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In Figure P18.62, R1 0.100, R2 1.00, and R3 10.0. Find the

College Physics | 7th Edition | ISBN: 9780495113690 | Authors: Raymond A. Serway ISBN: 9780495113690 154

Solution for problem 18.62 Chapter 18

College Physics | 7th Edition

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College Physics | 7th Edition | ISBN: 9780495113690 | Authors: Raymond A. Serway

College Physics | 7th Edition

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Problem 18.62

In Figure P18.62, R1 0.100, R2 1.00, and R3 10.0. Find the equivalent resistance of the circuit and the current in each resistor when a 5.00-V power supply is connected between (a) points A and B, (b) points A and C, and (c) points A and D.

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2/29/2016 >Engstrom reading  How we talk about experiences influences and is influenced by societal change  This is a difference in how comm scholar (versus a sociologist) would explore a social phenomenon  Are societal changes reflected in media representations of the college experience >Campus life in movies: Example  Then: o Animal House released in 1978 but was meant to depict 1962 o Women on campus in the 60s were still a minority o Women often depicted as attending to earn MRS degree  Now: o Today, women outnumber men in college enrollment o Are women now more often depicted as being serious and high­ achieving students o Do women in the film still engage in mostly stereotypical “feminine” behavior *Comm scholars regularly explore issues related to representation of identity  So, we get ideas about what “normal” is (i particular social spaces contexts) from a variety of sources o Conklin argues that Animal House changed the expectations first­year college students had of the college experience (including appropriate and acceptable behavior) *Key concepts:  Gender v. sex  Masculinity v. femininity  Gender as performative  Speech community  Speech code  Communicative competence >What is a man What is a woman  Sex: biological features (physical fact)  Sex refers to the biological and physiological characteristics that define men and women >What is masculine What is feminine  Gender refers to the socially constructed roles, behaviors, activities, and attributes that a given society considers appropriate for men and women  Gender: what various social groups know to be a recognizable man/woman (human/social fact)  Comm scholar Julia Wood attempted to answer the question, “What does it mean to us as individuals to grow up feminine or masculine in present­day America”  What does research have to say about these experiences >Feminine 1. Appearance still counts: women are still judged by their looks. Desirable= pretty, slim, and well­dressed 2. Be sensitive and caring: BE NICE, deferential, and helpful. Care about and take care of others 3. Negative treatment by others: Women are more often targets of sexual assault, are more likely to live in poverty, and more likely to face bad job salary discrimination 4. Be superwoman: you must have it all. It’s not enough to be a homemaker, you must also have a career and be a great mother 5. There is no single meaning of feminine anymore. No matter what you do, you will be applauded by some and criticized by others. >Masculine 1. Don’t be female: do not act, look, think, or feel like a woman or a girl. Do not show sensitivity or vulnerability 2. Be successful: achieve status. Don’t just be good­­be better and more powerful than your peers. Be a good provider. 3. Be aggressive: you will be rewarded for being a daredevil and a roughneck. Take a stand; don’t run from confrontation. Be tough. 4. Be sexual: interested in sex at all times. Have a number of sexual partners. Sexual conquest is a cornerstone of masculinity 5. Be self­reliant: don’t need others. Depend on yourself. Take care of yourself. Rely on yourself. >Gender as Performative  How do we “do feminine” or “do masculine” o Speech o Dress o Appearance o Language o Nonverbals o Behavior o And so on.. *Most of us have been socialized to understand that masculine and feminine traits and behaviors are and how to appropriate and perform them >Gender as Performative (in Engstrom’s article)  Men performances of hegemonic masculinity include aggressiveness, toughness, lewdness  Within the college context, women can also reinforce hegemonic masculinity o Seeking relationships only with “strong men” o Leaving men’s problematic practices unchallenged when they reference o alcohol usage to explain another practice (fighting, destruction of property, rape) >Engstrom cont.  To understand human/social facts we have to looks at how they appear in conversation  What kinds of speech codes shape how people talk o Speech code: rules for producing culturally recognizable , appropriate speech >Engstrom’s Communication Problem  The perception of college drinking is that the problem is the alcohol consumption itself. Engstrom wants to explain how certain habitual ways of speaking normalize college­age drinking and justify bad choices  Data show that students’ patterned ways of speaking especially about drinking, mitigate problematic student behaviors.  Although such mitigating statements are, at times, by themselves problematic, they (re)produce a much more troubling masculinity. Engstrom’s theory  Shifts the focus from how we can stop binge drinking on campus and asks instead: o “How do students, through everyday talk, collectively make sense of these actions” >How is this related to shared social space  Speech codes are created and recreated in particular speech communities. o Speech community­­a cultural group that has shared rules of speaking and interpretation of speech performance  Understanding of what is normal or acceptable (i.e. the rules of drinking culture) is learned and practiced through social interaction (i.e. talking about drinking, and actually drinking) >Engstrom’s Findings  Students adhere to the cultural patterns of speaking regarding alcohol references, which have at least four identifiable rules.  If you are part of this particular speech community, you likely know the rules (speech codes) >4 Identifiable Rules  Rule #1: Accept references to alcohol “as is”  Rule #2: Validations of references to alcohol  Rule #3: Refer to alcohol positively  Rule #4: Referencing alcohol should point to normalcy >Rules in action  Alcohol use excuses behavior that, in any other context, would be seen as antisocial and dispreferred o Urinating in public o Vandalism o Sexual misconduct  “But I was drunk!” >Communicative Competence  If you know the rules, you can participate without incident in the communicative event o Engstrom did not understand the rule about not asking for specific details (like how much someone drank) o This marked him as communicatively incompetent in this context o It also marked him as someone who was not part of this particular speech community (college­age students discussion drinking and drinking­related behavior) >Practices that reinforce hegemonic masculinity  Men engage in more aggressive, violent, and risk­taking behavior  “That's just how they are”  Talking about this behavior in this way and then using alcohol consumption to excuse it only reinforces it as acceptable gender behavior >Dominant view: students drink too much, and they often engage in misconduct as a result  Engstrom: this is a misrepresentation of what actually happens  In talking about alcohol consumption, students create a “natural” relationship between excessive drinking and misconduct (“yes, I did that, but I was drunk”) >Engstrom conclusion  People use human/ social facts about masculinity (and femininity) to accomplish social goals through communication (such as “being cool”)  Engstrom: not all college­age males enact (or support) the dominant type of masculinity  Many college­age women enact (or support) the dominant type of masculinity >Communication and social change  Constitutive view: change the way people talk­­change human/social facts­­ change (social) reality  Engstrom: change the way students talk about alcohol, they will be less likely to engage in (or support) drunken misconduct

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Textbook: College Physics
Edition: 7
Author: Raymond A. Serway
ISBN: 9780495113690

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In Figure P18.62, R1 0.100, R2 1.00, and R3 10.0. Find the