In Exercises 25 to 28, determine the domain of the function represented by the given equation.
4/18/16 Cont. Racism Personal Racism - the expression of racist attitudes or behaviors by individual people -Ex: individuals use derogatory names when they refer to ethnoracial groups Stereotypes -When applied to race, a stereotype is the overgeneralized belief that a certain trait, behavior, or attitude characterizes all members of some identiﬁable group Media and Stereotypes -the media provide audiences with real and fantasized images of racial, religious, and ethnic groups -Shows like Glee, the Big bang theory, and modern family continue to present chinese, indian, and latin characters in a stereotypical manner Power of Media’s stereotypes Based on an analysis of random sample of television new shows aired in los angeles and orange countries in california… Study found: that whites wherefore likely than african americans and latino/as to be portrayed on television news as victims of crime. African Americans and Latino/as were more likely to be portrayed on news shows as lawbreakers than as crime victims Prejudice and discrimination Prejudice - when stereotypes form the basis of a set of rigidly held, unfavorable attitudes, beliefs, and feelings about members of a racial or thence group, they constitute prejudice Prejudice can inﬂuence social interaction and such perceptions can inﬂuence policy. -new york city’s “stop and frisk” -2012 murder of trayvon martin Discrimination -prejudiced beliefs can often lead to discrimination Discrimination: the unfair treatment of people based on some characteristic -2004 research study by two economists at the university of chicago Made ﬁctitious applications -one set of applications they put more “anglo” sounding names- emily and greg -other set of apps they put more “ethnic” sounding names - jamaal and laquisha Race, Class, and discrimination -Is discriminatory treatement, as well as the unequal social and political status of somer racial groups, more a function of scoail class than race What did the research ﬁndings of sociologists Joe Feagin and Karyn McKinney (2003) ﬁnd Feign and Mcinney Research Study -They analyzed data from focus groups and individual interviews with several hundred middle-class U.S. blacks, who ere all college educated and held professional or managerial jobs to determine the consequences of the discrimination they experienced at work. Wealth White men on race study -Sociolgoists Feagin and O’Brien interviewed about 100 wealthy white male executives, managers, administrators, and professionals about a range of racial issues. -Feagin maintained that the perceptions of these men is important because many of them have the power to shape policies, laws, and actions involving ethnoracial minorities and majorities -Major ﬁnding: the factor seemed to separate the wealthy men who voiced dismay over racial and class inequality from the ones who held more traditional (and negative) attitudes towards race was the nature of the relationships they’d had with people of color -people are scared of things they aren’t familiar with, if they grew up around just white people would express more concern -In other words, those who had long-term friendships or extended contact with members of other races showed a willingness to consider dismantling the structures that perpetuate prejudice and racial inequality -also the relationship needed to be of equal status -classmates, teammates -not CEO and janitor 4/20/16 Can take off one reading from syllabus because we won’t get to it The cultural ideology of Racism -Racism doesn’t just exist in the minds and actions of individuals but also in a cultural belief system that both justiﬁes the domination of some groups over others and perpetuates social norms that encourage differential treatment for these groups. Ex: pan ethnic labels and racial identiﬁers become equated with negative meanings The Myth of Innate Racial inferiority There have been many scientiﬁc-sounding theories of the innate inferiority of certain ethnoracial groups to explain why these groups lag behind others in areas of educational achievement and ﬁnancial success. The Bell Curve: Intelligence and Class structure in American life -asian americans are at the top, then whites, then the rest Problematic: if race is not biological then how are you linking intelligence to race The bell curve authors argued that the racial and ethnic difference in intelligence - as measured by IQ scores - must be due, at least in part, to heredity. These pseudo scientiﬁc theories have been debunked by several social scientists. In large part because how can we attribute racial WNBA When people see these numbers they assume that Blacks must be “naturally” stronger, swifter, and more coordinated than athletes from other races. The problem with the belief in black athletic superiority is that physical strength (a seemingly positive characteristic) is all too often associated with alleged social, moral, or intellectual deﬁciency. One sociological explanation for why Blacks dominate certain professional sports is that such domination certain professional sports is that such domination results not from innate physical superiority alone but from a complex set of social conditions that channels a disproportionate number of physically talented Blacks into athletic careers. Sports have long been considered one of the few avenues of social mobility for ethnoracial minorities -Disproporationally they invest more resources in the athletic programs and not in academic programs Institutional Racism -consists of established laws, customs, and practices that systematically reﬂect and produce racial inequalities in society, whether or not the individuals maintaining these practices have racist intentions. -Thus a society can be racist even if only a small proportion of its members harbor personally racist beliefs. ex: racial proﬁling in police cases, laws against powder cocaine verses crack cocaine Because it is a built-in feature of social arrangements, institutional racism is often much more difﬁcult to detect than acts of personal racism EX: banks use zip codes to mark off the neighborhoods they consider high risk. Or domino’s pizza criticized for distributing software to its outlets to let them mark addresses on computers. Chapter 12: Sex and Gender What are sexism and gender discrimination How are they expressed and felt at the personal level Sex versus Gender Sex is typically used to refer to a person’s biological maleness or femaleness. In other words, sex refers more to the anatomical differences between males and females Gender designates masculinity and femininity This includes the psychological, social, and cultural aspects of maleness and femaleness What is gender stratiﬁcation Gender is more than just a source of personal identity that sets societal expectations; Sexism at the personal level Sociologically speaking, sexism refers to a system of beliefs that assert the inferiority of one sex and that justify discrimination based on gender At the personal level, sexism refer str attitudes and behaviors communicated in everyday interaction Patriarchies In male-dominated societies, or patriarchies - cultural beliefs and values typically give higher prestige and importance to men than women Gender inequality in a patriarchy provides men with privileged access to socially valued resources and furnishes them with the ability to inﬂuence the political, economic, and personal decisions of others. Matriarchies these are societies that give preference to women, and are rare in the contemporary world Institutions and gender inequality The subordination of women that is part of the everyday workings of social institutions Gender inequality in the media The media as an institution can also contribute to the cultural devaluation of women and perpetuate gender inequality. 4/22/16 Gender Inequality in the media continued Worldwide, meant tend to control the creation and production of media images -Women hold only about 3% of key devision making positions in mainstream media -In a review of 3,100 episodes of prime-time television, male directors outnumber female directors four to one. No women had received an Academy Award for Best Director until 2009 What this imbalance means is that what we see in movie theaters and on television is likely to reﬂect men’s perspective The sume of these images send the message that young women today are not only expected to achieve educationally and economically they must also look sexy doing it -These images are created mainly by and for men, and they produce the illusion that success or failure is purely a personal, private achievement - this ignores complex social, economic, and political forces that subjugate women. Education is another institutional setting in which gender inequality persists In elementary school and beyond, teachers are likely to treat their male and female students differently Girls receive less teacher attention and less useful feedback than boys Girls talk signiﬁcantly less in class than boys, and when they do speak up, they are more likely than boys to be reminded to raise their hands Girls are more likely than boys to be the focus of unwanted sexual attention in school Boys are more likely than girls to repeat a grade, drop out, or be put in special education Boys are also more likely to be diagnosed as having an emotional problem, a learning disability, or attention deﬁcit disorder Yet boys have higher expectations for themselves and higher self-esteem than girls The story for females is quiet different In elementary and middle school, girls outperform boys on almost every standard measure of academic performance. But by the end of high school, boys perform better than girls For ex, although 54% of SAT takers are girls, boys’ average total score is higher (1511 for boys vs 1486 for girls) Gender difference in academic performance are usually a cultural by-product as opposed to some innate intellectual difference For ex: teenage boys sense of their own masculinity tends to be derived primarily from their achievements, such as participation in organized sports Thus, boy str likely to be encouraged by counselors and teachers to formulate ambitious career goals In contrast, prestige and popularity for teenage girls are still likely to come largely from their physical appearance and from having a boyfriend Gender inequality in the Economy -Because of their difﬁculty converting educational achievements into high pay, women continue to have much less earning power in the labor market than men. -The unequal economic status of women not only results from the personal sexism of potential employers but its tied to larger economic structures and institutional forces