×
Log in to StudySoup
Get Full Access to College Algebra And Trigonometry - 7 Edition - Chapter 5 - Problem 52
Join StudySoup for FREE
Get Full Access to College Algebra And Trigonometry - 7 Edition - Chapter 5 - Problem 52

Already have an account? Login here
×
Reset your password

In Exercises 46 to 67, graph each function | Ch 5 - 52

College Algebra and Trigonometry | 7th Edition | ISBN: 9781439048603 | Authors: Richard N. Aufmann ISBN: 9781439048603 155

Solution for problem 52 Chapter 5

College Algebra and Trigonometry | 7th Edition

  • Textbook Solutions
  • 2901 Step-by-step solutions solved by professors and subject experts
  • Get 24/7 help from StudySoup virtual teaching assistants
College Algebra and Trigonometry | 7th Edition | ISBN: 9781439048603 | Authors: Richard N. Aufmann

College Algebra and Trigonometry | 7th Edition

4 5 1 256 Reviews
20
1
Problem 52

In Exercises 46 to 67, graph each function

Step-by-Step Solution:
Step 1 of 3

TheShoulderComplex ShoulderGirdle Havefourarticulations: • Sternoclavicular • Acromioclavicular • Coracoclavicular • Scapulothoracic Sternoclavicular(SC)Articulation Articulationbetweenthesternumandclavicle – Ball-and-socketjoint – Freelymobileinfrontalandtransverseplane – Limitedsagittalmovement Siteofmostmovementofshouldergirdle – Elevation:depression(shruggingshoulders,60°) – Protraction:retraction(rowing,30°) – Anterior:posteriorrotation(raisingyourhand,30-45°) Ligamentoussupport – Anteriorsternoclavicularligament – Posteriorsternoclavicularligament – Costoclavicular&interclavicularligaments Anterior Posterior Acromioclavicular(AC)Articulation Articulationbetweentheacromionprocessanddistalendofclavicle Motionmostnoticeableduringarmelevation(shoulderabduction) Ligamentoussupport – Superioracromioclavicularligament – Inferioracromioclavicularligament – Coracoacromialligament Coracoclavicular(CC)Articulation Articulationbetweencoracoidprocessofscapulaandclavicle AssistsinreinforcementoftheweakACarticulation Ligamentoussupport – Coracoclavicularligaments i.e.,conoid&trapezoid ScapulothoracicArticulation • “articulation”betweentheanteriorsurfaceofthescapula(scapularfossa) andthethoracicwall – supporteddynamicallybymuscles – noligamentoussupport • actstostabilizeshoulderregionduringlifting(shrugging)-e.g.pickingupa suitcase • facilitatesoverheadmovementsthroughelevationandupwardrotationof theglenohumeraljoint Clavicle • Roles: – Helpsfacilitatescapularmotion – Siteofmuscularattachment – Providesabarriertoprotectunderlyingstructures – Actsstruttostabilizetheshoulderandpreventmedialdisplacement whenthemusclescontract – Preventsaninferiormigrationoftheshouldergirdle. Scapula Primaryfunctionistoprovidemuscleattachmentsitesforshouldermuscles. ShoulderGirdleMovements Abduction(protraction) scapulamoveslaterallyawayfromspinalcolumn Adduction(retraction) scapulamovesmediallytowardspinalcolumn Downwardrotation returninginferiorangle inferomediallytowardspinalcolumn &glenoidfossatonormalposition Upwardrotation turningglenoidfossaupward &movinginferiorangle superolaterallyawayfrom spinalcolumn Depression downwardorinferiormovement i.e.,returningtonormalposition Elevation upwardorsuperiormovement i.e.,shruggingshoulders • Shouldergirdlemuscles – Stabilizescapula • maintainscapulainarelativelystaticpositionduringshoulder jointactions • Providestablebaseforshouldermusclestomovehumerus – Moveshouldergirdle • enhancemovementofupperextremitywhenshouldergoes throughextremerangesofmotion • Synergywithmusclesofglenohumeraljoint – Attheextremerangesofmotion: • Scapularmusclesmoveshouldergirdletopositionglenoid fossa • Allowshumerusmoremobility – Withouttheaccompanyingscapulamovementhumeruscanonlybe raisedintoapproximately90 oftotalshoulderabduction&flexion. – Synergybetweenscapula&shoulderjointmusclesenhances movementofentireupperextremity ScapulohumeralRhythm scapularrotationtofacilitateshoulderabduction 1st30 ofabduction littlescapularrotation e.g.,shoulder=30 ,scapula≈6 o beyond30 o forevery2 ofshouldermovement,scapularotates1 o 2:1ratio FivePrimaryMuscleInvolvedinShoulderGirdleMovement 1. levatorscapulae 2. trapezius 3. rhomboids 4. serratusanterior 5. pectoralisminor ShoulderGirdleMuscles Rhomboids Rhomboids Trapezius Trapezius Levator Levator Scapulae Scapulae Trapezius Pectoralis Minor SerratusAnterior PectoralisMinor Rhomboids PectoralisMinor Trapezius LevatorScapulae SerratusAnterior Trapeziusmuscle Upperfibers: elevation upwardrotation Middlefibers: elevation retraction Lowerfibers: depression upwardrotation retraction Levatorscapulaemuscle elevation downwardrotation Rhomboidmuscles-major&minor retraction elevation downwardrotation PectoralisMinorMuscle depression protraction downwardrotation SubclaviusMuscle SerratusAnteriorMuscle Stabilization&protectionofSCjoint depression protraction protraction upwardrotation ScapulaProtraction(abduction) Scapulamovinglaterallyawayfromspinousprocesseswithoutrotation e.g.,Push-up&benchpress(upwardphase) Agonists Pectoralisminor Serratusanterior ScapulaRetraction(adduction) Scapulamovingmedialtowardthespinousprocesseswithoutrotation(i.e,return fromabduction) Agonists e.g.,rowing Middletrapezius Rhomboids ScapulaUpwardRotation Lateral&upwardmovement e.g.,reachingarmoverhead ScapulaDownwardRotation Downward&MedialMovement GlenoidFossaisrotateddownwardwhendownwardmovementofshoulderjoint occurs e.g.,latpulldowns Agonists Pectoralisminor Rhomboid ScapulaElevation Superiormovementofthescapulawithoutrotation e.g.,Shouldershrugs Agonists Rhomboid Levatorscapula Uppertrapezius ScapulaDepression Inferiormovementofthescapulawithoutrotation Agonists Lowertrapezius Pectoralisminor ShoulderJoint Glenohumeral(GH)articulation – Articulationofthehumerusandglenoidfossa – Designedformobility(Mostmobileinbody) – Lacksbonyandligamentoussupport – Shallowglenoidfossa – Half-sphericalhumeralhead • Widerangeofmotionoftheshoulderjointinmanydifferentplanesrequires asignificantamountoflaxity • Commontohaveinstabilityproblems – Rotatorcuffimpingement – Subluxations&dislocations • Thepriceofmobilityisreducedstability • Themoremobileajointis,thelessstableitis&themorestableitis,theless mobile StabilityofGH – Passive,Staticstabilizers- • articularsurface,glenoidlabrum,jointcapsuleandligaments. – Fullysealed,whichprovidessuctionandresistsadislocatingforceat lowerloads. – Dynamicsupport • occursmostlyatmidrangeofmotionandisprovidedbythe musclesastheycontractinacoordinatedpatterntocompress thehumeralheadintheglenoidcavity. – PosteriorStability • Theposteriorrotatorcuffmuscles – AnteriorStability • Subscapularis • Longheadofthebiceps(superiorhumeralheadtranslation) – TheDeltoidandtheotherscapulothoracicmusclespositionthe scapulatoprovidemaximumGHstability. Supportingstructuresforshoulder Glenoidfossais¼-⅓sizeofhumeralhead Glenoidlabrum – Lipofcartilagesurroundingthejoint – Increaseswidthanddepthoffossa – Assistsinholdingthehumerusinplace Coracohumeralligament – Stabilizesthehumerusagainstsuperiorandlateraldisplacement Glenohumeralligament – Stabilizesthehumerusagainstanteriordisplacement – Superior – Middle – Inferior ShoulderJointMovements Abduction superior&lateral movementofhumerus awayfrombody Adduction inferior&medial movementofhumerus towardbody Flexion movementofhumerus straightanteriorly Extension movementofhumerus straightposteriorly Horizontaladduction aka-transverseflexion movementofhumerusin transverseplanetoward&across chest Horizontalabduction aka-transverseextension movementofhumerusintransverseplane awayfromchest Internal(medial)rotation movementofhumerus mediallyarounditslongaxis towardmidline External(lateral)rotation movementofhumeruslaterally arounditslongaxisawayfrommidline ShoulderJoint ShoulderGirdle Abduction Upwardrotation Adduction DownwardRotation Flexion Elevations&UpwardRotation Extension Depression&DownwardsRotation InternalRotation Protraction ExternalRotation Retraction HorizontalAdduction Protraction HorizontalAbduction Retraction Glenohumeralinternalrotationdeficit(GIRD) – differenceininternalrotationrangeofmotionbetweenan individual’sthrowing&nonthrowingshoulders – overheadathleteswithaGIRDofgreaterthan20%hadahigherrisk ofinjury – stretchingexercisesrecommendedto regaininternalrotation • improveperformance • reducelikelihoodofinjury MusclesthatAttachorCrosstheGlenohumeral 1. Deltoid 2. Coracobrachialis 3. Teresmajor 4. Subscapularis 5. Supraspinatus 6. Infraspinatus 7. Teresminor 8. latissimusdorsi 9. pectoralismajor RotatorCuffMuscles Supraspinatus Infraspinatus Teresminor Subscapularis Deltoid Anteriorfibers: abduction flexion horizontaladduction internalrotation Middlefibers: abduction flexion Posteriorfibers: abduction extension horizontalabduction externalrotation CoracobrachialisMuscle horizontaladduction flexion adduction internalrotation extension adduction Latissimusdorsi’s “littlehelper” PecMajor Clavicularhead: flexion(upto60 ) o horizontaladduction internalrotation o adduction(<90 ) abduction(>90 ) o Sternalhead: extension horizontaladduction internalrotation adduction LatissimusDorsiMuscle adduction extension internalrotation horizontalabduction downwardrotationofthescapula Supraspinatus Stabilizationofhumeral headintheglenoidfossa abduction InfraspinatusMuscle Stabilizationofhumeralheadintheglenoid fossa externalrotation horizontalabduction extension TeresMinorMuscle Stabilizationofhumeralheadintheglenoid fossa externalrotation horizontalabduction extension SubscapularisMuscle Stabilizationofhumeralheadintheglenoid fossa internalrotation adduction extension GlenohumeralFlexion Agonists Anteriordeltoid Pectoralismajor(clavicularhead) GlenohumeralExtension Agonists Teresmajor Latissimusdorsi Pectoralismajor(sternalhead) Deltoid GlenohumeralAbduction Agonists Deltoid Supraspinatus Pectoralismajor(clavicularhead) GlenohumeralAdduction Agonists Latissimusdorsi Teresmajor Pectoralismajor(sternalhead) GlenohumeralInternalRotation Agonists Latissimusdorsi Teresmajor Subscapularis Pectoralismajor(sternalhead) GlenohumeralExternalRotation Agonists Infraspinatus Teresminor GlenohumeralHorizontalAbduction Agonists Posteriordeltoid Infraspinatus Teresminor GlenohumeralHorizontalAdduction Agonists Anteriordeltoid Pectoralismajor Coracobrachialis

Step 2 of 3

Chapter 5, Problem 52 is Solved
Step 3 of 3

Textbook: College Algebra and Trigonometry
Edition: 7
Author: Richard N. Aufmann
ISBN: 9781439048603

Other solutions

People also purchased

Related chapters

Unlock Textbook Solution

Enter your email below to unlock your verified solution to:

In Exercises 46 to 67, graph each function | Ch 5 - 52