Hydrogen cyanide is produced industrially by the following exothermic reaction: Is the high temperature needed for thermodynamic or kinetic reasons?
Aggression Stereotype is that men are more aggressive: not true! Response form: when they were looking at aggression in the 70’s they would watch kids aggressive behavior (hitting and kicking) on the playground and found that the boys were more aggressive and that is where the stereotype came from. However, while this may be true with children, it is not with adults Intent to harm: trying to separate accidents with intent of harm with accidents Teacher/Learner Paradigm: “Buss aggression machine”: have individuals primed to be aggressive or not. Bring individuals into lab and had them play games and messed them up and insulted them during the game to piss them off and make them aggressive. Found that frustration leads to aggression. Insults and priming leads to aggression 1. Hostile Aggression: occurs when a person is angry or upset and lashing out a specific person (the person who aggravated them) o Direct: directly hit them in face (typically men) o Indirect: indirectly harm them by spreading rumors about them (typically women) 2. Instrumental Aggression o Cold blooded murder: killing somebody to get the job done because they were in the wrong place at the wrong time. o Instrumental aggression you kill somebody in cold blooded murder to get away with that crime 3. Emotional aggression: cute aggression: grandma pinching cheeks or hugging a dog to tight. Loving something to death Frustration Aggression Somebody in your face will increase the amount of aggression Any goal blocking that occurs will have aggression as an automatic response o Reformulated: find unpleasant feelings have to be there o Must have a correlation physiological response to a specific goal that causes aggression. o Reformulated theory states that it will be emotional aggression when we have negative emotions towards a blocking goal Drugs Alcohol increases aggression in higher amounts of alcohol. The purer the alcohol (moonshine) will give the most aggression out of all the alcohol. Congeners: waste product of the purer alcohol (in darker alcohol) and this is what causes hangovers. (Same with red wine vs white wine) Alcoholics tend to use light alcohol because less hangovers and less odor to it, however, this will lead to increased aggression. Alcohol lowers inhibition to more base tendencies (we are aggressive animals who want power and control) Marijuana Marijuana typically reduces aggression Only increases being aggressive when it is illegal Class 1 drug while cocaine is class 2 Classified as a narcotic but it is a hallucinogen Deviance Relative Deprivation in Aggression Comes from social comparison Relative Deprivation: knowing you don’t have what others have (others are better off than you are) Defensive attribution style o We use to rationalize bad behavior o We aren’t bad people at the core, but environmental attributes over time o Do not have any sense of what they are protecting for themselves (money, job, etc) if you don’t have a reality that you are proud of, you have nothing to protect. At this level you can then rationalize armed robbery with the blame on situation and the people around you. Cognitive-Neo-Association Theory Talks about how unpleasant situations trigger complex chains of internal emotional events Weapons effect (Guns vs. butter) o Measure peoples attitudes on various issue and you either have visible guns in the room or butter. Just the visual sight of a weapon in the room increases negative emotions and aggression. However, butter does not. o Society is trying to bring more guns and weapons into our lives.