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The receiver for a dish antenna is placed in front of the

Physics | 4th Edition | ISBN: 9780321611116 | Authors: James S. Walker ISBN: 9780321611116 152

Solution for problem 95 Chapter 26

Physics | 4th Edition

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Physics | 4th Edition | ISBN: 9780321611116 | Authors: James S. Walker

Physics | 4th Edition

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Problem 95

The receiver for a dish antenna is placed in front of the concave surface of the dish. If the radius of curvature of the dish is R, how far in front of the dish should the receiver be placed? Explain.

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Step 1 of 3

Midterm: Reading Study Guide When the Nightmare is Real: Trauma in Childhood and Adolescence Midterm Exam Study Guide - Readings Readings Understand and be able to describe the general findings from all the assigned readings 1. What was studied 2. What are the major findings or main points to take away from the article 3. What are the implications or how does this inform the trauma field In addition to reviewing this study guide, I suggest you also scan/reread the readings in order to obtain a better understanding of them. Class 2: A Child’s World Long -Term Developmental, Behavioral, and Attachment Outcomes After International Adoption by Carol Weitzman and Lisa Albers 1. What was studied The potential impact of children’s institutional living not heir development, behavior, and attachment after international adoption 2. What are the major findings or main points to take away from the article Adoption: Children in the system Positive correlation btwnlength of time in orphanage and risk of developmental, behavioral, and emotional concerns. Lower child to staff ratios have been shown to improve outcomes, even in orphanages where basic facilities are lacking. Physical Health Children tend to be smaller in height, weight, head and chest circumference Behavioral Health lower IQ hyperactivity and impulsivity Self Stimulation is common Rocking behavior Head banging Shaking Visual stimulation with hand wiggling and flapping Agression Basic Findings: The children adopted later were more likely than the early adoption or those raised by bio parents to have: Insecure attachments Those RO children with insecure attachments were also more likely to have Behavior problems Lower scores on the Stanford Binet IQ test Familial stressors RO children showed more secure attachment over time And in fact, there were no differences between the CB and RO groups in attachment over time Early institutional experience had an impact on security of attachment only when coupled with other stressors in the adoptive home 3. how does this inform the trauma field International adoption has provided an extreme example of children raised without both their physical and psychological needs being met on a consistent basis. Studies of these children help us to understand the effects of physical and psychological deprivation Child Neglect: Developmental Issues and Outcomes by Kathryn Hildyard and David Wolfe 1. The manner in which child neglect, the most common form of maltreatment, affects children’s development 2. child neglect can have severe, deleterious short- and long- term effect son children’s cognitive, socio-emotional, and behavioral development neglect occurring early in life is particularly detrimental to subsequent development relative to physically abused children, neglected children have more severe cognitive and academic defects, social withdrawal and limited peer interaction, and internalizing (as opposed to externalizing) problems 3. Offers further support for the long-standing conclusion that child neglect poses a significant challenge to children’s development and well-being Class 1: Introduction to Trauma and Adolescents Children's symptoms in the wake of Challenger: A field study of distant-traumatic effects and an outline of related conditions by Terr, Lenore C; Bloch, Daniel A; Michel, Beat A; Shi, Hong; et al 1. What was studied The Challenger space shuttle explosion in January 1986 offered an opportunity to determine what, if any, symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and bereavement normal latency-age children and adolescents would develop after a distant, horrifying event 2. Major Findings: The Challenger space shuttle explosion in January 1986 offered an opportunity to determine what, if any, symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and bereavement normal latency-age children and adolescents would develop after a distant, horrifying event Terret al studied children with different levels of exposure to the Challenger tragedy (children who had watched the launch from Cape Canaveral, children who watched it directly on TV and children who did not watch it but heard about it afterwards) She looked at differences between east and west coast children and young and older children East Coast children were significantly more symptomatic than West Coast children (dreaming, drawing, behavioral re-enactment, fears, less interest in a space-related career) Children with a history of personal traumatic events had more symptoms than children who reported no previous exposure to trauma Interestingly being at Cape Canaveral versus watching it live on TV did not have an effect in terms of symptoms The immediacy of the media (TV) seems almost as real as the real event 3. how does this inform the trauma field: Children might be traumatized by events that do not directly affect their personal safety or the safety of their loved ones Closeness to the traumatic event plays a role in the severity of symptoms Adolescents may have fewer symptoms because they can place the event within a larger context Emotional involvement and frequency of exposure play a role in the development of post traumatic symptoms Although many children don’t meet full criteria for a psychiatric disorder, they have frequently significant symptoms Epidemiology of Child Traumatic Stress by John Fairbanks and Doreen Fairbanks 1. What was studied 1. the prevalence of children’s exposure to trauma and associated developmental, functional, mental, and physical health problems. 2. Major findings: children’s exposure to traumatic events is more frequent than was once believed. exposure to traumatic events is associated with a diverse array of serious adverse mental health, physical health, developmental, and functional outcomes. multiple cumulative exposures to traumatic stress are generally associated with worse out- comes than fewer exposures and that the adverse outcomes of cumulative exposures to trauma during childhood extend well into adulthood. 3. How does this inform the trauma field Brings attention to the real and intensive impact trauma has on children Class 3: PTSD & A Child’s World Developmental Trauma Disorder by Bessel A Van Der Kolk 1. What was studied The emotional triggers and patterns of re-enactment in traumatized children.Discussion of the spectrum of developmental derailments secondary to complex trauma exposure. Recognize patterns of accommodation in traumatized children 2. Major Findings Developmental trauma Disorder: Exposure: Exposure to one or more forms of developmentally adverse interpersonal traumas. May also experience subjective feelings in relation to this trauma, such as rage, betrayal, fear, resignation, defeat and shame. Dysregulation: Dysregulateddevelopment in response to trauma cues, including disturbances in emotions, health, behavior, cognition, relationships and self-attributions. Behavioral manifestation could be self- injury, for example; cognitive manifestation might appear as confusion or dissociation. Negative attributions and expectations: Negative beliefs in line with experience of interpersonal trauma. May stop expecting protection from others and believe that future victimization is inevitable. Functional impairments: Impairment in any or all arenas of life, including school, friendship, family relations, and the law. 3. How does this inform the trauma field Allows for further understanding of child & Adolescent trauma Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Maltreated Youth: A Review of Contemporary Research and Thought by Christopher A. Kearney, Adrianna WEchsler, Herpreet Kaur and Amie Lemos-Miller 1. What was studied Covers key aspects of post traumatic stress disorder in maltreated youth, including epidemiology, symptomatically, outcome, and risk factors as well as assessment and treatment strategies and challenges for these youths 2. Major Findings: Maltreated youth have a substantial risk for developing posttraumatic stress disorder and researchers have begun to devote more effort to this critical population. A comprehensive framework for this special population that focuses on self- regulation deficits is beginning to come into view, assessment strategies have become more sophisticated, and interventions tailored to these youth have been found to be efficacious. As the field moves forward, fine-tuning in all of these areas will be helpful. Researchers investigating treatment of maltreated youth with PTSD have broken exciting and vital new ground. Further study is necessary regarding the treatment of neglected youth as well as specific therapeutic components most efficacious for this population that can be readily used by clinicians. The study of early intervention and preventive strategies regarding PTSD in maltreated youth should be prioritized as well 3. How does this inform the trauma field Shows that although there has been extensive research on the correlation between PTSD and maltreated children, there must be more done in order to gain a full understanding of the correlation and how we can assess the children. A Developmental Perspective on Childhood Traumatic Stress by Adam Brown, Emily Becker-Weidman, and Glenn Saxe 1. What was Studied The developmental effects on childhood traumatic stress 2. Major Findings children raised in isolation, or without the requisite adult nurturing and support, will likely grow to be adults but will not resemble other adults in language or behavior - they will have not received the environmental factors necessary to facilitate ideal and adaptive social and biological development A child's development is effected by environmental influences Due to plasticity, the brain is sensitive to environmental influences In addition to occurrence of key neurobiological processes (myelination, synaptogenesis, growth and articulation of brain structures), processes crucial to the neurotypical development of the person's sense of self also occur during early childhood, including processes such as attachment, planning and reasoning, impulse control, empathy, self-soothing, and the integration of a sense of self-concept. 3. How does this inform the trauma field Points to the fact that all child serving systems, including medical, mental health, child welfare, juvenile justice and educational system, need to become aware of and sensitive to the needs of traumatized youth and families and also be able to meet these needs consistently and effectively. It is crucial that child serving individuals and entities recognize the factors that contribute to adverse childhood experiences and begin to build systems and supports that prevent such experiences from occurring, and that provide early detection and intervention across all levels of the social ecology. Class4: Stress and The Brain The Atlantic, December 2007 by David Dobbs - The Science of Success 1. What was studied The Genetic variations that can make a person both more susceptible to stress and more resilient in the face of stress 2. Major Findings Major Findings The Bakerman-Kranenburg et al study Looked at the DRD4 gene a dopamine processing gene Studied children with the “protective allele” and the “risk allele” of this gene Created an intervention for externalizing behaviors ofADHD ADHD hyperactivity impulsivity overly reactive/moody Found that those with the risk allele who got the intervention had much greater improvement in behavior than those with protective allele who received the intervention This indicates that while the risk allele may confer more risk in stressful situations, it may also confer more benefit in highly nurtured environments Thus, those individuals with high risk genes, may actually do better than those with low risk genes, if they are in the right environment Caspi and Moffit et al Nature and Nurture work together Found: short allele of MAOA gene increased the chance of the development of antisocial behavior in human adults abused as children In another study, they documented that if a human has the s/s or s/l version of the serotonin transporter gene plus a trauma then they have an increased risk for developing depression vs if they have the l/l version of the gene plus trauma or s/s, s/l and no trauma Soumi et al Studied rhesus monkeys who are genetically similar to humans Identified in monkeys similar alleles of the Serotonin transporter Gene found in humans: Long/long: protective against depression Short/long: moderate risk for depression Short/short: severe risk for depression Studied monkeys reared by their mothers vs monkeys reared as orphans by their peers Monkeys reared by their mothers all metabolized serotonin well regardless of allele type Monkeys reared by peers who have long/long allele had no change in metabolism of serotonin Monkeys reared by peers who had small/long alleles has poor metabolism of serotonin and were at high risk for development of depression and anxiety 1. How does this inform the trauma field Helps the trauma field in assessing patients, if they are more prone to stressors or not and what is most likely causing their stress…a more personalized care The Heavy Cost of Chronic Stress by Erica Goode 1. What was studied How stress affects the body and the result of that 2. Major Findings Psychological stress can increase vulnerability to disease Dr.McEwen is central to the understanding the concept of stress Stress is not harmful, the the complicated interaction between the demands of the outside world and the body’s capacity to manage potential threats is Body’s Essential stress responders: the cardiovascular system The immune system The endocrine glands brain regions involved in emotion and memory (amygdala & Hippocampus) Body’s nonessential stress responders: reproduction and digestion Moderate Amounts of Stress: stress can be benign & beneficial Too much stress (Allostatic Load): The body’s stress systems become over works - allostatic load anxious and aggressive immune systems slower Nerve cells in Hippocampus waste away (atrophied) made worse by how people respond to it - eating fatty foods, working late etc. Effect of Stress on Brain Hippocampus, typically, helps turn off the stress response after the threat has subsided high levels of cortisol (resultant from stress) shrinks nerve cells in hippocampus & halt creation of new hippocampal neurons Smaller Hippocampus associated with post traumatic stress disorder depression & sexual abuse in childhood Chronically stressed people sometimes have higher base line cortisol levels and produce too much or too little of it at the wrong times. Stress also seems to make people more likely to contract some infectious illnesses In humans, physical and sexual abuse and other traumas in childhood have been associated with a more pronounced response to stress later in life. Social standing effects stress The lower on the socioeconomic scale, the more at risk you are for diseases 3. How does this inform the trauma field Stress is a serious, daunting occurrence that must be regulated. There are goods and bads to stress, the key is proper regulation - eat sensibly, get plenty of sleep, exercise regularly, stop at one martini and stay away from cigarettes. Trauma plays a key role as to why someone has chronic stress, there needs to be more research on this correlation - to obtain a better grasp on the subject, recognize it, and treat it. The Neurobiology of Early Life Stress: Evolving Concepts by Joan Kaufman and Natalie Weder 1. What was studied The correlation between maltreated children and stress-related psychiatric problems. “How do experiences of early life stress confer vulnerability to psychiatric problems later in life ” 2. Major Findings the stress response activates key brain structures involved in emotion processing, reward circuitry, executive function and memory. Early maternal deprivation associated with increased CRH and NE drive in adulthood This increase is associated with a Decrease in GABA-ergicneurons in cortical areas (such as the prefrontal cortex) Epigenetic study of the functional modifications of the genome that do not involve a DNA nucleotide change For example, genetic function can be altered through environmental influences on the expression of genetic material Epigenetic modifications to proteins alter transcription of DNA Signals from the environment act on the epigenometo activate and silence different genes Diet, differences in physical activity, stress, and exposure to toxins can all affect the epigenomefor example On the genetic level, DNA methylation and histone acetylation alter the epigenome and expression of genetic material Epigenetic modifications to histone Proteins and the DNA can alter the chance of a gene being transcribed DNA methylation-leads to gene silencing 1. How does this inform the trauma field The Poverty Clinic: Castrong correlation between ACE scores and problems in schooln a stressful childhood make you a sick adult by Paul Tough 1. What Was Studied The association between childhood maltreatment and long-term illnesses and the proper course of treatment. 2. Major Findings The ACE Study by Vincent Felitti and Robert Anda: Found the strong correlation between adverse childhood experiences and negative adult outcomes Main Critiques: it is retrospective, relies on the memory and the credibility of the original respondents In initial papers, were unable to come up with a solid explanation for why adverse childhood experiences produced serious health problems in adulthood. adversity early in life can: disrupt brain circuits that lead to problems with literacy effect the immune system and metabolic system greater risk for diabetes and hypertension and heart disease and cancer and depression and substance abuse adults in their thirties who had been mistreated as children were nearly twice as likely to have elevated levels of an inflammatory protein in their blood—high-sensitivity C-reactive protein—as adults who had not been mistreated, leading marker for cardiovascular disease. Important point: Childhood maltreatment may cause not only emotional difficulties, but also serious medical consequences Treatment for the effects of stress (can result from maltreatment) psychopharmacology: fighting chemicals with chemicals, by directly targeting the mechanisms in the brain that get overloaded by early stress Researchers found that they were able to counteract stress-related methylation in rat brains with doses of certain psychoactive drugs, but has not been tested on humans and the drugs were injected directly into rats’ brains mend children’s overtaxed stress- response systems by changing the behavior of their parents or caregivers. Treatment for older children and adolescents who experienced early trauma: not solid research evidence that certain psychological regimens, especially cognitive- behavioral therapy, can reduce anxiety and depression in patients who are suffering from the stress of early trauma. But, beyond that, little is known 3. How does this inform the trauma field there must be a change in primary care medical practice in America and the way we diagnose and treat many diseases A treatment protocol for the effects of trauma must be created. Midterm: Reading Study Guide When the Nightmare is Real: Trauma in Childhood and Adolescence Midterm Exam Study Guide - Readings Readings Understand and be able to describe the general findings from all the assigned readings 1. What was studied 2. What are the major findings or main points to take away from the article 3. What are the implications or how does this inform the trauma field In addition to reviewing this study guide, I suggest you also scan/reread the readings in order to obtain a better understanding of them. Class 2: A Child’s World Long -Term Developmental, Behavioral, and Attachment Outcomes After International Adoption by Carol Weitzman and Lisa Albers 1. What was studied The potential impact of children’s institutional living not heir development, behavior, and attachment after international adoption 2. What are the major findings or main points to take away from the article Adoption: Children in the system Positive correlation btwnlength of time in orphanage and risk of developmental, behavioral, and emotional concerns. Lower child to staff ratios have been shown to improve outcomes, even in orphanages where basic facilities are lacking. Physical Health Children tend to be smaller in height, weight, head and chest circumference Behavioral Health lower IQ hyperactivity and impulsivity Self Stimulation is common Rocking behavior Head banging Shaking Visual stimulation with hand wiggling and flapping Agression Basic Findings: The children adopted later were more likely than the early adoption or those raised by bio parents to have: Insecure attachments Those RO children with insecure attachments were also more likely to have Behavior problems Lower scores on the Stanford Binet IQ test Familial stressors RO children showed more secure attachment over time And in fact, there were no differences between the CB and RO groups in attachment over time Early institutional experience had an impact on security of attachment only when coupled with other stressors in the adoptive home 3. how does this inform the trauma field International adoption has provided an extreme example of children raised without both their physical and psychological needs being met on a consistent basis. Studies of these children help us to understand the effects of physical and psychological deprivation Child Neglect: Developmental Issues and Outcomes by Kathryn Hildyard and David Wolfe 1. The manner in which child neglect, the most common form of maltreatment, affects children’s development 2. child neglect can have severe, deleterious short- and long- term effect son children’s cognitive, socio-emotional, and behavioral development neglect occurring early in life is particularly detrimental to subsequent development relative to physically abused children, neglected children have more severe cognitive and academic defects, social withdrawal and limited peer interaction, and internalizing (as opposed to externalizing) problems 3. Offers further support for the long-standing conclusion that child neglect poses a significant challenge to children’s development and well-being Class 1: Introduction to Trauma and Adolescents Children's symptoms in the wake of Challenger: A field study of distant-traumatic effects and an outline of related conditions by Terr, Lenore C; Bloch, Daniel A; Michel, Beat A; Shi, Hong; et al 1. What was studied The Challenger space shuttle explosion in January 1986 offered an opportunity to determine what, if any, symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and bereavement normal latency-age children and adolescents would develop after a distant, horrifying event 2. Major Findings: The Challenger space shuttle explosion in January 1986 offered an opportunity to determine what, if any, symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and bereavement normal latency-age children and adolescents would develop after a distant, horrifying event Terret al studied children with different levels of exposure to the Challenger tragedy (children who had watched the launch from Cape Canaveral, children who watched it directly on TV and children who did not watch it but heard about it afterwards) She looked at differences between east and west coast children and young and older children East Coast children were significantly more symptomatic than West Coast children (dreaming, drawing, behavioral re-enactment, fears, less interest in a space-related career) Children with a history of personal traumatic events had more symptoms than children who reported no previous exposure to trauma Interestingly being at Cape Canaveral versus watching it live on TV did not have an effect in terms of symptoms The immediacy of the media (TV) seems almost as real as the real event 3. how does this inform the trauma field: Children might be traumatized by events that do not directly affect their personal safety or the safety of their loved ones Closeness to the traumatic event plays a role in the severity of symptoms Adolescents may have fewer symptoms because they can place the event within a larger context Emotional involvement and frequency of exposure play a role in the development of post traumatic symptoms Although many children don’t meet full criteria for a psychiatric disorder, they have frequently significant symptoms Epidemiology of Child Traumatic Stress by John Fairbanks and Doreen Fairbanks 1. What was studied 1. the prevalence of children’s exposure to trauma and associated developmental, functional, mental, and physical health problems. 2. Major findings: children’s exposure to traumatic events is more frequent than was once believed. exposure to traumatic events is associated with a diverse array of serious adverse mental health, physical health, developmental, and functional outcomes. multiple cumulative exposures to traumatic stress are generally associated with worse out- comes than fewer exposures and that the adverse outcomes of cumulative exposures to trauma during childhood extend well into adulthood. 3. How does this inform the trauma field Brings attention to the real and intensive impact trauma has on children Class 3: PTSD & A Child’s World Developmental Trauma Disorder by Bessel A Van Der Kolk 1. What was studied The emotional triggers and patterns of re-enactment in traumatized children.Discussion of the spectrum of developmental derailments secondary to complex trauma exposure. Recognize patterns of accommodation in traumatized children 2. Major Findings Developmental trauma Disorder: Exposure: Exposure to one or more forms of developmentally adverse interpersonal traumas. May also experience subjective feelings in relation to this trauma, such as rage, betrayal, fear, resignation, defeat and shame. Dysregulation: Dysregulateddevelopment in response to trauma cues, including disturbances in emotions, health, behavior, cognition, relationships and self-attributions. Behavioral manifestation could be self- injury, for example; cognitive manifestation might appear as confusion or dissociation. Negative attributions and expectations: Negative beliefs in line with experience of interpersonal trauma. May stop expecting protection from others and believe that future victimization is inevitable. Functional impairments: Impairment in any or all arenas of life, including school, friendship, family relations, and the law. 3. How does this inform the trauma field Allows for further understanding of child & Adolescent trauma Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Maltreated Youth: A Review of Contemporary Research and Thought by Christopher A. Kearney, Adrianna WEchsler, Herpreet Kaur and Amie Lemos-Miller 1. What was studied Covers key aspects of post traumatic stress disorder in maltreated youth, including epidemiology, symptomatically, outcome, and risk factors as well as assessment and treatment strategies and challenges for these youths 2. Major Findings: Maltreated youth have a substantial risk for developing posttraumatic stress disorder and researchers have begun to devote more effort to this critical population. A comprehensive framework for this special population that focuses on self- regulation deficits is beginning to come into view, assessment strategies have become more sophisticated, and interventions tailored to these youth have been found to be efficacious. As the field moves forward, fine-tuning in all of these areas will be helpful. Researchers investigating treatment of maltreated youth with PTSD have broken exciting and vital new ground. Further study is necessary regarding the treatment of neglected youth as well as specific therapeutic components most efficacious for this population that can be readily used by clinicians. The study of early intervention and preventive strategies regarding PTSD in maltreated youth should be prioritized as well 3. How does this inform the trauma field Shows that although there has been extensive research on the correlation between PTSD and maltreated children, there must be more done in order to gain a full understanding of the correlation and how we can assess the children. A Developmental Perspective on Childhood Traumatic Stress by Adam Brown, Emily Becker-Weidman, and Glenn Saxe 1. What was Studied The developmental effects on childhood traumatic stress 2. Major Findings children raised in isolation, or without the requisite adult nurturing and support, will likely grow to be adults but will not resemble other adults in language or behavior - they will have not received the environmental factors necessary to facilitate ideal and adaptive social and biological development A child's development is effected by environmental influences Due to plasticity, the brain is sensitive to environmental influences In addition to occurrence of key neurobiological processes (myelination, synaptogenesis, growth and articulation of brain structures), processes crucial to the neurotypical development of the person's sense of self also occur during early childhood, including processes such as attachment, planning and reasoning, impulse control, empathy, self-soothing, and the integration of a sense of self-concept. 3. How does this inform the trauma field Points to the fact that all child serving systems, including medical, mental health, child welfare, juvenile justice and educational system, need to become aware of and sensitive to the needs of traumatized youth and families and also be able to meet these needs consistently and effectively. It is crucial that child serving individuals and entities recognize the factors that contribute to adverse childhood experiences and begin to build systems and supports that prevent such experiences from occurring, and that provide early detection and intervention across all levels of the social ecology. Class4: Stress and The Brain The Atlantic, December 2007 by David Dobbs - The Science of Success 1. What was studied The Genetic variations that can make a person both more susceptible to stress and more resilient in the face of stress 2. Major Findings Major Findings The Bakerman-Kranenburg et al study Looked at the DRD4 gene a dopamine processing gene Studied children with the “protective allele” and the “risk allele” of this gene Created an intervention for externalizing behaviors ofADHD ADHD hyperactivity impulsivity overly reactive/moody Found that those with the risk allele who got the intervention had much greater improvement in behavior than those with protective allele who received the intervention This indicates that while the risk allele may confer more risk in stressful situations, it may also confer more benefit in highly nurtured environments Thus, those individuals with high risk genes, may actually do better than those with low risk genes, if they are in the right environment Caspi and Moffit et al Nature and Nurture work together Found: short allele of MAOA gene increased the chance of the development of antisocial behavior in human adults abused as children In another study, they documented that if a human has the s/s or s/l version of the serotonin transporter gene plus a trauma then they have an increased risk for developing depression vs if they have the l/l version of the gene plus trauma or s/s, s/l and no trauma Soumi et al Studied rhesus monkeys who are genetically similar to humans Identified in monkeys similar alleles of the Serotonin transporter Gene found in humans: Long/long: protective against depression Short/long: moderate risk for depression Short/short: severe risk for depression Studied monkeys reared by their mothers vs monkeys reared as orphans by their peers Monkeys reared by their mothers all metabolized serotonin well regardless of allele type Monkeys reared by peers who have long/long allele had no change in metabolism of serotonin Monkeys reared by peers who had small/long alleles has poor metabolism of serotonin and were at high risk for development of depression and anxiety 1. How does this inform the trauma field Helps the trauma field in assessing patients, if they are more prone to stressors or not and what is most likely causing their stress…a more personalized care The Heavy Cost of Chronic Stress by Erica Goode 1. What was studied How stress affects the body and the result of that 2. Major Findings Psychological stress can increase vulnerability to disease Dr.McEwen is central to the understanding the concept of stress Stress is not harmful, the the complicated interaction between the demands of the outside world and the body’s capacity to manage potential threats is Body’s Essential stress responders: the cardiovascular system The immune system The endocrine glands brain regions involved in emotion and memory (amygdala & Hippocampus) Body’s nonessential stress responders: reproduction and digestion Moderate Amounts of Stress: stress can be benign & beneficial Too much stress (Allostatic Load): The body’s stress systems become over works - allostatic load anxious and aggressive immune systems slower Nerve cells in Hippocampus waste away (atrophied) made worse by how people respond to it - eating fatty foods, working late etc. Effect of Stress on Brain Hippocampus, typically, helps turn off the stress response after the threat has subsided high levels of cortisol (resultant from stress) shrinks nerve cells in hippocampus & halt creation of new hippocampal neurons Smaller Hippocampus associated with post traumatic stress disorder depression & sexual abuse in childhood Chronically stressed people sometimes have higher base line cortisol levels and produce too much or too little of it at the wrong times. Stress also seems to make people more likely to contract some infectious illnesses In humans, physical and sexual abuse and other traumas in childhood have been associated with a more pronounced response to stress later in life. Social standing effects stress The lower on the socioeconomic scale, the more at risk you are for diseases 3. How does this inform the trauma field Stress is a serious, daunting occurrence that must be regulated. There are goods and bads to stress, the key is proper regulation - eat sensibly, get plenty of sleep, exercise regularly, stop at one martini and stay away from cigarettes. Trauma plays a key role as to why someone has chronic stress, there needs to be more research on this correlation - to obtain a better grasp on the subject, recognize it, and treat it. The Neurobiology of Early Life Stress: Evolving Concepts by Joan Kaufman and Natalie Weder 1. What was studied The correlation between maltreated children and stress-related psychiatric problems. “How do experiences of early life stress confer vulnerability to psychiatric problems later in life ” 2. Major Findings the stress response activates key brain structures involved in emotion processing, reward circuitry, executive function and memory. Early maternal deprivation associated with increased CRH and NE drive in adulthood This increase is associated with a Decrease in GABA-ergicneurons in cortical areas (such as the prefrontal cortex) Epigenetic study of the functional modifications of the genome that do not involve a DNA nucleotide change For example, genetic function can be altered through environmental influences on the expression of genetic material Epigenetic modifications to proteins alter transcription of DNA Signals from the environment act on the epigenometo activate and silence different genes Diet, differences in physical activity, stress, and exposure to toxins can all affect the epigenomefor example On the genetic level, DNA methylation and histone acetylation alter the epigenome and expression of genetic material Epigenetic modifications to histone Proteins and the DNA can alter the chance of a gene being transcribed DNA methylation-leads to gene silencing 1. How does this inform the trauma field The Poverty Clinic: Castrong correlation between ACE scores and problems in schooln a stressful childhood make you a sick adult by Paul Tough 1. What Was Studied The association between childhood maltreatment and long-term illnesses and the proper course of treatment. 2. Major Findings The ACE Study by Vincent Felitti and Robert Anda: Found the strong correlation between adverse childhood experiences and negative adult outcomes Main Critiques: it is retrospective, relies on the memory and the credibility of the original respondents In initial papers, were unable to come up with a solid explanation for why adverse childhood experiences produced serious health problems in adulthood. adversity early in life can: disrupt brain circuits that lead to problems with literacy effect the immune system and metabolic system greater risk for diabetes and hypertension and heart disease and cancer and depression and substance abuse adults in their thirties who had been mistreated as children were nearly twice as likely to have elevated levels of an inflammatory protein in their blood—high-sensitivity C-reactive protein—as adults who had not been mistreated, leading marker for cardiovascular disease. Important point: Childhood maltreatment may cause not only emotional difficulties, but also serious medical consequences Treatment for the effects of stress (can result from maltreatment) psychopharmacology: fighting chemicals with chemicals, by directly targeting the mechanisms in the brain that get overloaded by early stress Researchers found that they were able to counteract stress-related methylation in rat brains with doses of certain psychoactive drugs, but has not been tested on humans and the drugs were injected directly into rats’ brains mend children’s overtaxed stress- response systems by changing the behavior of their parents or caregivers. Treatment for older children and adolescents who experienced early trauma: not solid research evidence that certain psychological regimens, especially cognitive- behavioral therapy, can reduce anxiety and depression in patients who are suffering from the stress of early trauma. But, beyond that, little is known 3. How does this inform the trauma field there must be a change in primary care medical practice in America and the way we diagnose and treat many diseases A treatment protocol for the effects of trauma must be created.

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Textbook: Physics
Edition: 4
Author: James S. Walker
ISBN: 9780321611116

This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: Physics, edition: 4. The full step-by-step solution to problem: 95 from chapter: 26 was answered by , our top Physics solution expert on 11/15/17, 04:23PM. This full solution covers the following key subjects: dish, placed, receiver, front, antenna. This expansive textbook survival guide covers 32 chapters, and 3407 solutions. Since the solution to 95 from 26 chapter was answered, more than 322 students have viewed the full step-by-step answer. The answer to “The receiver for a dish antenna is placed in front of the concave surface of the dish. If the radius of curvature of the dish is R, how far in front of the dish should the receiver be placed? Explain.” is broken down into a number of easy to follow steps, and 40 words. Physics was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9780321611116.

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The receiver for a dish antenna is placed in front of the