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Constructing a Box A square piece of cardboard is formed

College Algebra and Trigonometry | 7th Edition | ISBN: 9781439048603 | Authors: Richard N. Aufmann ISBN: 9781439048603 155

Solution for problem 74 Chapter 1

College Algebra and Trigonometry | 7th Edition

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College Algebra and Trigonometry | 7th Edition | ISBN: 9781439048603 | Authors: Richard N. Aufmann

College Algebra and Trigonometry | 7th Edition

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Problem 74

Constructing a Box A square piece of cardboard is formed into a box by cutting an 8-centimeter square from each corner and folding up the sides. If the volume of the box is to be 80,000 cubic centimeters, what size square piece of cardboard is needed? (Hint: Volume of a box is .)

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CH 1: Natural Hazards - Intro to Natural Hazards California Earthquake (documentary) -1994 in CA -gas pipes broke and fires broke out -started in San Fernando Valley -power lines broke and so lights were out on the streets -problems with water -ppl were trapped and or killed -earthquakes don’t kill, buildings kill -buildings not up to standards and can end up hurting ppl -links between hazards Content -disaster vs catastrophe -role of history in the understanding natural hazards -components of geologic cycle -scientific method -basics of risk assessment -Impact of ppl decisions b4, during and after a hazardous event -inverse law magnitude vs frequency -link among natural hazards, and the environment -impact of population growth, poor land-use practices to natural hazards, disasters and catastrophes -hazards provide natural service -links of climate change and natural hazards Haiti -Surrounded by plates -tectonically active -3 plates moving along each other -movements create breaking of rocks -haiti is prone to earthquakes because its in a tectonically active location -also experience severe weather conditions - hurricanes… -N. american plate, caribbean plate -economy cant keep up with all the buildings being destroyed Human Cause catastrophe -Earthquake - catastrophe: -85% of ppl in port-au-prince lived in slum conditions -poor conditions lad to 190,000 destroyed or damaged -1/4 million ppl killed -2 million are homeless with poor sanitation and poor water quality -catastrophe was clear: heavy human footprint -could have been prevented -poorly constructed buildings -fast population growth 90% of Haiti is deforested -land is prone to flooding and mass wasting -when there are forests, it can hold soil in place -when there is no vegetation it can create landslides -water can be slowed down by vegetation -vegetation plays an important role in slowing down hazards -liquefaction Why study Natural hazards is important -experience of large, costly, and deadly natural hazards since 1995-call for investigation and mitigation -deadliest tsunami caused by earthquake in indian ocean -tsunami in japan caused by largest and costliest earrthquake in record history -catastrophic flooding in different areas of the world -volcanic eruptions that shut down international airports (iceland) -worst tornado outbreak in US history Processes: internal and external -process: physical , chemical, and biological ways in which events affect Earth's surface -internal processes come from forces within Earth -plate tectonics -as tectonic plates move, they deform and create earthquakes, form new rocks and recycle (magma) -results of internal energy of earth -external processes due to forces on Earth's surface -atmospheric effects -energy from the sun -tectonic and rock cycle: movements of plates -geosphere: the soil and earth -where does the energy come from to create those movements -in the center of the earth, the core is hot. The cores are heat energies and it heats up the layers above the core and causes movement of that layer. (inner source of energy) -the heat/energy source come from inside -atmospheric circulation caused by the sun (outer source of energy) -water circulation - hydrolic cycle Hazard, Disaster or Catastrophe -hazard: natural process or event that is a potential threat to human life or property -disaster: hazardous event that occurs over a limited time in a defined area -Criteria: -ten or more ppl killed -100 or more ppl affected -state of emergency is declared -international assistance is requested -catastrophe: massive disaster that requires significant amount of money or time to recover Major Hazards in the US -Because of the type of bed rocks on the east coast, even if there is an earthquake closer to the middle, the east coast may be able to feel it -US is considered to have the most tornadoes located in the center of the US-tornado valley -flooding happens all over the Us can can happen more often in certain places -flash floods: happens when there is large precipitation in a short amount of time -flooding over river: when a river flows thru a valley and there is precipitation ex. Mississippi river -During past half century, there has been a dramatic inc in natural disasters -ex. Haitian earthquake, Indonesian tsunami, hurricane Katrina -united Nation: 1990's "international Decade for Natural hazards Reduction" -Mitigation: the decrease of reduction of the effect of something -reduce the effects of something -natural disaster preparation Numbers, Effects and Causes of Worldwide natural Disasters -inc number of disaster since 1960-2010 -less than 50 in 1960 to around 400 in 2010 -global warming has an effect on the inc -inc of temp -warming up of ocean surfaces Death and Damage Caused by Natural Hazards -effects of hazards can differ and change with time cuz of changes of patterns of human land use -natural hazards that cause the greatest loss on human life may not cause the most property damage -hazards vary greatly in their ability to cause catastrophe -we need to know how hazardous an area is before we start building -in poorer countries, the natural disasters are associated with the number of ppl who have died -the monitory losses in richer countries would be less than in those with pooper countries. Potential for Humans to Influence Selected Natural Hazards in the US -flood hazards Ex. dam constructions -changing the natural flows of the river, river channel may not be prepared to carry too much water, sediment can inc in the water and over flow the water, dams are human made and made with in the rocks and rocks can erode, too much precipitation Ex. building houses on the coastal areas with low elevation coasts Ex. Building on flat planes, where there are rivers -floods, earthquakes and tsunamis, wildfires: occurrence influenced by human use -high production of catastrophes: floods, earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanoes, hurricanes, tornadoes, heat wave, wild fires Role of History in understanding Hazards -Natural Hazards are repetitive (uniformitarianism) -history of an area gives clues to potential hazards -maps, historical accounts, climate and weather data -rock types, fault, folds, soil composition -we can find out what happened in the past by observing soil -ex. Volcanic activity… The Geologic Cycle -geologic conditions govern the type, location, and intensity of natural processes -collectively, processes are called geologic cycle -subcycles: -tectonic cycle: compression, tension, formation of normal faults -rock cycle -hydrologic cycle -biogeochemical cycle Knowing Hazard risks can help ppl make decisions -predictions will save lives -risk= (probability of event) x (consequences) -consequences: damages to ppl, property, economics, etc -acceptable risk is the amount of risk that an individual or society is willing to take -frequent problem is a lack of reliable date from either the probability or consequences Linkages exist btwn Natural Hazards -Hazards are linked to each other -some events may cause others -ex. Hurricanes and flooding -hazards linked to Earth materials -ex. Some rock types are ppl to landslides of liquefaction -one section of the bridge was constructed on a field and the other was on bedrock -the part on the field collapsed -in bedrock- doesn’t shake as much -in soft mud- the shaking is large -on sand an gravel- it shakes but not as much as in soft mud Humans can turn disastrous events into catastrophes -inc # of ppl @ risk -more loss of life in highly populated compared to hazardous event in a less dense area -ex -Mexico city: 10,000 killed in 19858.0 earthquake -Izmit, Turkey: more than 17,000 killed from 1999 earthquakes -worlds pop has more than trippled in the past 70 yrs -inc exposure to hazards, inc pollution, reduced availability of food and clean drinking water, and a greater need for waste disposal and energy resources Magnitude and frequency of Hazardous events -impact of hazards depends on: -magnitude: Amount of energy released -frequency: interval btwn occurrences… Amount of Energy Relesed -the lower magnitude, the more earthquakes -the more earthquakes, the less the magnitude Consequences of Hazards Can be Minimized -Primarily reactive approach in t dealing with hazards -search and rescue -firefighting -providing emergency food, water, amd shelter -need to inc efforts to anticipated and their effects (planning) -land-use planning limitations -hazard-resistance construction -hazard modification or control -total losses are direct losses and losses related to human actions -direct losses and the losses accepted by human reactions Reactive Response -effects from a disaster can be -direct(flet by fewer individuals): ppl killed or dislocated, buildings damage, etc -indirect (affect many more ppl): emotional distress, donation of money or goods, taxes for recovery, etc -recovery from disaster -emergency work -resolutions of services and communication lines -reconstruction Anticipatory Response -when the public is informed, they know how to react incase of a hazard -knowing how a tsunami wavebehaves, you canknow how to behave and move to a higher ground -its important to be educated to minimize he effects -attitudes are helpful because it means ppl can be willing to help -anticipatory options: insurance, evacuation roads, planning of land use, artificial control -ex. Regulating the river -ex. Building to the right codes -ex. Controlling water flow Many Hazards Provide a natural Service Function -benefits to hazards -ex. Flooding provides nutrients to soil -volcanoes- enriched soil, create new land and rock, create hot springs, geothermal resources, can form natural resources -landslides- can create dams or lakes -global climate change is likely to change the incidence of some natural hazards -inc in sea level and coastal erosion -deserts and semiarid regions are likely to expand -warmer ocean water is likely to inc storm activity

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Chapter 1, Problem 74 is Solved
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Textbook: College Algebra and Trigonometry
Edition: 7
Author: Richard N. Aufmann
ISBN: 9781439048603

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Constructing a Box A square piece of cardboard is formed