Radioactive cobalt-60 is used to study defects in vitamin B12 absorption because cobalt is the metallic atom at the center of the vitamin B12 molecule. The nuclear synthesis of this cobalt isotope involves a three-step process. The overall reaction is iron- 58 reacting with two neutrons to produce cobalt-60 along with the emission of another particle. What particle is emitted in this nuclear synthesis? What is the binding energy in J per nucleon for the cobalt-60 nucleus (atomic masses: 60Co 59.9338 amu; 1 H 1.00782 amu)? What is the de Broglie wavelength of the emitted particle if it has a velocity equal to 0.90c where c is the speed of light?
Earth History Early Life Chemosynthetic Organisms: inject sulfur into the atmosphere Places today that prove how Earth’s processes occurred at the beginning of the planet’s life, also organisms living in these places can prove that Yellowstone National Park: Archaea (first organisms & THEN chemosynthetic organisms evolved on Earth) Archean Life: Stromatolites: cyanobacteria (blue – green algae) 1 life (prokaryotes): 3.5 billion years ago Steranes: molecular fossils 2.7 billion years ago Chemicals that are part of eukaryotic cells (2.1 billion years ago) Organisms: CaCO3 (invertebrates) CaPO4 (bone) late Proterozoic Hard parts: store crucial elements & protect soft parts & anchorage structure for muscles & tissues defensive structure Archean cratons formed during collisions of island arcs and minicontinents during the period of the formation of Laurentia