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What types of experiments can be carried out to determine

Chemistry | 8th Edition | ISBN: 9780547125329 | Authors: Steven S. Zumdahl ISBN: 9780547125329 153

Solution for problem 4 Chapter 17

Chemistry | 8th Edition

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Chemistry | 8th Edition | ISBN: 9780547125329 | Authors: Steven S. Zumdahl

Chemistry | 8th Edition

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Problem 4

What types of experiments can be carried out to determine whether a reaction is spontaneous? Does spontaneity have any relationship to the final equilibrium position of a reaction? Explain

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Monday, March 28, 2016 Week 8 Drives - Regulatory drives are all about survival - Non-regulatory drives are about non-individual survival - Central-State Theory of Drives • In theory, all drives are associated with the brain • CS Theory associates the activity of the neurons in the central nervous system, in particular the brain • The question is: Does the brain have a central-drive system If so, what is it • To explain, allow for an example: Why do we eat When hungry, we observe lower glucose levels, or a change in homeostasis. This is what activates the need to regulate the body • Therefore, if the brain has a central-drive system, it needs to be able to identify if the body is no longer in homeostasis and then correct that imbalance and adjust accordingly • This system would actually be no bigger than half of your thumb! This accounts for at most 1% of the brain, and would be located right under the thalamus in an area densely packed with nuclei. - The nucleus is a collection of cell-bodies, or somas, particularly in the central nervous system. The rest of the central nervous system is the tract, or a collection of axons. - Fun fact: The amygdala was named after an almond, because it looks like an almond. It is so much more though, through axon extension through out the rest of the brain. This little center colours your entire world through emotions - Side note: Phrenology puts religiosity at the front of the brain The Hypo-Thalamus - The most general functions of the hypo-thalamus can be remembered by the four F’s • Feeding, Fight, Fear, and “Sexual Behavior” (think it through… yup) 1 Monday, March 28, 2016 - The first three being about homeostasis, and the latter being Species-Typical behavior - Stress is a tremendous assault on our physiology which has been keeping us alive for thousands of years, however due to culture and other modern-day factors, stress is currently at an overloaded level in our society • Fun Fact: You can be literally scared to death. Your parasympathetic nervous system kicks in and you heart stops. - The HT has direct control over the endocrine system, and can even to some extent put you to sleep at night - When you get butterflies in your stomach, it is you HT getting feedback from your limbic system. Your limbic system controls your emotions through the HT. - Emotions can be represented through motor functions in the face and changes in the HT chemistry - The hypo-thalamus has two “arms”: • The Autonomic Nervous System - The autonomic nervous system is ONLY autonomic, not automatic; it is controlled by the brain - If your heart beats too quickly, it means means the sympathetic nervous system is too high, which through the HT prompts the parasympathetic NS to hit the breaks • The Endocrine System - Odd example: During the summertime, your pee tends to be very very yellow, vs watery and brackish during winter. During the summer, it tends to be very hot, thus resulting in a loss of fluid through sweat. The HT picks up on this, and through neurons prompts the pituitary gland to produce an anti-diuretic which prevents your kidneys from losing too much water. - Important Note: The HT is connected to the Reward Zone of the brain! This is why eating and sex can feel rewarding - The HT is divided into three zones: • Pre optic Area Zone - Actually derived from the telencephalon 2 Monday, March 28, 2016 - Plays a huge role in temperature control, which is all about homeostasis - Composed of the Medial Preoptic Nucleus: Gonadotropin-releasing hormone • Lateral Periventricular Zone - Has a large bundle of axons called the medial forebrain bundle (involved in reinforcement, but not pleasure because that would be endorphins) - The lateral HT nucleus is theorized to be a “feeding center” • If you stimulate this area, you get overfeeding. Lesioning gives you anorexia, perhaps because there is no reward for eating, as the lateral HT is connected to the reward center. - Some axons related to hormonal release, and other inputs to the cerebellum (motor) - However, we cannot say the lateral HT is the only reason that you eat Medial Periventricular Zone • - VERY cell rich!!! - This zone is composed into three regions, and each region can be broken down into several nuclei - We will only be focusing on the Supraoptic Region • Supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei release oxytocin and Vasopressin, an antidiuretic hormone - This suggest support for neoteny • For example, when the child is breast-feeding, the stimulus of the mother’s nipple releases oxytocin • Suprachiasmatic nuclei: circadian rhythms - Also connects to the pineal gland, which releases melatonin especially in the dark • Anterior nuclei: also regulates body temperature among other things - Though the HT is broken down into three areas, these areas do not function alone but rather communication with each other and are intertwined - Dopamine is a character of wanting, endorphins are characters of getting 3

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Chapter 17, Problem 4 is Solved
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Textbook: Chemistry
Edition: 8
Author: Steven S. Zumdahl
ISBN: 9780547125329

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What types of experiments can be carried out to determine