In Exercises 92 to 95, use the graph of f shown below to sketch a graph of g
1. Diocletian a. In 284, Diocletian became Rome’s new emperor b. Became emperor in the usual manner, he joined the army, and thanks to his great abilities quickly rose up through the ranks, eventually became a general, he then assassinated the Roman Emperor and defeated a number of Roman generals in battle to secure his place in the throne. c. Once he captures the throne he manages to survive, he rules from 284-305, longest reign since Augustus d. He did everything he could to help Rome, but by far the greatest thing he did was reestablish peace, stopped civil wars and defended Rome from outside attacks. e. The economy recovers ad the population begins to rise, Diocletian saves Rome f. In 305 he did something that had not been done ever before, he retires, voluntarily gave up absolute power. g. Almost immediately a civil war breaks out. 2. Constantine I a. He was one of the generals fighting to replace Diocletian b. General in the Roman army c. In 306 his soldiers proclaimed him emperor and during the next six years he fought it out with other generals d. finally after six years of war only two generals are left, Constantine and Maxentius e. They fight a war to see who will win 3. Milvian Bridge a. The day before the battle, Constantine is in his camp with his soldiers, he was nervous about the impending battle, if he loses the battle he loses his power and most likely his life b. He was in his camp and was praying, praying to nobody in particular. c. According to Constantine, an incredible sight appeared in the sky, a sight seen by Constantine and his men, up in the sky they saw a huge flaming cross and on the cross was written ”in this sign you will conquer” d. It was an incredible sign, but he had no idea what it meant, but that night while he slept, he was visited in his dram by Jesus Christ. e. In the dream Jesus explains all about the religion of Christianity, the Christian god, who Jesus was and why he was important, and told Constantine to put the sign of the cross on his men’s shields and carry the cross into battle. f. Jesus promised that if he did this he would be victorious. g. Constantine does this and wins the battle of the Milvian Bridge, Maxentius is killed. h. So important because Christianity had never been used in war before, Christians had been pacifists. i. More importantly as a result of this victory Constantine is emperor and a year later issues the edict of Milan 4. Milan Edict a. The law of Milan. b. This edict was so important because it granted religious freedom to everyone in the Roman Empire. c. The Roman had always been very tolerant of others religion. Since its inception 300 years prior, Christians had been persecuted by the Roman state. d. Constantine grants freedom even to the Christians. e. This was the first time ever that Christianity was legal f. Once legalized it becomes more popular g. About 10% of the population was Christian before it was legal. h. Constantine never really converted until his deathbed, but he did raise his three sons as Christians. 5. Jesus a. Jesus of Nazareth was a Palestinian Jew who grew up in Galilee, an important center of the militant Zealots. b. Jesus’s message was simple, he reassured his fellow Jews that he did not plan to undermine their traditional religion. c. In his teachings, Jesus presented the ethical concepts of humility, charity, and brotherly love that would form the basis of the value system of medieval Western civilization. d. To the Roman authorities of Palestine, however, Jesus was a potential revolutionary who might transform Jewish expectations of a messianic kingdom into a revolt against Rome. e. Therefore, Jesus found himself denounced on many sides, and the procurator Pontius Pilate ordered his crucifixion. f. A few loyal followers of Jesus spread the story that Jesus had overcome death, had been resurrected, and had then ascended into heaven. This became a very important tenet of the Christian doctrine. 6. Paul a. Paul of Tarsus believed that the message of Jesus should be preached not only to the Jews, but to Gentiles (non-Jews) as well. b. Paul taught that Jesus was the savior, the son of God, who had come to earth to save all humans, who were all sinners as a result of Adam’s sin of disobedience against God. 7. Constantinople a. Constantine established a new capital for the Roman empire, Constantinople b. He called the city new Rome, everyone else called it the city of Constantine, or Constantinople. c. Constantine built this city on the side of an old Greek city d. In 1717 they sent a huge army and navy to capture the Byzantine capital. e. They attacked the capital for exactly one year. In the end the Muslims failed to capture Constantinople of the Byzantine Empire. f. First major setback they faced. They failed for a number reasons g. Byzantines knew an attack was coming so they stockpiled stuff. h. The Byzantines had a huge underground water system, so they could withstand a siege. i. The city of Constantinople had huge walls and a moat and the Muslims could not breach the walls. j. The Byzantines had a secret weapon. They had developed primitive flamethrowers, which would shoot liquid and make things catch on fire 8. Theodosius I a. In 391, the Roman emperor, Theodosius I, bowed in to pressure from Ambrose and other militant people, he proclaimed Christianity the official and only religion of the Roman Empire, all other religions were outlawed and it was now time for the Christians to prosecute everyone else. b. The pagans tried one more time to stop the Christians. 9. Huns a. Barbarian tribe either destroyed or negatively impacted all major civilizations during this century. b. They were a classic pastoralist tribe c. Originated in East Asia, North of China d. For centuries the Huns had caused the Chinese all sorts of trouble i. They would invade kill people, destroy stuff, and steal stuff. e. In 91AD, the Chinese were able to inflict a crushing military defeat on the Huns f. As a result the original Hun tribe broke apart. g. First broke apart into southern and northern Huns h. The southern Huns were captured by the Chinese who would then force them to come and live inside China. i. Some of the Huns did escape, those are the Northern Huns i. The Northern Huns start moving West, and eventually split into two tribes 1. The Black Huns and the White Huns ii. Black Huns keep going west and eventually end up in Europe and the Roman Empire. iii. White Huns eventually turn south and would move first into India and then into Persia. j. Southern Huns i. The southern Huns in China, the never assimilated, they kept the Hun identity. ii. They became more civilized, but they still loved war. iii. In 317 they rose up into rebellion against the ruling dynasty and they overthrew the western Chin dynasty. iv. As a result, China was plunged into anarchy, that would last exactly 300 years k. Northern Huns i. Black Huns 1. By 376, they make it to Europe and invade. 2. There were dozens of Barbaric tribes, mostly German. 3. The Huns bump into a barbaric tribe known as the Visigoths a. The Visigoths could not stand up to the Huns. b. The Huns defeat the Visigoths and they are forced to flee c. The Visigoths flee South and into Rome d. They beg the Romans for protection against the Huns and the Romans accept. e. The Visigoths were treated so badly by the Roman authorities that just two years later they rose up in rebellion against Rome. f. The Romans send an army to crush the Visigoths and the battle of Adrianople begins. ii. White Huns 1. Gupta a. The white Huns invade India in 480 and destroy the Gupta empire b. India is plunged into a long dark age 2. Sassanid a. In 484 the white Huns invade Persia. However, though a Persian king was killed in battle, the Persians did manage to survive. b. Persia was the only great empire that manages to stay intact. 10. Visigoths a. In 410 AD the Visigoths wonder into Italy and capture Rome, this was the first time in exactly 800yers that Rome had been captured by a foreign enemy. b. They eventually roam into Spain and the Visigoths decide to settle down. c. They establish an independent kingdom in Spain, this the first time ever that the Roman Empire lost territory. d. When other barbaric tribes heard of the success they began coming over he boarders to invade. e. All the tribes fight it out to see who could get what from the dying Western Empire. f. By 476 the Roman Empire in the west had ceased to exist and is replaced by German Barbaric kingdoms. g. They plunged Western Europe into a very long dark age that would last about 600 years. 11. Adrianople a. In a huge upset the Visigoths defeated the Roman Army b. This battle is so important because it marks the beginning of the Roman Empire, specifically the Western part of the empire. c. In the East they speak Greek and in the west they speak Latin d. In this time most people were in the East. e. Almost all the cities and every big city was in the East. f. Almost all the wealth was in the East, the East was generally much easier to defend because the East has shorter boarders and there were more natural geographic obstacles. g. The East had a new capital, Constantinople. h. Constantinople was impregnable, could not be taken by enemy attack. i. The Eastern Empire was strong enough to defend itself, but not strong enough to help the west. j. Adrianople is so significant because Rome is now at a point where they cannot recover from a defeat 12. Romulus Augustulus a. The last Roman emperor in the west. b. He is kicked out by the German tribes in 476 (by Odoacer) 13. Vandals a. In 533 and 534 the Byzantine reconquers the land that the Vandals had taken b. Vandals poured into Southern Spain and Africa. c. The Vandals crossed into Italy from North Africa and ravaged Rome in 455. 14. Ostrogoths a. The Ostrogoths were finally defeated by Justinian’s army in 552 15. Franks a. The Muslims then tried to conquer Europe from the West. b. In 732 they invaded the kingdom of the franks. The leader was Charles Martel. c. He had a nickname and it was Charles the hammer. d. The Franks were one of the tribes, which had destroyed the Western Roman Empire. e. The Franks were by the far best of the tribes f. The battle of Tours was fought and the army of franks defeated the Muslim army g. As a result of these defeats an equilibrium between two religions was reached. h. After the death of Charlemagne his empire eventually fell apart i. The Franks did not practice primogeniture, when a king dies the eldest son automatically becomes king j. Instead, the kingdom is divided equally between his sons k. A number of different tribes attacked and destroyed what remained of his empire. The worst of these tribes were the Vikings 16. Gupta Empire a. The white Huns invade India in 480 and destroy the Gupta empire b. India is plunged into a long dark age. 17. Byzantine Empire a. Most empires follow a common trajectory but not this empire. This empire was like a rollercoaster it had many ups and downs. b. During this time when the Byzantine empire is flourishing and the zenith was during the reign of Basil II 18. Justinian a. His great dream was to reconquer the west b. He began to prepare for great campaigns in the west, which meant he reorganized and expanded the Byzantine army. c. He began to raise revenues, which means he raised taxes, and his government was ruthlessly efficient in collecting taxes from the byzantine empire d. Quite quickly after taking power he became hated by the people and was unpopular through most of his reign. e. His unpopularity sparked a rebellion f. Dies in 565 and very soon after becomes clear that they Byzantines would not be able to conquer and hold the west. g. After his death the Byzantines began to lose the land that he had conquered and the Byzantines would never try to reconquer. 19. Theodora a. The wife of Justinian who confronts him before he can escape. b. She performed in the circus at one point and was also a prostitute at one point c. She confronts Justinian and calls him a wimp and tells him to stay and fight for his throne 20. Nika Revolt a. The people rebelled believed that they were going to be victorious b. This revolt began at the Hippodrome c. In 532, the blues and the greens are fighting in the hippodrome and it is spilled out of the arena and into the city and stuff is destroyed, Justinian decides to take action d. 7 leaders of the blues and the greens are arrested, found guilty and sentenced to death. 5 are executed and 2 manage to escape. e. It just so happens that one is the leader of the blue and one was the leader of the green f. They are recaptured and before they could be executed there is a race at the hippodrome. g. The blues and greens beg to spare their leaders. Justinian says no and his refusal is the spark that starts the Niko revolt. What made this so dangerous was that the blues and the greens untie together and quite quickly so does the rest of the city. 21. Sassanid Persia a. The Persians defeated the Parthians and then established the Sasanid Empire b. The new Persians consider themselves the successors to the old Persians, they still had the same religion c. Believed their god wanted them to reconquer all those parts that had been part of the Persian Empire. d. This was a problem because a lot of those lands were owned by Rome e. The Persians would attack Rome and were in an on and off war for 400 years f. Constant wars led to a breakdown in Roman economy as well as a decline in the population. g. During this period, for the first time ever a Roman emperor was killed in battle by a foreign enemy, and also a Roman Emperor was captured by a Roman Army. h. He was captured by the Persians and was not treated well. i. During this period Rome celebrated its 1000th anniversary, but feared Rome would not last much longer. 22. Bedouins a. Nomadic tribes originally from northern Arabia who became important traders after the domestication of the camel during the first millennium B.C.E. Early converts to Islam, their values and practices deeply affected Muhammed 23. Sheikh a. Originally, the ruler of a Bedouin tribe; later, also used as a more general honorific. 24. Majlis a. A council of elders among the Bedouins of the Roman Era 25. Muhammad a. In Arabia, in Mecca around 570 AD Muhammad was born. b. At the age of roughly 25 he married wealthy widow and was able to retire c. He liked to go out into the desert and meditate. d. Around the time when he was 40 he was out in the desert and according to him he had a very important religious experience. He was visited by the angel Gabriel. e. The angel told him he was chosen by god to reveal a new important religion to the world. f. Muhammed would go back to the desert where more of this religion would be revealed to him then he would go back to Mecca and tell the people what he had learned. g. His success in gaining followers got him in trouble with family that ruled Mecca. h. People would come to Mecca to see the great black meteor. Since it had fallen from the sky they believed it had magical powers i. In 622 the family that ruled Mecca drove Muhammed and his followers out. They fled from Mecca to Yathrib. j. This trip is called the Hejira, which means the flight. Important because it marks the official beginning. k. Muhammed becomes the religious, political, and military leader of Yathrib. He even renamed the city Medina, meaning the city of thee prophet. l. Everyone in Islam, or almost everyone adopted the new religion. m. After Muhammad’s death they conquered a large empire. n. They captured the new Persian Empire and extensive territory from the Byzantines. o. The expansion of Islam continued during the Umayyad dynasty 26. Hejira a. In 622 the family that ruled Mecca drove Muhammed and his followers out. They fled from Mecca to Yathrib. b. This trip is called the Hejira, which means the flight. Important because it marks the official beginning. 27. Islam/Muslim a. Islam is the religion derived from the revelations from Muhammed, the prophet of Allah; literally “submission” (to the will of Allah); also, the culture and civilization based on the faith. b. Muslims were a people of the book, believers in a faith based on scripture. c. Muslims believe that after returning home, Muhammed set out to comply with Gabriel’s command by preaching to the residents of Mecca about his revelations. 28. Koran a. Out of his revelations, which were eventually dictated to scribes, came the Qur’an, the holy scriptures of Islam. b. The Qur’an contained the guidelines by which the followers of Allah, known as Muslims, were to live. 29. Caliph a. A secular leader of the Islamic community b. The caliph was a temporal leader of the Islamic community and was also considered to be a religious leader, or imam. 30. Ali a. The main challenge to the growing empire came from within. Some of Muhammed’s followers had not agreed with the selection of Abu Bakr as the first caliph and promoted the candidacy of Ale, Muhammed’s cousin and son-in-law. b. Ali’s claim was ignored by other leaders, however, after Abu Bakr’s death, the office passed to Umar, another of Muhammed’s followers. c. In 656, Ali was finally selected for the position. d. In 661, Ali himself was assassinated, and Muawiya, the governor of Syria and one of Ali’s chief rivals, replaced him in office. 31. Hussein a. Resentment led to revolt as in Iraq, where Ali’s second son, Hussein, disputed the legitimacy of the Umayyads and incited his supporters, known as Shi’ites to rise up against Umayyad rule in 680. b. Hussein’s forces were defeated, and with the death of Hussein the battle, a schism between Shi’ites and Sunni, Muslims had been created that continues to this day. 32. Muawiya a. In 661, Ali himself was assassinated, and Muawiya, the governor of Syria and one of Ali’s chief rivals, replaced him in office. b. He made the caliphate hereditary in his own family, called the Umayyads, who were a branch of the Quraishi clan. 33. Umayyads a. They seized power in 661 and installed a hereditary monarchy. They would rule from 661-750 b. During this period Muslim armies continued to expand, specifically towards Europe. c. First they attempted to conquer Europe from the East, which meant they had to go through the Byzantine Empire, specifically Constantinople. 34. Shi’ite/Sunni a. Shi’ite was the second largest tradition of Islam, which split from the majority Sunni soon after the death of Muhammed in a disagreement over his succession; especially significant in Iran and Iraq. b. Sunni was the largest tradition of Islam, from which the Shi’ites split from soon after the death of Muhammed in a disagreement over his succession 35. Abu al-Abbas a. The Umayyads were destroyed by Abu al-Abbas. b. He was known as the blood thirsty and established the Abbasids dynasty 36. Abbasids a. The problem was that this empire was simply too big and it was difficult to maintain an empire b. Even though it was Muslim. Most of the people were from different ethnic groups meaning different cultures and languages. c. These people were not happy being ruled by Abbasids and they want their freedom d. Parts of the Abbasid Empire begin to break away and smaller Muslim states are created. 37. Tang Dynasty a. Eventually declined and fell and plunged China into a long period of division and civil war. 38. Chang’an a. Sui Wendi established his capital at the historic metropolis of Chang’an and began to extend his authority throughout the heartland of China 39. Hsuan Tsung a. Most famous tang Chinese emperor b. During the early part of his reign he captured a huge empire c. The Chinese went so far west they ended up in the Middle East, this is the furthest west any Chinese army would ever go. 40. Yang Guifei a. Tsung fell in love with Yang Guifei, and is so in love he basically lets her run the empire and this was a problem because she did not know what she was doing and appointed her friends to government jobs who also did not know what they were doing. 41. Battle of Talas a. In 751 a very important battle is fought, the Battle of the Talas River b. Things do not go well for the Chinese, because Tsung became less effective as a ruler the more time he spent ruing c. He fell in love with Yang Guifei, and is so in love he basically lets her run the empire and this was a problem because she did not know what she was doing and appointed her friends to government jobs who also did not know what they were doing. d. The Muslims win the battle of the Talas River. As a result the Chinese retreat to the East and Muslims take over central Asia. e. Marks the beginning of the decline of the Tang dynasty. f. Tsung was forced to execute Yang to keep his throne. 42. Charles Martel a. The Muslims then tried to conquer Europe from the West. b. In 732 they invaded the kingdom of the franks. The leader was Charles Martel. c. He had a nickname and it was Charles the hammer. d. The Franks were one of the tribes, which had destroyed the Western Roman Empire. e. The Franks were by the far best of the tribes 43. Pepin a. During the seventh and eight centuries, as the kings of the Frankish kingdom gradually lost their power, the mayors of the palace-the chief officers of the king’s household-assumed more control of the kingdom. b. One of these mayors, Pepin, finally took the step of assuming the kingship of the Frankish state for himself and his family. c. Upon his death in768, his son Charlemagne came to the throne of te Frankish kingdom. 44. Charlemagne a. Grandson of Charles Martel b. Became King of the Franks in the year 768, he then proceeded to conquer the largest empire seen in Western Europe since the fall of Rome. c. He decides that he wants a new title since he conquered a large Empire. d. King of the Franks is no longer good enough, he wants to be Roman emperor. The problem was there was already a Roman Emperor, but then events in Constantinople opened the doors for Charlemagne e. After the death of Charlemagne it eventually fell apart i. The Franks did not practice primogeniture, when a king dies the eldest son automatically becomes king ii. Instead, the kingdom is divided equally between his sons iii. A number of different tribes attacked and destroyed what remained of his empire. The worst of these tribes were the Vikings. 45. Irene a. In 780, a new emperor took the throne his name was Constantine VI, the only problem was that at the time he was only 6 so his mother ruled on his behalf, her name was Irene. b. Irene was a very intelligent, very forceful woman, so while she was in charge things ran well. c. However, Irene realizes that she enjoys ruling and does not want to give up power. She refuses to step down and let him rule d. Constantine goes into his twenties and Irene is still ruling. e. Finally Constantine is 27 years old and is able to get his mother to step down and he is able to become ruler. f. Even though she stepped down she had not wanted to give up absolute power so she started to plot against her own son. g. This plotting was made easier since she had appointed most of the people in power, so they were loyal to her and not Constantine. h. Later in that year Irene rebels against her own son and seizes control of the capital, Constantine makes a break for it and is trying to get to the frontiers thinking that the armies would help him. i. He never made it to the frontier he was captured and dragged back to Constantinople, he is brought back to the palace and in the same room where she had given birth to him, and Irene had her son blinded. He dies a few days later j. She becomes the first woman of the Byzantine Empire to rule on her own k. On Christmas day 800 AD, Charlemagne is proclaimed emperor by the pope. 46. Constantine VI a. In 780, a new emperor took the throne his name was Constantine VI, the only problem was that at the time he was only 6 so his mother ruled on his behalf, her name was Irene. b. Irene was a very intelligent, very forceful woman, so while she was in charge things ran well. c. However, Irene realizes that she enjoys ruling and does not want to give up power. She refuses to step down and let him rule d. Constantine goes into his twenties and Irene is still ruling. e. Finally Constantine is 27 years old and is able to get his mother to step down and he is able to become ruler. f. Even though she stepped down she had not wanted to give up absolute power so she started to plot against her own son. g. This plotting was made easier since she had appointed most of the people in power, so they were loyal to her and not Constantine. h. Later in that year Irene rebels against her own son and seizes control of the capital, Constantine makes a break for it and is trying to get to the frontiers thinking that the armies would help him. i. He never made it to the frontier he was captured and dragged back to Constantinople, he is brought back to the palace and in the same room where she had given birth to him, and Irene had her son blinded. He dies a few days later j. She becomes the first woman of the Byzantine Empire to rule on her own k. On Christmas day 800 AD, Charlemagne is proclaimed emperor by the pope. 47. Song Dynasty a. In 960, a new dynasty, known as the Song, rose to power. b. From the start, however, the Song rulers encountered more problems in defending their territory than their predecessors. c. Although the founding emperor, Song Taizu, was able to co-optmany of the powerful military commanders whose rivalry had brought the Tang Dynasty to an end. He was unable to reconquer the northwestern part of the country from the nomadic Khitan peoples. This resulted in establishing a capital further east. d. They ruled during a period of economic expansion, prosperity, and cultural achievement and is therefore considered among the most successful Chinese dynasties. e. The Song were never able to surmount the external challenge from the north, and the failure eventually brought about the end of the dynasty. f. The Mongols defeated the Song dynasty and brought an end to the Song dynasty. 48. Seljuk Turks a. Typical pastoralist tribe b. The Turks had always caused the Chinese a lot of trouble. c. Finally the Chinese deliver a devastating blow and it causes the Turks to divide. d. The Seljuk Turks move west, they move so far west that they eventually end up in the Middle East. e. They were very warlike and great fighters so the Abbasids decide to hire them as soldiers to fight in the army. f. They become soldiers and during the next few decades they adopt Islam, g. They continued to serve in the Abbasid army until they realized that most of the soldiers were Turks and therefore they had the power and they seize control of Bagdad and take control of the Abbasid Empire. h. This put them right next door of the Byzantine Empire 49. Sultan a. “holder of power”; a title commonly used by Muslim rulers in the Ottoman Empire,, Egypt and elsewhere; still in use in parts of Asia, sometimes for regional authorities. b. Toghrul Beg i. Leader if the Seljuk Turks ii. During his reign they enter the Abbasid empire in 1025 iii. He proclaims sultan after defeating the Abbasids c. Alp Arslan i. He succeeds Toghrul Beg and becomes the new sultan ii. Decides to invade the Byzantine Empire 50. Manzikert a. He was Byzantine emperor from 1081-1118 b. Wants to reconquer all the lands the Seljuk Turks had taken c. He knew the Byzantine Empire was too weak to attack the Seljuk Turks on their own and decided that they would need military aid. d. He decides to ask his fellow Christians in Western Europe for help. e. He asked the pope to recruit soldiers in Western Europe and send them East t help the Byzantines f. He sends a letter to the pope whose name was Urban II 51. Alexius I a. He was Byzantine emperor from 1081-1118 b. Wants to reconquer all the lands the Seljuk Turks had taken c. He knew the Byzantine Empire was too weak to attack the Seljuk Turks on their own and decided that they would need military aid. d. He decides to ask his fellow Christians in Western Europe for help. e. He asked the pope to recruit soldiers in Western Europe and send them East t help the Byzantines f. He sends a letter to the pope whose name was Urban II 52. Urban II a. The pope, religious leader of the Western Christians. b. He received a letter from Alexius II c. In this letter he sees an incredible opportunity, so he makes a big announcement. d. He calls for a meeting in Cleremont in France and tells everyone that he is going to announce something that is really big e. Since he is the pope a lot of people show up in Cleremont f. At Cleremont, the pope calls for a great crusade, a military campaign to help the Byzantines and free the holy lands from Muslim rule. g. Everybody in the audience is so fired and they yell out GOD WILLS IT. h. This marks the beginning of the crusades i. They were incredibly successful in the sense that there were many and thousands of people signed up j. They were popular for three reasons i. Piety 1. Everyone in Europe was very religious and they truly believed in god and believed that heaven and hell were real. 2. The pope tells them that if they go on the crusade and are killed they will go straight to heaven ii. Pugnaciousness 1. The love of fighting, this was the era of the European Knight 2. They spent all of their time either training or fighting iii. Greed 1. The pope promised that any lands that they conquered would be theirs. st 53. 1 Crusade a. Lasted from 1096-1099 b. Only crusade that was a success in the sense that they actually got a hold of land c. The crusader states were conquered d. We know so much about what happened because many of the soldiers that went wrote accounts of what happened e. They wrote what happened what happened when they captured Jerusalem f. Eventually the Muslims recaptured the holy lands, so they had to go on more crusades.