In Exercises 86 to 91, use the graph of f shown below to sketch a graph of g.
Exam 2 Review FORMAT 10 FILL IN THE BLANK; 24 MC; 8 TRUE/FALSE CONTENT CORRELATES OF CRIME: Age and Crime Latent Trait Approach explain, example (Self Control Theory) Latent Trait Approach: Age distribution of crime is invariant across social and cultural conditions Age has a direct effect on crime No factor can explain the agecrime relationship Gottfredson and Hirschi's self control theory (1990) Self control theory definitions: Crime: an act of force on fraud under ____ in pursuit of self interest (or pursuit of pleasure) Opportunity: the specific condition under which low self control most likely leads to crime Self control: the ___ of individuals to consider the long term consequences of their actions Focus is placed on early childhood socialization in the family, which can produce an enduring criminal predisposition call low self control By age of 8 level of self control is determined Posits a single, onedimensional trait of self control that persists over the life course Six components of the personality trait of low self control (sc) Personality Traits 1) Tendency to respond to tangible stimuli in the immediate environment a) “Here and now” orientation b) High sc defer gratification 2) Tendency to “lock diligence, tenacity, or persistence in the course of action” a) “Easier or simple selfgratification and desires” 3) Tendency to be “adventurous” rather than “cautious” a) Prefer “exciting, risky, or thrilling” acts b) Ex. skydiving, smoking, not wearing seat belt, underage drinking, roller coasters 4) Embraces a preference for physical activity over “cognitive” or “mental activity” 5) Tendency to be self centered, indifferent, or insensitive to the sufferings and needs of others (ex. Radio show where people are phone tapped, if someone falls off a bike and you think its funny 6) Has minimal tolerance for frustration and an inability to respond to the conflict through verbal rather than physical means Theory of criminology Low self control X opportunity: criminal behavior high sc X opportunity: no criminal behavior Summary: Individuals do not change (trait), criminal opportunities change Opportunities decrease with age Early childhood experiences can reduce criminal propensity General theory of crime accounts for various behaviors Life Course Approach explain, examples (Warr; Laub and Sampson’s work) Life course approach Age distribution of crime is not invariant Age has an indirect effect on crime Age is correlated with important events or factions Which are highly related to crime Important terms Onset, frequency, and desistance of crime People and events change over the life course Transition, turning point, trajectories Context of behavior over time Qualitative and quantitative Trajectory: pathway of development (long) Transitions: life events Turning points: change in the life course Compared to G&H's claims Is criminal propensity set by age or are later life transitions and process important If latter is true what transitions and processes matter to adult offending Does age have a direct influence on crime If not, what is the influence of age on crime Warr’s (1993) age, peers, and delinquency Does age have a direct influence on crime Age > peers > delinquency Differential Association theory Warr examined whether there were age differences in… 1) exposure to delinquent peers 2) time spent with peers 3) importance of delinquent peers Warr found that age does not have an impact on delinquency once peer influences are controlled for Delinquency examples: marijuana use, cheating, petty theft, alcohol use Findings At 11, 85% of persons report no delinquent peers At 16, % dropped 40 points By 18, only 25% of peers weren't delinquent Laub and Sampson’s (1993) Life course study of criminal offending Separate from early childhood experiences, can a person become criminal in adulthood Quality of social bonds influence social control (especially informal controls) which explains the onset of, persistence of, and desistance from criminal behavior Social capital: resources gained through quality social relationships The study: early origins (1930s and 1940s) Unraveling juvenile delinquency: sheldon and eleanor glueck 1950 Case control design 500 delinquents 500 non delinquent from same low income neighborhoods Matched on age, ethnicity, and IQ 3 waves ages 14, 25, 32 Extensive data on boys, their families, early work, educational, occupational, and relationship history Adult social capital: attachment to labor force and cohesive marriage Turning points Positive: meaningful Negative: heavy drinking, job instability Finding Social concepts and turning points are important concepts in understanding adult criminality Among delinquents, those persons high on social capital, high criminality activity (freer to commit deviant acts) Overall for life course Life course Age graded patterns Embedded in social institutions and history context Age life stage Chronological, biological and social definitions Trajectories Sequences of roles/experiences Transitions in roles Leaving home, starting work, becoming a parent STAGES/PROCESS OF JUSTICE: Each step and the order POLICE: Functions of Police Functions of police 1) Law enforcement/investigation a) Identify criminal suspects b) Investigate crimes c) Apprehend offenders/arrest i) Participate in trial 2) Patrol a) Non crime calls for service b) Traffic direction and control 3) Order maintenance/peacekeeping a) Maintain a sense of community b) Promote civil order i) Ex. dealing with public drinking, begging, vandalism, graffiti of public places, prostitutes, etc. c) Community service 4) Crime control prevention a) Resolve conflict/disputes b) Aid individuals in danger c) Helping those persons in need of assistance Police Selection Process The police selection process In many communities, selection of police officers is through a merit system Officers employed under such system are hired and tenures (theoretically) if they meet and maintain the employment qualifications and performance standards They cannot be fired without cause The police officer selection process often includes: Short application Detailed application, including complete work history, references, and material profile Medical exam Physical agility test Written exam Background investigation Psychological testing Oral interview The final steps of selection are: Academy training, 22 weeks full time with weekend off Probation usually between 6 months and 1 year, which includes formal field training Police duties and responsibilities— Patrol Is called the backbone of the department by administrator Most time consuming and resource intense field Duties include Responding to burglar alarms Investigating traffic accidents caring for injured people Resolve domestic disputes Respond to radio calls Non crime classified calls for service Attendance at public gatherings Benevolent and community services Preliminary investigation Arrest Traffic direction and control Court testimony Detectives enjoy several advantages over patrol Do not have to wear uniforms They have anonymity during work hours if they choose it They have steady work hours, often during daytime hours with weekends off They have offices and desks Activities of detectives Incident report and preliminary investigation Obtaining info about crime, establish identity of victim, witnesses, and potential offenders, determining the whereabout of suspects, detailed descriptions of crime scene, statements Evidence collection and processing Screening and case assignment Followup investigation Clearance and arrest File maintenance Patrol and Detectives as examples Police Issues Issues that impact arrest 1) Making an arrest a) 58% of felony encounters b) 44% of misdemeanors i) Discretion: the use of personal decision making and choice in carrying out operations of the criminal justice system 2) Police abuse of force, including deadly: a) Corruption: police corruption is defined as abuse of police authority for personal gain or to gain advantage for the police organization b) Deadly force: the ability of the police to kill suspects if they resist arrest or present a danger to an officer or the community c) Abuse of force: involves such actions as the use of abusive language, unnecessary use of force or coercion, threats, stopping and searching 3) Police practices and strategies with a ___ on trends: a) Technology (ex. Body cameras) b) Community policing Police use of corruption Police corruption Why is policing so susceptible to corruption Police have authority to enforce law Police also have the discretion to not enforce the law Police receive relatively low pay, but have important responsibilities Police become cynical about the court's soft treatment of criminals Society in general is ambivalent about vice Types of corruption The Knapp Commission in 1972 identified two kinds of corrupt officers “Grass eaters”: officers who occasionally engage in illegal and unethical activities such as accepting small favors, gifts, money for ignoring violations of the law during the course of their duties “Meat eaters”: officers who actively seek ways to make money illegally while on duty Types of corruption Stoddard identified a more complete list of police misconduct Bribery: accepting cash or gifts in exchange for non enforcement of the law Chiseling: demanding discounts, free admission, etc. Extortion: Favoritism: giving breaks on law enforcement to family Mooching: accepting free food, drink, admission, etc. Perjury: lying for other officers Prejudice Premeditated theft Shakedown Shopping Controlling corruption Some of the ways to control and reduce corruption in policing are: High moral standards Police policies and discipline Proactive internal affairs investigation unit Uniform enforcement of the law Outside review and special prosecutors Court review and oversight Making the Arrest Discretion Factors that influence arrest 1) Mobilization a) Reactive practice b) Complainants practice 2) Evidence very important a) 4th amendment requires probable cause to arrest i) The police officer possesses enough facts and circumstances that would lead a reasonable officer to believe the person arrested has committed a crime b) Misdemeanors: i) Police witness of offense (direct information) ii) Written testimony/statement c) Felony offense: i) Probable cause/reasonable grounds 3) Seriousness of the offense 4) intimacy/social distance between vic and offender a) Arrest by V/O relationship i) 45% of family members ii) 77% of friends, neighbors iii) 88% of strangers 5) Disrespect a) Confrontational attitude b) In recent police foundation survey of 121 police depts half of the officers interviewed stated that police are likely to arrest someone because he/she displays a “bad attitude” toward an officer 6) Discrimination 7) Discretion a) Environment i) Communities race and economic makeup ii) Officers perception of community b) Departmental characteristics i) Size of dept ii) Judgement if police chief and operating style iii) Structure and clarity in dept. Policies iv) Ratio of supervisors to subordinates c) Peer influence i) Informal police culture (on the job advice and acceptance among older experiences officers) ii) React to emotional demands, working conditions, peer pressure iii) “An officer who reports another officer’s misdemeanor is likely to be given the cold shoulder by his or her fellow officers” iv) ⅔ of officers agreed with this statement v) One officer said “it is basically a non written rule” d) Situational factors i) Attitude, appearance, demeanor of suspect ii) Touching or struggling with officer iii) Time length (long vs. short) of interaction (1) Police officers frequently complain that citizens fail to understand police work, do not respect them or defer to their authority (2) Half of officers in a chicago study felt this way Factors Influencing Use of Deadly Force; Police Misconduct research and findings; avenues to control incidents Examples: firm grip, compliance holds, batons, nightsticks, pushing, shoving, kicking, punching, swarming, sprays, chemicals, taser, chokeholds, shooting No force: officer uses typical verbal commands Slight force: officer uses strong directive language and or minimal physical force to encourage compliance Forcibly subdues suspect with hands arm/wrist lock, takedown, block, punch, kick Forcibly subdues suspect using methods other than hands (e.g. gun or baton) Police encounters with citizens A police is legally justified in using force to protect him/herself from physical attack or to subdue a suspect who is resisting arrest Any force beyond that is “improper” BJS 1999 report BJS reported that police officers used force or threatened to use force in about 1% of all encounters with citizens (averages 421,000 force incidents each year nationally, includes justified and unjustified) Studies estimate that approx. ⅓ are unjustified (140,000 annually) What we know about police use of force typically occurs at the lower end of the force spectrum, involving grabbing, pushing, shoving A small proportion of officers are disproportionately involved in use of force incidents Use of force appears to be unrelated to an officer's personal characteristics, such as age, gender, ethnicity Use of force typically occurs when police are trying to make an arrest and the suspect is resisting Factors that influence police abuse of force, such as excessive and deadly force 1) Jurisdiction a) Cities vs. rural areas b) Population characteristics (economic) c) Level of violence in the area 2) Police Workload a) Ratio of number of calls, arrest to officers b) Police stress 3) Firearm availability a) The greater number of crimes committed with firearms, the higher police violence b) Gun destiny corporation of suicides and murders with guns 4) Social variables a) Non residents, transient population 5) Administrative policies department a) Restrictive vs. nonrestrictive policies b) Poorly written or ambivalent policies create undue tension and stress on offer > higher use 6) Race a) Racial disparities in use of deadly force and excessive force (80% in some cities) b) In 1970s the police fatally shot 8 Af Ams for every 1 white person (8 to 1) c) By 1998 ratio 4 to 1 Controlling excessive and deadly force 1) Supreme court a) Fleeing felon rule ___ to 1985 (resisted arrest or tried to flee/avoid arrest) b) “Defense of life” rule use of deadly force to incidents where a suspect presented a clear danger to officer or public i) 16% reduction in incidents c) Graham vs. Conor i) Reasonable standard: force is excessive when, considering all the circumstances known to the officer at the time he/she acted, the force used was unreasonable ii) “Objective reasonableness” standard (1) The court used a 3 question test to measure the reasonableness of a particular use of force (a) What was the severity of the crime (b) Did the suspect present an immediate threat (c) Was the suspect actively resisting arrest 2) Training and statute a) States have statutory policies b) Training center (proper methods, demos) 3) internal/external review boards a) Accountability___ public review boards b) Investigations by police administrations 4) Availability of nonlethal weapons a) Wood or rubber bullets, sponge round/bullets, acoustic weapons/difference tones b) Pepper spray and electric shock c) Guns that shoot nets, glue, lights that blind person (temporarily), or boxer’s punch 5) Diversifying police departments a) More educated officers (different languages, cultures, etc.) Police Trends Technology Community Policing trends Use of technology Computer aided dispatch programs Police dispatcher assisted by computer Establishes priority for response to calls Assists dispatcher with details (street, caller) Automatic vehicle locators (AVL) devices Laptop computer, radio devices, etc. in patrol cars Online search and match capabilities Community policing (cops) Components: Practice problem solving that goes beyond law enforcement/arrest to include fear to social disorders Community participation in increasing arrest, fear, and social disorders How community policing differs from traditional policing strategies Increases contact between police and community members Expands the duties/definition of police work Decentralizes police departments (e.g. substations) Emphasizes community involvement via organization's, surveys, jointagencies Community policing: is a policing strategy and philosophy based on the notion that community interaction and support can help control crime and reduce fear, with community members helping to identify suspects, detained vandals, and bring problems to the attention of police Types: Problemoriented policing Broken windows if a window in a building is broken and is left unrepaired...all the rest of the windows will soon be broken “so too, tolerance of small crimes would create a vicious cycle ending with entire neighborhoods turning into war zone” If you crack down small crimes, bigger crimes would drop usually In community policing, a 4 step process known as SARA is often used Scanning identifying problems Analysis understanding underlying problems Response developing and implementing Assessment determining solutions affect Problem solving involves Scanning identifying neighborhood crime and disorder problems Analysis understanding conditions that cause problems to occur Response develop and implement solutions Assessment determining the impact Advantages of community policing Frees the police officers from the anonymity of patrol cars (increases movement) Allows the officer to spend more time on crime prevention (instead of reacting to crimes already committed) Increases positive public perceptions of policing and allows officers to directly engage the public in positive ways Decentralize police operations and allow the decision making power to move downward (into the hands of individual officers instead of administrators) Disadvantages Lack of clarity in duties and responsibilities Lack of support from public Lack of cooperation Reduction in crime but no evidence of reduction in crime rates Police department implementation (only newer officers, not all officers trained, etc.)