Consider a concentration cell that has both electrodes made of some metal M. Solution A in one compartment of the cell contains 1.0 M M2. Solution B in the other cell compartment has a volume of 1.00 L. At the beginning of the experiment 0.0100 mol M(NO3)2 and 0.0100 mol Na2SO4 are dissolved in solution B (ignore volume changes), where the reaction occurs. For this reaction equilibrium is rapidly established, whereupon the cell potential is found to be 0.44 V at 25C. Assume that the process has a standard reduction potential of 0.31 V and that no other redox process occurs in the cell. Calculate the value of Ksp for MSO4(s) at 25C. 8
ANEQ 328 Foundations In Animal Genetics Week 8 Notes (3/8/16-3/10/16) Punnett Square Practice In class on 3/8/16 we practiced various Punnett square examples. The worksheet along with the answer key can be found on Canvas in the modules section under supplementary information. Simple Traits in Domestic Animals: Expanding Knowledge Beyond Aa Foundational Information To Understand Inheritance o The genotype of the parents o How genes interact o Mendel’s Principles o Information on genotype and allele frequency Important Background Information o Test Cross Determines if an animal is carrying specific alleles by breeding that particular animal. o DNA Test Testing the animal’s DNA in order to get a better understanding of its genome. o Introgression The movement of genes from one species to another through repeated back crossing. o Precision Breeding Using DNA technology to remove or keep a specific gene from an embryo in order to retain or remove unwanted traits. Simple Traits In Domestic Animals o Cattle Coat Color In Cattle Animal Bovine (Cattle) Trait Coat Color Expression Phenotype(s) Coat Color is Black or Red Involved Chromosomes 18 Involved Genes Melanocortin 1 receptor or MSHR Biology/Physiology A mutation on the 99 amino acid in which leucine changes to proline. Mutation(s) (Genotype) Complete Dominance E e and ee = Red Coat + EE and E E = Black Coat Can It Be Tested For Yes Through A DNA Test Cost To Perform DNA Test $15-$25 ANEQ 328 Foundations In Animal Genetics Week 8 Notes (3/8/16-3/10/16) Curly Calf Syndrome Animal Bovine (Cattle) Trait Curly Calf Syndrome (Arthrogryposis Multiplex Congenita or AM) Phenotype(s) Can give rise to a healthy born calf or a still-born calf Involved Chromosomes N/A Involved Genes N/A Biology/Physiology Neurologic The spine is bent and twisted in affected calves. Mutation(s) (Genotype) Homozygous Recessive AMF=Normal AMC=Carrier Can It Be Tested For Yes Through A DNA Test Cost To Perform DNA $15-$25 Test o Horse Hyperkalemic Periodic Paralysis (HYPP) Animal Equine (Horses) Trait Impressive Syndrome or HYPP Phenotype(s) Muscle Spams, Paralysis, and or Weakness Involved Chromosomes 11 Involved Genes SCN4A Biology/Physiology Caused by a miss-sense mutation, it causes sodium channels within the skeletal muscles to function improperly. Mutation(s) (Genotype) Partial Dominance Miss-Sense Mutation NN=Normal NH= Normal HH= Have Disease Can It Be Tested For Yes Through A DNA Test Cost To Perform DNA ~$30 Test ANEQ 328 Foundations In Animal Genetics Week 8 Notes (3/8/16-3/10/16) Agouti In Horses Animal Equine (Horses) Trait Coat Color Phenotype(s) Bay, plus many, many more. Involved Chromosomes 22 Involved Genes Agouti Signaling Protein (ASIP) Biology/Physiology A frameshift mutation causes the ASIP to malfunction. Mutation(s) (Genotype) Deletion in the extension of pigment. Can It Be Tested For Yes Through A DNA Test Cost To Perform DNA $40 Test o Sheep Scrapie Animal Ovine (Sheep) Trait Scrapie (TSE) Phenotype(s) Spongiform encephalopathy, wasting Involved Chromosomes 13 Involved Genes PRNP or PrP Biology/Physiology In which one miss-folded prion causes other prions to miss-fold in the brain. Mutation(s) (Genotype) 171 SNP, RR, RQ, QQ (R=arginine vs. Q= glutamine). Can It Be Tested For Yes Through A DNA Test Cost To Perform DNA $11-$29 Test ANEQ 328 Foundations In Animal Genetics Week 8 Notes (3/8/16-3/10/16) o Swine PSS Animal Swine (Pigs) Trait Porcine Stress Syndrome (PSS) Pale Soft Exudated Pork (PSE) Phenotype(s) Oxidative Metabolism, Halothane (HAL), Anesthesia Response and Collapse Involved Chromosomes 6 Involved Genes Ryanodine Receptor (RyR1) Biology/Physiology A defective ryanodine receptor causes a huge calcium influx, which leads to muscle contracture and increase in metabolism. Mutation(s) (Genotype) Autosomal Recessive Disorder NN=No Disease Nn=No Disease But a Carrier nn=Has Disease Can It Be Tested For Yes Through A DNA Test Cost To Perform DNA $22 Test o Dog Coat Color In Labrador Retrievers Animal Canine (Dogs) Trait Coat Color Phenotype(s) Black, Chocolate, Yellow Involved Chromosomes 5 11 Involved Genes MC1R Tyrp1 Biology/Physiology Responsible Responsible for for extending the color of the color pigment fur in the fur. Mutation(s) (Genotype) E vs. e B vs. b Can It Be Tested For Yes Through A DNA Test Cost To Perform DNA $55 Test ANEQ 328 Foundations In Animal Genetics Week 8 Notes (3/8/16-3/10/16) o Cat Feline Coat Length Animal Feline (Cats) Trait Hair Length (FGF5) Phenotype(s) Short, Medium, or Long Hair Involved Chromosomes 1 Involved Genes Fibroblast growth factor (FGF5) Biology/Physiology The fibroblast growth factor controls the length of hair grown. Mutation(s) (Genotype) NN=Short Hair N/M= 1, 2, 3, and 4, where 4 equals long hair. Can It Be Tested For Yes Through A DNA Test Cost To Perform DNA $35 Test Agouti Gene Affect 18 species of animals. The agouti gene is involved in determining if an animal’s coat is banded (agouti) or a solid color (non- agouti).