secreting the skeleton ◦ porocytes ‣ unique to sponges ‣ holes in the sponge that are individual cells with a shape of a tube ‣ water passes from outside of the sponge to the inside of the sponge ◦ pinacocytes ‣ flat cells that cover surfaces inside and outside of sponges • Mesophyll Skeleton: ◦ Organis fibers ‣ collagen ‣ spongin ◦ Inorganic spicules ‣ calcareous= calcium based ‣ silicious= silicious based,glass like ‣ remain as separate pieces providing support ‣ some fuse together • 3 body types: ◦ Aquiferous systems:trace water flow through structures ◦ Ascon ‣ asconoid ‣ single osculum ‣ choanocytes line spongocoel ‣ simple body type ‣ porocytes form ostia ‣ thin body wall ‣ limit of body size:limited number of choanocytes ‣ the simplest aquiferous systems ‣ water flow:water enters sponge through ostia and is now in the spongocoel and then travels back out again through the osculum ◦ Sycon ‣ single osculum ‣ choanocytes line flagellated chambers ‣ ostia leads to incurrent canals ‣ prosopytes ◦ Leucon ‣ multiple oscula ‣ no spongocoel ‣ incurrent and excurrent canals ‣ prosopytes and apopoytes • 3 classes of sponges ◦ Class:Calcarea ‣ ascon,sycon,leucon ‣ calcareous spicules ‣ all are marine and small ◦ Class:Hexactinellida ‣ hexactines- 6-rayed spicules are made os silicon dioxide ‣ siliceous spicules ‣ deep marine sponges ‣ most of there part become fused as they are formed ‣ have connected cells in glass form ‣ fused layer= syncytium ◦ Class:Demospongiae ‣ 80 % of all sponges are included in this class ‣ all have luecon body types ‣ marine and fresh H2O systems • only fresh water sponges ‣ silicious spicules and/or spongin fibers ‣ lots of variety of shapes in this class • bath sponges:spongin only • boring sponge- Cliona ciliata,archeanocytes each have calcareous shells ◦ bioerosion • Fresh H2O sponges ◦ gemmales- dormancy and dispersal ◦ totipotent= can specialize into other types of cells ◦ only contain archaocytes but through the use of totipotent these cells can specialize into other cell types ◦ Sclerosponges- hard sponges ‣ hard,calcareous,basal skeleton ‣ sclerospongiae (usually combined with Demospongiae) ◦ Eumetazoa ‣ Phylum Ctenophora= comb jellies • current controversy whether this group or poriferia should be at the base of the tree • ctenes= rows of fused cilia in 8 ctene rows;used for locomotion ◦ also used for feeding= tentacle that are capable of contraction and have colloblasts "fishing" for food, once they catch a prey they roll their bodies while they contract their tentacles and use the ctenes as well • largest organisms that locomote with cilia • possibly basal to the animal kingdom • biradial symmetry • diploblastic= 2 germ layers;all tissues can be traced back to ectoderm or endoderm origin • colloblasts= unique to this phylum;specialized cell or glue cells that aid them in there capture of prey ◦ adhesive cells on tentacles ◦ used in prey capture • all you see when looking at this animals are the bioluminescent ctenes • many transparent and bioluminescent • 200+ species • 2 classes (with or without tentacles) • most planktonic ‣ super phylum Phylum Cnidaria (stinging animals) and maybe Ctenophora= Class Radiata • gradual symmetry • diploblastic • 2developmental body forms:polyp and medusa ◦ Polyp= feeding stage;long amount of their life is in this form • mouth,hypostome or manubrium,tentacles,body column or bell,attached or unattached,pedal disc,thin or thick mesoglea= structures in polyp and medusa • epidermis and gastrodermis, • gastrovascular cavity= skeletal support,gastric activity,hydrostatic skeleton because of this cavity ◦ simple gut= only one opening;the mouth;food and waste use one hole;lack of complexity • mesoglea= layer between tissues,composed mainly of proteins;gel like or glue like • Cnidocytes with nemacysts= stinging cells;only cnidarians can grow these cells ◦ cnido= stinging and cyte= cells ◦ injects a weapon called nematocysts ◦ eversible= can turn inside out ◦ cnidocil is triggered and causes operculum to release pressure on the nematocysts to come out and inject venom • Class Hydrozoa= Hydra,Chlorphyta,and others;not true jellyfish ◦ Life cycle includes polyp only or polyp and medusa (medusa dominant) ◦ solitary individuals ◦ colonial polyps with polymorphism ‣ portuguesa man-o-war • not a jelly fish • entire colony of many individuals attached together ‣ blue button ‣ by-the-wind-sailor ◦ axial polyp- nuematophore ◦ Polyps of three different kinds: ‣ gastrozooids= feeding polyp ‣ gonozooids= asexual reproduction,produce other individuals by budding ‣ dactylozooids= up to 30 meters in length,tremendously large,polyp so highly modified that it may be considered a tentacle ◦ Craspedacusta sowerbyi- freshwater jellyfish ‣ found in southeastern US ‣ found once a year in lake martin ‣ medusa is dominant ◦ Obelia ‣ colony:gastrozooids,gonozooids, • coenosarc= stem like portion of colony;works for some to feed and others for reproduction; connected to gastrovascular cavity of gastrozooids ‣ planula larva ◦ hydromedusae with velum= only in medusa of hydrozoa ‣ velum= ring like structure;like iris diagram in your own eye;contractile;gives strength to the cell; holds the cell in place • Class Scyphozoa- true jellyfish ◦ Moon jelly= tiny tentacles;shape of bell is a little more shallow;no velum;gastrovascular cavity is comprised by a number go thin canal that have a flower like appearance ‣ oral arms=manubrium ◦ Scyphozoan Life Cycle: ‣ egg and sperm ‣ planula ‣ scyphistoma= specific word for early polyp stage;feeding polyp ‣ strobila= longitudinal budding;chain of longitudinally produced buds ‣ ephyra= grows to become sexually mature medusa ‣ medusa ‣ Cyan gigantea- giant jellyfish ‣ Upside down jellyfish- symbiotic algae in shallow waters for light for photosynthetic algae ‣ thimble jelly ‣ stalked jelly= looks like a medusa on a stalk • Class Cubozoa- box jellyfish ◦ squarish bell with corners;makes them much stronger swimmers ◦ most venomous animals in the world ◦ Chironex fleckeri- sea wasp ◦ In australia • ClassAnthozoa- anemones and coral ◦ polyp only,no medusa ◦ large polyps with septa dividing gvc ◦ sepal filaments= edge of incomplete septa and has nematocysts ◦ acontia threads with cnidocytes= heavily armed with nematocysts;can attack prey and defend against predators ◦ both asexual and sexual reproduction but these must take place in the polyp only ◦ in order to get larger there is a folding in the body wall and produces the septa and now the gastrovascular cavity is divided ◦ polyp has a complete pharnyx= structure just inside the mouth ◦ live solitary life cycles= anemones ◦ live in colonial life cycles= most stoney corals ‣ have a cneosarc which produces skeleton ‣ produce coral reefs ◦ soft corals:gorgonians= primary protein ◦ Fungia sp.= solitary coral,mushroom coral ‣ calcareous skeleton- corallite ‣ septa= ridges in the skeleton of a coral ‣ Bilateria= bilateral symmetry;evolved from selection pressure from locomotion • protostomia= blastopore became the mouth ◦ Lophotrochozoa ‣ Platyzoa- coelomate bilateria • Lophotrochozoans ◦ are named for two common characteristics: ‣ Lophopore= feeding structure with tentacles for filter feeding ‣ trochophore= also a distinct larval stage • Phylum Platyhelminthes- flat worms ◦ triploblastic= three germ layers ◦ acoelmate= the gut and other internal organs are surrounded by tissues;no body cavity ◦ protostome,organ and organ systems ◦ "acoelmate bilateral"= nickname;lacking body cavity and bilateral symmetry;except some locomotion in some members of the group ◦ why are they flat being flat minimizes distance between tissues and filling in that space comes from the mesoderm;really significant ◦ locomotion ‣ gliding in water or mucus trail- cilia on venter ‣ the worms "squiggle"- circular and longitudinal muscles • two muscle layers make this possible;contractile cells- can shorten • circular muscles-makes worm thinner • longitudinal- makes worm short and fat • work is done by the shortening ◦ Digestive System: ‣ gastrovascular cavity (usually branched),pharynx ‣ significance of branching= absorbing nutrients takes place at surface of the gut and by being highly branched there is more surface area for this to occur ‣ simple gut- no anus ◦ Excretory System- osmoregulation ‣ Protonephridrium ‣ flame cells- starts movement of water;connected to tiny little canals called ducts ‣ nephridiopores= water exits through these cells ‣ releases water to counteract the affect of osmosis ◦ Nervous System ‣ ganglia- little cluster of nerve cells ‣ cords- connected ganglia ‣ sensory structures- sense environment with • tiny little eye spots called ocellus • auricles = tiny little ears;don't hear with them but they are chemosensory so they function like a nose or a tongue;smell their food and move towards it • positive chemotaxis ◦ Regenration ‣ can be chopped up into pieces and the pieces grow back ‣ requires certain cells • neoblast- aggregate at wound site and create blastema • blastema= can grow into whatever body part is needed ◦ Reproductive System ‣ most are monoecious= have n=both sexes in one house or same time ‣ female system- starts with ovaries where eggs are produced and go to the ova duct= eggs are passed along • genital pore= open for reproduction ‣ male system- testes,then sperm move canals until they get to genetalia pore • penis or cerus ◦ ClassTurbellaria- planarians ‣ most are free living ‣ few parasitic but almost all are free living ◦ ClassTrematoda= flukes ‣ only parasites ‣ complex life cycles= two or more hosts • primary host- where sexual reproduction occurs • includes:digenetic flukes (2 hosts in life cycle) ,monogenetic flukes (fish parasites),and schistosomes (blood flukes) ‣ Example:Clonorchis sinensis- human liver fluke • Life Cycle: ◦ egg,miracidium= aquatic snail, ◦ sporocyst= first larval stage in the snail;multiple fission= can divide into a thousand in the next stage ◦ redia= capable of multiple fission ◦ cercaria=free swimming stage;extremely simple behavior;all it does is find a host which is a fish ◦ metacercaria= within the fish;bladder like structure in the fish and if you eat fish while its alive,then you get the liver fluke ◦ adult ◦ 3 hosts for entire life cycle ◦ 5 larval stages in life cycle • use bile to transport through the body • hosts:human,snail,fish ◦ Class Cestoda= tapeworms ‣ all parasites in the gut of vertebrate hosts;many using humans as their host ‣ Body of tapeworm • longitudinal chain of buds- strobila + attached to the scolex • longest tapeworm= 75 feet long ‣ get it from eating undercooked meat ‣ lives inside your gut and absorbs your nutrients ‣ so adaptive to living inside a human they don't even have their own digestive tracts ‣ microtriche- tiny hair like folding on the surface to absorb nutrients right through their skin ‣ proglittis= produced at the neck of the strobila • gravid= packages of eggs;other reproductive organs have withered away for the eggs; pregnant ‣ Example:beef tapeworm:Taenia saginata • Life Cycle: ◦ eggs in proglottid ◦ oncosphere= eggs hatch and develop into this stage ◦ cysticerci ◦ only two hosts:cow and human ◦ humans are primary host- reproductive life cycle passes through ◦ 2 larval stages ◦ cows are careful with what they eat so its easy to eat the gravid proglottid • Phylum Nemertea= proboscis worms,ribbon worms, ◦ rhynchocoel= is the cavity that houses the proboscis ◦ proboscis ◦ complete gut= mouth and anus ◦ true circulatory system= there is a blood and it travels through vessels and pumped through contractions in the vessel walls ◦ the longest animal on earth is a member of this phylum ◦ often very colorful in marine form;have fresh water species ◦ Lineus longissimus= live in crevices between rocks in the shore ‣ bootlace worm ‣ 180 feet long ◦ Prostoma graecense- local freshwater species ‣ hotdog shaped worm ‣ gut is down below and up on the dorsal side of the animal ‣ hollow proboscis= animal everts the proboscis by creating pressure and turning inside out ◦ proboscis within a rhynocoel and some use it as a harpoon ◦ free living ◦ evert their proboscis ‣ Phylum Mollusca • Nacreous layer= inside the shell;shiny • bivalves= two part hinge shells • one foot=mollusks are famous for • once they become adults they are no longer bilateral in symmetry • snails have heads nut no all mollusks do • visceral mass=thin body wall that contains all the organs ◦ digestive,circulatory,reprodutive system ◦ inside of an oyster shell ◦ contained within the shell • foot= only one foot ◦ can distinguish mollusca by the nature of the foot ◦ ancestrally a ventral,creeping sole with rippling muscle action ◦ allows animal to propel itself across surfaces ◦ or can be hatchet shaped for burrowing in clams ‣ extend,anchor,pull method ◦ or can be divided into arms like in an octopus • mantle= second body wall ◦ secretes the shell ◦ houses body and provides mantle cavity ◦ edge bear image forming eyes ◦ cells inside are capable of changing color or expanding • shell= highly calcareous ◦ 3 layers ◦ periostracum= differs in thickness and color depending on species ‣ has protein ‣ outer layer of shell ◦ prismatic layer= thickest part of shell ‣ perpendicular in prism arrangement ‣ ostracum is another name for it ◦ Nacreous Layer= what touches the body of a mollusk ‣ secrete this layer continuously to have a soft body ◦ Mantle epithelium ◦ Mantle lobes • radula= tongue like strucute that a snail would use to scrap algae off a wall ◦ a protrusible,rasping,tonguelike structure,with chitinous teeth,used to rasp or gaze periphyton • crystalline style= inside stomach ◦ a proteinaceous,rotating rod in the gut of a continuous feeder,used to twist and pull a mucus cord of food into the stomach ◦ movement of cilia causes the rod to spin • trochophore and veliger (butterfly) larval stages • Class Polyplacophora= chitons ◦ divided shell (8valves) and thick mantle allow tight grip on substrate ◦ bear many shell plates ◦ parts of the shell are known as the valves= 8 valves ◦ attached to rock and in rocky wave washed shores ◦ bodies like a suction cup to hang onto rocks ‣ very thick mantle ‣ very flexible body with a shell divided that allows them to bend upward and adhere very tightly to rocks ◦ mantle groove- gills ◦ don't have a clear head,but have a mouth and most is the foot • Class Gastropoda ◦ snails,conchs,whelks,abalone,limpets ◦ second largest group ◦ torsion during developments,coiled shell and asymmetrical body ‣ includes twisting and coiling ◦ marine,freshwater,and terrestrial mantle cavity houses gills or lungs ◦ "large ventral foot" ◦ start out as bilateral but end asymmetrical ◦ prominent head with eyes and tentacles ◦ tree snails= becoming extinct ◦ cowries= mantle extends and makes nacre on inside and outside of shell ◦ protoconch= tiny bit of shell the animal started with ◦ spire= can compare one snail shell to another ◦ opening of body whorl= aperture ◦ the ability to over aperture=operculum (flap covering opening) ◦ body whorl ◦ apple snail= common in florida peninsula;lay pink eggs ◦ violet snail= able to build for itself "bubble wrap" to float on ocean to fed on Portugease man-o-war ◦ a trend of shell reduction in terrestrial slugs ◦ trend of sea hair called nudibranchs in marine snails • Class Cephalopoda ◦ squid,octopus,nautilus ◦ foot divided into 8 arms or 8 arms and two tentacles ◦ mantle forms the body tube ◦ squid- master of color change ‣ typically 8 arms and 2 tentacles ‣ change color to match background or to give messages (mating) ‣ giant squid- largest of all invertebrates • leave in the deep ocean • eye of animals id bigger then our head ‣ Vampire squid= red • live where there is no oxygen and light • don't move alot to conserve energy • open "cape" to get prey • bioluminescence ◦ Chambered Nautilus ‣ only shelled members of this class ‣ controls buoyancy ‣ coiled shel but animal does not undergo torsion • Class Bivalvia= largest class ◦ clams,mussels,oysters,scallops ◦ 2-part hinged shell ◦ mantle forms siphons= opening for water to flow in/out ◦ ciliated gills accomplish water flow,respiration,filter feeding and more ◦ a line of symmetry runs between the valves ◦ cilia moves and creates water flow which brings food in and waste out and distributes their gametes ◦ brings oxygen in and CO2 out ◦ most inside of the shell is called the visceral mass ◦ incurrent and excurrent siphons ◦ giant clam= symbiotic algae live within the mantle tissue ‣ weigh about a ton ◦ oysters ‣ sessile attaching to substrate and one another with their shells ‣ one shell is smaller than the other ‣ reduced foot ‣ pearls may form in the nacreous layer ◦ scallops ‣ swim rapidly opening and closing of their shell ‣ one large adductor muscle ‣ eyes on mantle edge ◦ mussels ‣ form a byssus ‣ byssal threads are the stuff of the mythical cloth of gold ◦ Clams ‣ have a burrowing foot ‣ their siphons may be very long • Organism of the day: ◦ Omyctolagus caniculus- European Rabbit ‣ a vigilant herbivore ‣ how to draw a bunny face • pinna (ae)- better to hear • virbrissae- very sensory,can tell if a holes too small to fit in • philtrum- slit in lip,allows the bunny to move her upper lips like two fingers

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Chapter 14, Problem 3 is Solved
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Textbook: Chemistry
Edition: 8
Author: Steven S. Zumdahl
ISBN: 9780547125329

This full solution covers the following key subjects: concentration, versus, Graphs, dissociation, explain. This expansive textbook survival guide covers 22 chapters, and 2897 solutions. The full step-by-step solution to problem: 3 from chapter: 14 was answered by , our top Chemistry solution expert on 11/15/17, 04:25PM. The answer to “Sketch two graphs: (a) percent dissociation for weak acid HA versus the initial concentration of HA ([HA]0) and (b) H concentration versus [HA]0. Explain both.” is broken down into a number of easy to follow steps, and 25 words. Chemistry was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9780547125329. Since the solution to 3 from 14 chapter was answered, more than 531 students have viewed the full step-by-step answer. This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: Chemistry, edition: 8.

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Sketch two graphs: (a) percent dissociation for weak acid