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In making a specific galvanic cell, explain how one

Chemistry | 8th Edition | ISBN: 9780547125329 | Authors: Steven S. Zumdahl ISBN: 9780547125329 153

Solution for problem 2 Chapter 18

Chemistry | 8th Edition

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Chemistry | 8th Edition | ISBN: 9780547125329 | Authors: Steven S. Zumdahl

Chemistry | 8th Edition

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Problem 2

In making a specific galvanic cell, explain how one decides on the electrodes and the solutions to use in the cell.

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Learning Objectives - Explain how Long Run differs from Short Run in pure competition - Describe how profits and losses drive long-run adjustment process of pure competition - Explain the difference between constant, increasing, and decreasing cost industries - Show how long run equilibrium in pure competition produces an efficient allocation of resources - Discuss creative destruction and profit incentives for innovation The Long Run in Pure Competition - In short run firms can shut down, but here is insufficient time to go out of business - In the long run there is enough time for firms to liquidate and get out of the business - There’s no specific time period that makes up the long run as it differs by industry - The key concept of long run is how profits or losses in combination with free entry and exit steer industry to use resources efficiently - Profit maximization in Long Run • Several assumptions are made - Entry and exit of firms are the only long run adjustment - Firms in the industry have identical cost curves - The industry is a constant-cost industry, meaning entry and exit of firm won’t affect resource prices or location of unit-cost schedule for individual firms The Long Run Adjustment Process in Pure Competition - After long run equilibrium is achieved, product price will be equal to, and production will occur at, each firm’s minimum Average Total Cost • Firms seek profit and shun loss • Under competition, firms may enter and exit industries freely • If short run losses occur, firms leave; if profitable, firms enter - The model is one of zero economic profits this allows for a normal profit to be made in the long run: Normal Profit=Cost that is incorporated in the cost curves • If economic profits are being made, firms enter, upping market supply, lowering product price to equilibrium where no economic profits are made • These graphs show temporary profits and the re-establishment of long-run equilibrium in a representative firm and the industry. • A favorable shift in demand (D1 to D2) will upset the original industry equilibrium and produce economic profits. • As a result, those profits will entice new firms to enter the industry, increasing supply (S1 to S2) and lowering product price until economic profits are once again zero. • In other words, an increase in demand temporarily raises price. Higher prices draw in new competitors. Increased supply returns price to equilibrium. • If losses occur in the short run. firms will leave; this decreases market supply, causing the price to rise until normal profits are earned - Temporary losses and establishment of long run equilibrium is a single firm and in the industry - A decrease in demand temporarily lowers price, price drives away competitors, lowering the supply, which returns price back to equilibrium Long Run Supply - Long run supply for a constant-cost industry will be perfectly elastic; level of output doesn’t affect price • In a constant-cost industry, expansion or contraction doesn’t affect resource price • Exit and entry of firms will affect quantity of output, but always bring price back to equilibrium - Long run Supply for an Increasing-cost industry will be upward sloping as industry expands • Average cost curves shift upward as industry expands and downwards when it contracts • A two-way profit squeeze will occur as demand increases because costs will rise as firms enter, and new equilibrium price must increase if the level of profit is to be maintained at a normal level - In an Increasing-cost industry, the entry of new firms in response to an increase in demand will bid up resource prices - As a result, an increased industry output will be forthcoming only at a higher price - Long run supply for a decreasing-cost industry will be downward sloping • Average cost increases when industry contracts - Long run supply curve for a decreasing-cost industry is down-sloping - In a decreasing-cost industry, the entry of new firms in response to an increase in demand will lead to decreased input price Pure Competition and Efficiency - Whether the industry is one of constant or increasing costs the final long run equilibrium will have the same basic characteristics • Productive efficiency occurs when P=minimum Average Total Cost; at this point firms must use the least-cost technique or they won’t survive • Allocative efficiency occurs where P=Marginal Cost, because price is society’s measure of relative worth of a product at the margin or its marginal benefit - And the MC of producing X measures the relative worth of other goods that the resources used in producing X could have otherwise produced - Price measures the benefit that society gets from additional units of X, and the MC of this unit measures the sacrifice or cost to society of other goods given to produce X - If price is greater than the MC, then society values more unites of X than alternative products - Until Qe, demand lies above supply implying the Marginal Benefit of those units exceeds the MC so procession creates net benefits - If price is less than the MC, then society values other goods more than X, and resources are over allocated to X - Beyond Qe, supply lies above demand implying that society would prefer a reduction in the production of the good and fewer resources allocated to the production of this good - Allocative efficiency implies maximum consumer and producer surplus • Consumer surplus is the benefit buyers receive by have the market price being less than the maximum price they are willing and able to pay • Producer surplus is the benefit sellers receive by having the market price less greater than their minimum acceptable price • Combined consumer and producer surplus is at its maximum at equilibrium • Any quantity greater than the equilibrium would reduce both consumer and producer surplus • Any quantity greater than equilibrium would occur with an efficiency loss that would subtract from combined consumer and producer surplus - Dynamic adjustments will occur automatically in pure competition when changes in demand, or in resource supplies, or in technology occur Dis equilibrium will cause expansion/contraction of the industry until new equilibrium at • P=MC occurs - ‘The Invisible Hand” works in a competitive market system since no explicit orders are given to the industry to achieve P=MC Technology Advance and Competition - So far in the long run analysis of pure competition, assumed that entry/exit of firms is merely a reaction to price and that all firms are the exact same - The heart of competition is in creation of new goods and production technology - There is always an attempt to somehow gain more than a normal profit - Since firms in pure competition lack the ability to change the market price, they seek to improve production technology, lower costs, and increase profit - A firm can create a new, popular good as the only producer of the food the firm will have control over price and make more than a normal profit - No matter how the firm manages to increase profits, usually these are only temporary benefits - Creative destruction • Creation of new good and production techniques that destroys market shares of firms committed to old goods and old business methods - The mere threat of new good and technology can cause existing firms to abandon old ways - There are many examples of creative destruction in transportation, entertainment, music, postal service, and retail - As creative destruction evolves an industry, individuals will likely become unemployed so there are costs even though the benefits are greater A Patent Failure - Patents give inventors the sole legal right to market and sell their new ideas for a period of 20 years - This allows firms to recoup their initial investment cost - Without patents new research, inventions, and innovations may not occur - The patent system also gives ability to stifle creative abilities of others - Some Companies may buy up patents in hopes of suing for royalties

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Chapter 18, Problem 2 is Solved
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Textbook: Chemistry
Edition: 8
Author: Steven S. Zumdahl
ISBN: 9780547125329

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In making a specific galvanic cell, explain how one